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Mar, with parts of the coast bold and rocky, and with the Leases of 19 or 21 years prevail, and the five, six, or seven
interior bare, low, flat, undulating, and in parts peaty. On shift rotation is in general use. In 1872 there were 11,642
the coast, six miles south of Peterhead, are the Bullers of occupiers of land, with an average of 50 acres each, and
Buchan,-a basin in which the sea, entering by a natural paying about £536,000 in rent. Of the 585,299 acres of
arch, boils up violently in stormy weather. Buchan Ness the county in crop in 1872, 191,880 acres were in oats,
is the eastmost point of Scotland. Fourth, Garioch, a 18,930 in barley and bere, 1633 in rye, 1357 in wheat,
beautiful, undulating, loamy, fertile valley, formerly called 95,091 in turnips (being one-fifth of the turnips grown in
the granary of Aberdeen, with the prominent hill Benachie, Scotland), 8414 in potatoes, 232,178 in grasses and clover.
1676 feet, on the south. Fifth, Strathbogie, mostly con- In 1872 the county had 23,117. horses, 157,960 cattle
sisting of hills (The Buck, 2211 feet; Noath, 1830 feet), (being above one-seventh of all the cattle in Scotland),
moors, and mosses. The county as a whole, except the low 128,308 sheep, and 13,579 pigs. The county is unsur-
grounds of Buchan, and the Highlands of Braemar, consists passed in breeding, and unrivalled in feeding cattle, and
mainly of nearly level or undulating tracts, often naked this is more attended to than the cultivation of grain-crops.
and infertile, but interspersed with many rich and highly About 40,000 fat cattle are reared, and above £1,000,000
cultivated spots.

value of cattle and dead meat is sent from the county to Rivers. The chief rivers are the Dee, 96 miles long; Don, 78; London yearly. The capital invested in agriculture within

Ythan, 37, with mussel beds at its mouth; Ugie, 20; and the county is estimated at about £5,133,000.
Deveron, 58, partly on the boundary of Banffshire. The The great mineral wealth in Aberdeenshire is its long- Vinerals.
pearl mussel occurs in the Ythan and Don. A valuable famed durable granite, which is largely quarried for build-
pearl in the Scottish crown is said to be from the Ythan. ing, paving, causewaying, and polishing. An acre of land
Loch Muick, the largest of the few lakes in the county, on being reclaimed has yielded £40 to £50 worth of cause-
1310 feet above the sea, is only 2} miles long and } to 1 waying stones. Gneiss is also quarried, as also primary
mile broad. The rivers have plenty of salmon and trout. limestone, old red sandstone, conglomerate millstone, grau-
There are noted chalybeate springs at Peterhead, Fraser- wacke, clay slate, syenite, and hornblende rock. Iron ore,
burgh, and Pananich near Ballater.

manganese, and plumbago occur in the county. Climate. The climate of Aberdeenshire, except in the mountainous A large fishing population in villages along the coast Fisheries.

districts, is comparatively mild, from the sea being on two engage in the white and herring fishery. Haddocks are
sides. The mean annual temperature at Braemar is 43°.6 salted and rock-dried (speldings), or smoked (finnans). The
Fahr., and at Aberdeen 45°:8. The mean yearly rainfall rivers and coasts yield many salmon. Peterhead was long
varies from about 30 to 37 inches. The summer climate the chief British port for the north whale and seal fishery,
of the Upper Dee and Don valleys is the driest and most but Dundee now vies with it in this industry.
bracing in the British Isles, and grain is cultivated up to The manufactures and arts of the county are mainly Manufac.
1600 feet above the sea, or 400 to 500 feet higher than prosecuted in or near the town of Aberdeen, but throughout tures.
elsewhere in North Britain. All the crops cultivated in the rural districts there are much milling of corn, brick and

Scotland ripen, and the people often live to a great age. tile making, stone-quarrying, smith-work, brewing and
Geology. The rocks are mostly granite, gneiss, with small tracts of distilling, cart and farm implement making, casting and

syenite, mica slate, quartz rock, clay slate, grauwacke, drying of peat, timber felling, especially on Deeside and
primary limestone, old red sandstone, serpentine, and trap. Donside, for pit-props, railway sleepers, lath, barrel staves,
Lias, greensand, and chalk flints occur. The rocks are &c. The chief imports into the county are, coals, lime, Trade.
much covered with boulder clay, gravel, sand, and allu- timber, iron, slates, raw materials of textile manufac-
vium. Brick clay occurs near the coast. The surface of tạręs, wheat, cattle-feeding stuffs, bones, guano, sugar,
the granite under the boulder clay often presents glacial alcoholic liquors, fruits, &c. The chief exports are granite
smoothings, grooves, and roundings. Cairngorm stone, (rough, dressed, and polished), flax, woollen, and cotton

beryl, and amethyst are found in the granite of Braemar. goods, paper, combs, preserved provisions, oats, barley, Plants and The tops of the highest mountains have an arctic flora. live and dead cattle, &c. In the county there are about Animals. At Her Majesty's Lodge, Loch Muick, 1350 feet above the 520 fairs in the year for cattle, horses, sheep, hiring ser

sea, grow larches, vegetables, currants, laurels, roses, &c.
Some ash trees, 4 or 5 feet in girth, are growing at 1300 Aberdeenshire communicates with the south by the Railways.
feet above the sea. The mole occurs at 1800 feet above Caledonian Railway, and five macadamised roads across
the sea, and the squirrel at 1400. Trees, especially Scotch the east Grampians, the highest rising 2200 feet above the
fir and larch, grow well in the county, and Braemar abounds About 188 miles of railway (the Great North of
in natural timber, said to surpass any in the north of Scotland, Formartin and Buchan, and Deeside lines), and
Europe. Stumps of Scotch fir and oak found in peat in 2359 miles of public roads, ramify through the county.
the county are often far larger than any now growing. Tolls over the county were abolished in 1865, and the
Grouse, partridges, and hares abound in the county, and roads are kept up by assessment. The railway lines in the
rabbits are often too numerous. Red deer abound in county have cost on the average about £13,500 a mile.
Braemar, the deer forest being there valued at £5000 a Several macadamised roads and the Great North of Scot-
year, and estimated at 500,000 acres, or one-fourth the land Railway form the main exits from the county to the
area of deer forests in Scotland.

north-west. Agricul. Poor, gravelly, clayey, and peaty soils prevail much more The chief antiquities in Aberdeenshire are Picts' houses Antiture. in Aberdeenshire than good rich loams, but tile draining, or weems; stone foundations of circular dwellings; mono- quities.

bones, and guano, and the best modes of modern tillage, liths, some being sculptured; the so-called Druid circles;
have greatly increased the produce. Farm-houses and stone cists; stone and earthen enclosures; the vitrified
steadings have greatly improved, and the best agricultural forts of Dunnideer and Noath; cairns; crannoges; earthen
implements and machines are in general use. About two mounds, as the Bass; flint arrow-heads; clay funeral urns;
thirds of the population depend entirely on agriculture, and stone celts and hammers. Remains of Roman camps occur
oatmeal in various forms, with milk, is the chief food of at Peterculter, Kintore, and Auchterless, respectively 1071,
farm-servants. Farms are gene lly small, compared with 100, and 115 acres. Roman arms have been found. Ru
those in the south-east counties. The fields are separated of ancient edifices occur. On the top of a conical hill called
by dry-stone dykes, and also by wooden and wire fences. | Dunnidecr, in the Garioch district, are the remains of a

sea.

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castle, supposed to be 700 years old, and surrounded VIC | Catholie, and 31 of other denominatio 13

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vitrified wall, which must be still older. The foundation

detached parts of the two adjacent counties.
of two buildings still remain, the one in Braemar, and the
A B E R D

45

By the census of 1871, 84-83 per cent of the children Education. other in the Loch of Cannor (the latter with the remains in the county, of the ages 5 to 13, were receiving education. of a wooden bridge between it and the land), which are Those formerly called the parochial schoolmasters of supposed to have belonged to Malcolm Canmore, King of Aberdeenshire participate in the Dick and Milne Bequests, Scotland. The most extensive ruins are the grand ones of which contributed more salary to the schoolmasters in soms Kildrummy Castle, evidently once a princely seat, and still cases than did the heritors. Most of the schoolmasters are covering nearly an acre of ground. It belonged to David Masters of Arts, and many are preachers. Of 114 parochial Earl of Huntingdon in 1150, and was the seat of the Earls schools in the county before the operation of the new of Marr attainted in 1716. The Abbey of Deer, now in Education Act, 89 received the Milne Bequest of £20 a

ruins, was begun by Cumyn Earl of Buchan about 1219. year, and 91 the Dick Bequest, averaging £30 a year, and istorical

In Roman times, Aberdeenshire formed part of Ves a schoolmaster with both bequests would have a yearly otes.

pasiana in Caledonia, and was occupied by the Taixali, a income of £145 to £150, and in a few cases £250. The
warlike tribe. The local names are mostly Gaelic. St higher branches of education have been more taught in the
Columba and his pupil Drostan visited Buchan in the 6th schools of the shires. of Aberdeen and Banff than in the
century. In 1052 Macbeth fell near the Peel Bog in other Scotch counties, and pupils have been long in the
Lumphanan, and a cairn which marks the spot is still habit of going direct from the schools of these two counties
shown. In 1309 Bruce defeated Comyn, Earl of Buchan, to the University.
near Inverurie, and annihilated a powerful Norman family. The value of property, or real rental of the lands and Property.
In 1411 the Earl of Marr defeated Donald of the Isles in heritages in the county (including the burghs, except that
the battle of Harlaw, near Inverurie, when Sir Robert of Aberdeen), for the year 1872–73, was £769,191. The
Davidson, Provost of Aberdeen, was killed. In 1562 railway and the water works in the city and county were
occurred the battle of Corrichie on the Hill of Fare, when for the same year valued at £11,133. For general county
the Earl of Murray defeated the Marquis of Huntly. In purposes for the year ending 15th May 1872, there was
1715 the Earl of Marr proclaimed the Pretender in Braemar. assessed £14,803 to maintain police, prisons, militia, county
In 1746 the Duke of Cumberland with his army marched and municipal buildings, &c., and £19,320 to maintain
through Aberdeenshire to Culloden. In 1817 å base line 2359 miles of public county roads.
of verification, 5 miles 100 feet long, was measured in con The chief seats on the proprietary estates are-

-Balmoral Proprietors. nection with the Trigonometrical Survey of the British Isles, Castle, the Queen ; Mar Lodge and Skene House, Earl

on the Belhelvie Links 5 to 10 miles north of Aberdeen. of Fife; Aboyne Castle, Marquis of Huntly; Dunecht minent Among eminent men connected with Aberdeenshire are, House, Earl of Crawford and Balcarres ; Keith Hall, Earl len. Robert Gordon of Straloch, who in 1648 published the first of Kintore ; Slains Castle, Earl of Errol; Haddo House,

atlas of Scotland from actual survey; the Earls Marischal, Earl of Aberdeen ; Castle Forbes, Lord Forbes; Philorth
whose chief seat was Inverugie Castle ; Field-Marshal House, Lord Saltoun ; Huntly Lodge, the Duke of Rich-
Keith, born at Inverugie Castle, 1696 ; Dr Thomas Reid, mond. Other noted seats are—Drum, Irvine ; Invercauld,
the metaphysician, minister of New Machar 1737 to 1752; Farquharson ; Newe Castle, Forbes; Castle Fraser, Fraser;
Lord Pitsligo, attainted 1745; Sir Archibald Grant of Cluny Castle, Gordon ; Meldrum House, Urquhart; Craigs-
Monymusk, who introduced turnips into the county 1756, ton Castle, Urquhart; Pitfour, Ferguson; Ellon Castle,
and was the first to plant wood on a great scale"; Peter Gordon; Fyvie Castle, Gordon. Ten baronets and knights
Garden, Auchterless, said to have died at the age of 132, have residences in the county. Of the proprietors many
about 1780; Rev. John Skinner, author of some popular live permanently on their estates. Their prevailing names
Scottish songs ; Morrison the hygeist; the Earl of Aberdeen, are Gordon, Forbes, Grant, Fraser, Duff, and Farquharson.
Prime Minister during the Crimean war.

Aberdeenshire has one city, Aberdeen, a royal parlia- Burghs. ative The native Scotch population of Aberdeenshire are long- mentary burgh; three other royal parliamentary burghs, eatures. headed, shrewd, careful, canny, active, persistent, but Inverurie, Kintore, and Peterhead; and seven burghs of

reserved and blunt, and without demonstrative enthusiasm. barony, Old Aberdeen, Charleston of Abuyne, Fraserburgh,
They have a physiognomy distinct from the rest of the Huntly, Old Meldrum, Rosehearty, and Turriff.
Scottish people, and have a quick, sharp, rather angry The county sends two members to Parliament—one for Parliamen-
accent. The local Scotch dialect is broad, and rich in East Aberdeenshire, with 4341 electors, and the other for tary repre-
diminutives, and is noted for the use of e for o or u, f for West Aberdeenshire, with 3942 electors. The county has sentation.
ruk, d for th, &c. In 1830 Gaelic was the fireside language also four parliamentary burghs, which, with their respective

almost every family in Braemar, but now it is little used. populations in 1871, are-Aberdeen, 88,125; Peterhead, Yourts and Aberdeenshire has a Lord-Lieutenant and 3 Vice and 608535; Inverurie, 2856; and Kintore, 659. The first Police. Deputy-Lieutenants. The Supreme Court of Justiciary sits sends one member to Parliament, and the other three unite

in Aberdeen twice a-year to try cases from the counties of with Elgin, Cullen, and Banff, in sending another.
Aberdeen, Banff, and Kincardine. The counties of Aberdeen By the census 1801 the county had 121,065 inhabitants, Population.
and Kincardine are under a Sheriff and two Sheriffs-Substi- and by that of 1871, 244,603, with 53,576 families, 111
tute. The Sheriff Courts are held in Aberdeen and Peter- females to 100 males, 34,589 inhabited houses, 1052 unin-
head. Sheriff Small-Debt and Circuit Courts are held at habited houses, and 256 building. In 1871 there were in
seven places in the county. There are Burgh or Bailie Courts eight towns (Aberdeen, Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Huntly,
in Aberdeen and the other royal burghs in the county. Inverurie, Old Meldrum, Turriff, and New Pitsligo),
Justice of the Peace and Police Courts are held in Aberdeen, 111,978 inhabitants; in 32 villages, 19,561; and in rural
&c. The Sheriff Courts take cognisance of Commissary districts, 113,064.
business. During 1871, 994 persons were confined in the (Vew Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xii.; the charters
Aberdeenshire prisons. In the year 1870–71, 74 parishes of the burgh; extracts from the Council Register down to
in the county were assessed £53,703 for 7702 poor on the 1625, and selections from the letters, guildry, and trea-
roll and 1847 casual poor.

surer's accounts, forming 3 volumes of the Spalding Club; Churches.

Aberdeenshire contains 105 Established churches, 99 Collections for a History of the Shires of A. and Banff,
Free, 31 Episcopal, 15 United Presbyterian, I Roman edited by Joseph Robertson, Esq., 4to, Spalding Club;

Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis, vols. i. and ii., by | admission of ministers to benefices in Scotland,” and it Prof. Cosmo Innes, 4to, Spalding Club; The Ilistory of A., was passed into law in that session, though a similar by Walter Thom, 2 vols. 12mo, 1811; Buchan, by the Rev. measure had been rejected in 1840. As the first proposal John B. Pratt, 12mo, 1859; Historical Account and Delinea- did not prevent, so the passing of the Act had no effect in tion of A., by Robert Wilson, 1822; First Report of Royal healing, the breach in the Established Church of Scotland Com. on Hist. MSS., 1869; The Annals of A., by William which occurred in 1843. On the defeat of Lord Derby's Kennedy, 1818; Orem's Description of the Chanonry, Cathe-government in 1852, the state of parties was such as to dral, and King's College of Old A., 1721-25, 1830; The necessitate a coalition government, of which Lord AberCastellated Architecture of A., by Sir Andrew Leith Hay deen, in consequence of the moderation of his views, was of Rannes, imp. 4to; Specimens of Old Castellated Houses the natural chief. He had been regarded as the leader of of A., with drawings by Giles, folio, 1838; Lives of Eminent the Peel party from the time of Sir Robert's death, but Men of A., by James Bruce, 12mo, 1841). (A. C.) his views on the two great questions of home policy above

ABERDEEN, GEORGE HAMILTON GORDON, FOURTH mentioned rendered him more acceptable to the Liberals, EARL OF, was born at Edinburgh on the 28th January and a more suitable leader of a coalition government than 1784. He was educated at Harrow School, and at St any other member of that party could have been. His John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1804. administration will chiefly be remembered in connection He succeeded his grandfather in the earldom in 1801, and with the Crimean war, which, it is now generally believed, in the same year he made an extended tour through might have been altogether prevented by a more vigorous Europe, visiting France, Italy, and Greece. On his policy. The incompetence of various departments at return he founded the Athenian Club, the membership home, and the gross mismanagement of the commissariat of which was confined to those who had travelled in in the terrible winter of 1854, caused a growing dissatisGreece. This explains Lord Byron's reference in the faction with the government, which at length found English Bards and Scotch Reviewers to "the travelled emphatic expression in the House of Commons, when a Thane, Athenian Aberdeen.” Soon after his return he motion submitted by Mr Roebuck, calling for inquiry, was contributed a very able article to the Edinburgh Review carried by an overwhelming majority. Lord Aberdeen (vol. vi.), on Gell's Topography of Troy. Another regarded the vote as one of no-confidence, and at once literary result of his tour was the publication in 1822 of resigned. From this period Lord Aberdeen took little part An Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty in Grecian Archi- in public business. In recognition of his services he tecture, the substance of which had appeared some years received, soon after his resignation, the decoration of the before in the form of an introduction to a translation of Order of the Garter. He died December 13, 1860. Lord Vitruvius' Civil Architecture. In 1806, having been | Aberdeen was twice married,- first in 1805, to a daughter elected one of the representative peers for Scotland, he of the first Marquis of Abercorn, who died in 1812, and took his seat in the House of Lords on the Tory side. then to the widow of Viscount Hamilton. He was sucHe was already on terms of intimacy with the leading ceeded in the title and estates by Lord Haddo, his son members of the then predominant party, and in particular by the second marriage. with Pitt, through the influence of his relative, the cele ABERDOUR, a village in the county of Fife, in Scotbrated Duchess of Gordon. In 1813 he was intrusted land, pleasantly situated on the north shore of the Firth with a delicate and difficult special mission to Vienna, the of Forth, and much resorted to for sea-bathing. It is 10 object being to induce the Emperor of Austria to join the miles N. W. of Edinburgh, with which there is a frequent alliance against his son-in-law Napoleon. His diplomacy communication by steamer. was completely successful; the desired alliance was secured ABERFELDY, a village in Perthshire, celebrated in by the treaty of Töplitz, which the Earl signed as repre- Scottish song for its “birks” and for the neighbouring sentative of Great Britain in September 1913. On his falls of Moness. It is the terminus of a branch of the return at the conclusion of the war, he was raised to a Highland Railway. British peerage, with the title of Viscount Gordon. Lord ABERGAVENNY, a market town in Monmouthshire, Aberdeen was a member of the Cabinet formed by the Duke 14 miles west of Monmouth, situated at the junction of Wellington in 1828, for a short time as Chancellor of the of a small stream called the Gavenny, with the river Usk. Duchy of Lancaster, and then as Foreign Secretary. He It is supposed to have been the Gobannium of the Romans, was Colonial Secretary in the Tory Cabinet of 1834-5, and so named from Gobannio, the Gavenny. The town was again received the seals of the Foreign Office under Sir formerly walled, and has the remains of a castle built Robert Peel's administration of 1841. The policy of non soon after the Conquest, and also of a Benedictine monasintervention, to which he stedfastly adhered in his conduct tery. The river Usk is here spanned by a noble stone of foreign affairs, was at once his strength and his weakness. bridge of fifteen arches. Two markets are held weekly, According to the popular idea, he failed to see the limita- and elegant market buildings have recently been erected. tions and exceptions to a line of policy which nearly all There is a free grammar school, with a fellowship and admitted to be as a general rule both wise and just. On exhibitions at Jesus College, Oxford. No extensive the whole, his administration was perhaps more esteemed manufacture is carried on except that of shoes; the town abroad than at home. It has been questioned whether

owes its

rosperity mainly to the large coal and iron any English minister ever was on terms of greater works in the neighbourhood. Abergavenny is a polling intimacy with foreign courts, but there is no substantial place for the county. Population of parish (1871), 6318. warrant for the charge of want of patriotism which was ABERNETHY, a town in Perthshire, situated in the sometimes brought against him. On the two chief ques- parish of the same name, on the right bank of the Tay, tions of home politics which were finally settled during 7 miles below Perth. The earliest of the Culdee houses his tenure of office, he was in advance of most of his was founded there, and it is said to have been the capital of party. While the other members of the Government the Pictish kings. It was long the chief seat of the Episyielded Catholic Emancipation and the repeal of the Corn copacy in the country, till, in the 9th century, the bishopric Laws as unavoidable concessions, Lord Aberdeen spoke was transferred to St Andrews. There still remains at Aberand voted for both measures from conviction of their nethy a curious circular tower, 74 feet high and 48 feet justice. On the 13th June 1843, he moved the second in circumference, consisting of sixty-four courses of hewii reading of his bill “to remove doubts respecting the stone. A number of similar towers, though not so well

built, are to be inet with in Ireland, but there is only one / monstrator;" he also attended Pott's surgical lectures at other in Scotland, viz., that at Brechin. Petrie argues, in St Bartholomew's Hospital, as well as the lectures of the his Round Towers of Ireland, that these structures have celebrated John Hunter. On Pott's resignation of the been used as belfries, and also as keeps.

office of surgeon of St Bartholomew's, Sir Charles Blicke, ABERNETHY,JOHN,—a Protestant dissenting divine of who was assistant-surgeon, succeeded' him, and Abernethy Ireland, was born at Coleraine, county Londonderry, Ulster, was elected assistant-surgeon in 1787. In this capacity where his father was minister (Nonconformist), on the he began to give lectures in Bartholomew Close, which 19th October 1680. In his thirteenth year he entered a were so well attended that the governors of the hospital student at the University of Glasgow. On concluding his built a regular theatre (1790-91), and Abernethy thus course at Glasgow he went to Edinburgh University, became the founder of the distinguished School of St where his many brilliant gifts and quick and ready wit Bartholomew's. He held the office of assistant-surgeon of thought-born, not verbal merely-struck the most eminent the hospital for the long period of twenty-eight years, till, in of his contemporaries and even his professors. Returning 1815, he was elected principal surgeon. He had before that home, he received licence to preach from his Presbytery time been appointed surgeon of Christ's Hospital (1813), before he was twenty-one. In 1701 he was urgently and Professor of Anatomy and Surgery to the Royal invited to acoept the ministerial charge of an important College of Surgeons (1814). Abernethy had great fame congregation in Antrim; and after an interval of two both as a practitioner and as a lecturer, his reputation in years, he was ordained there on 8th August 1703. His both respects resting on the efforts he made to promote admiring biographer tells of an amount and kind of the practical improvement of surgery. His Surgical 06work done there, such as only a man of fecund brain, of servations on the Constitutional Origin and Treatment of large heart, of healthful frame, and of resolute will, could Local Diseases (1809)—known as “My Book," from the have achieved. In 1717 he was invited to the congrega- great frequency with which he referred his patients to it, tion of Usher's Quay, Dublin, as colleague with Rev. Mr and to page 72 of it in particular, under that name—was Arbuckle, and contemporaneously, to what was called the one of the earliest popular works on medical science. Old Congregation of Belfast. The Synod assigned him to The views he expounds in it are based on physiological Dublin. He refused to accede, and remained at Antrim. considerations, and are the more important that the conThis refusal was regarded then as ecclesiastical high- nection of surgery with physiology had scarcely been treason; and a controversy of the most intense and dis- recognised before the time he wrote. The leading prinproportionate character followed. The controversy and ciples on which he insists in “My Book" are chiefly these quarrel bears the name of the two camps in the con two :—1st, That topical diseases are often mere symptoms flict, the “Subscribers” and the “Non-subscribers.” Out-of constitutional maladies, and then can only be removed and-out evangelical as John Abernethy was, there can be by general remedies; and 2d, That the disordered state of no question that he and his associates sowed the seeds of the constitution very often originates in, or is closely that after-struggle in which, under the leadership of Dr allied to deranged states of the stomach and bowels, and Henry Cooke, the Arian and Socinian elements of the Irish can only be remedied by means that beneficially affect the Presbyterian Church were thrown out. Much of what he functions of those organs. His profession owed him contended for, and which the "Subscribers” opposed bitterly, much for his able advocacy of the extension in this way has been silently granted in the lapse of time. In 1726 the of the province of surgery, He had great success as a “Non-subscribers," spite of an almost wofully pathetic teacher from the thorough knowledge he had of his pleading against separation by Abernethy, were cut off, with science, and the persuasiveness with which he enunciated due ban and solemnity, from the Irish Presbyterian Church. his views. It has been said, however, that the influence In 1730, spite of being a “Non-subscriber," he was called he exerted on those who attended his lectures was not by his early friends of Wood Street, Dublin, whither he beneficial in this respect, that his opinions were delivered removed. In 1731 came on the greatest controversy in so dogmatically, and all who differed from him were diswhich Abernethy engaged, viz., in relation to the Test Act paraged and denounced so contemptuously, as to repress nominally, but practically on the entire question of tests instead of stimulating inquiry. It ought to be mentioned, and disabilities. His stand was "against all laws that, upon that he was the first to suggest and to perform the daring account of mere differences of religious opinions and forms operation of securing by ligature the carotid and the exterof worship, excluded men of integrity and ability from nal iliac arteries. The celebrity Abernethy attained in serving their country.” He was nearly a century in his practice was due not only to his great professional advance of his century. He had to reason with those who skill, but also in part to the singularity of his manners. denied that a Roman Catholic or Dissenter could be a He used great plainness of speech in his intercourse with “man of integrity and ability." His Tracts—afterwards his patients, treating them often brusquely, and sometimes collected—did fresh service, generations later.

And so

even rudely. In the circle of his family and friends he John Abernethy through life was ever foremost where un was courteous and affectionate ; and in all his dealings he popular truth and right were to be maintained; nor did he, was strictly just and honourable. He resigned his surgery for sake of an ignoble expediency, spare to smite the highest- at St Bartholomew's Hospital in 1827, and his professorseated wrongdoers any more than the hoariest errors (as he ship at the College of Surgeons two years later, on account believed). He died in 1740, having been twice married. of failing health, and died at his residence at Enfield (Kippis' Biog. Brit., s. v.; Dr Duchal's Life, prefixed to on the 20th of April 1831. A collected edition of his Sermons; Diary in MS., 6 vols. 4to; History of Irish Pres- works in five volumes was published in 1830. A biobyterian Church).

(A. B. G.) graphy, Memoirs of John Abernethy, by George Macilwain, ABERNETHY, JOHN, grandson of :he preceding, an F.R.C.S., appeared in 1853, and though anything but eminent surgeon, was born in London on the 3d of April satisfactory, passed through several editions. 1764. His father was a London merchant. Educated ABERRATION, or (more correctly) THE ABERRATION at Wolverhampton Grammar School, he was apprenticedor LIGHT, is a remarkable phenomenon, by which stars in 1779 to Sir Charles Blicke, a surgeon in extensive appear to deviate a little, in the course of a year, from practice in the metropolis. He attended Sir William their true places in the heavens. It results from the eye Blizzard's anatomical lectures at the London Hospital, of the observer being carried onwards by the motion of the and was carly employed to assist Sir Willian as “de-earth on its orbit, during the time that light takes to

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the sun.

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travel from the star to the earth. The effect of this com success in attempting to explain the phenomenon by the bination of motions may be best explained by a familiar illus- nutation of the earth's axis, radiation, errors of observatration. Suppose a rain-drop falling vertically is received tion, &c. At last the true solution of the difficulty occurred in a tube that has a lateral

t him, suggested, it is said, by the movements of a vane inotion. In order that the

on the top of a boat's mast. Roemer had discovered, a drop may fall freely down

quarter of a century before, that light has a velocity which the axis of the tube, the

admits of measurement; and Bradley perceived that the latter must be inclined at

earth's motion, having a perceptible relation to that of such an angle as to move

light, must affect the direction of the visual rays, and with from the position AD to BE,

this the apparent positions of the stars. He calculated the and again to CF, in the

aberration from the known relative velocities of the earth times the drop moves from

and of light, and the results agreed entirely with his D to G, and from G to C.

observations. The drop in this case, since

The observed effects of aberration are of importance as it moves down the axis all

supplying an independent method of measuring the velocity the way, must strike the

of light, but more particularly as presenting one of the few bottom of the tube at C

direct proofs that can be given of the earth's motion round in the direction FC. The

It is indeed the most satisfactory proof of this light proceeding from a star is not seen in its true direc- that astronomy furnishes, the phenomenon being quite intion, but strikes the eye obliquely, for a precisely similar explicable on any other hypothesis.

If lines be taken to represent the motions, so that ABERYSTWITH, a municipal and parliamentary bothe

eye is carried from A to C during the time that light rough, market town, and seaport of Wales, in the county moves from D to C, the light will appear to the eye at C of Cardigan, is situated at the western end of the Vale to come, not from D, but from F. The angle DCF, con of Rheidol, near the confluence of the rivers Ystwith tained by the true and apparent directions of the star, is and Rheidol, and about the centre of Cardigan Bay. It the aberration. It is greatest when the two motions are is the terminal station of the Cambrian Railway, and a at right angles to each other, i.e., when the star's longitude line to the south affords direct communication with South is 90° in advance of, or behind, the heliocentric longitude Wales, Bristol, &c. The borough unites with Cardigan, of the earth, or (which amounts to the same thing) 90° Lampeter, &c., in electing a member of Parliament. Coal, behind, or in advance of, the geocentric longitude of the timber, and lime are imported, and the exports are lead, sun. (See ASTRONOMY.) Now, in the right-angled triangle oak bark, flannel, and corn. The harbour has of late been

AC
ACD, tan ADC (i.e., DCF) = whence it

much improved ; and the pier, completed in 1865, forms
; ;
DC

that appears

an excellent promenade. There are many elegant buildthe tangent of the angle of aberration (or, since the angle ings, and it has been proposed to establish here a Uniis very small, the aberration itself) is equal to the ratio, | versity College of Wales. On a promontory to the S.W. velocity of earth in orbit The rate of the earth’s metion 1277, by Edward I., on the site of a fortress of great

of the town are the ruins of its ancient castle, erected in velocity of light being to the velocity of light in the proportion of 1 to strength, built by Gilbert de Strongbow, and destroyed by 10,000 nearly, the maximum aberration is small, amount Owen Gwynedd. From its picturesque situation and ing to about 20-4 seconds of arc,—a quantity, however, benlthy climate, and the suitableness of the beach for which is very appreciable in astronomical observations. bathing, Aberystwith has risen into great repute as a

Aberration always takes place in the direction of the watering-place, and attracts many visitors. Much of the earth's motion; that is, it causes the stars to appear nearer finest scenery in Wales, such as the Devil's Bridge, &c., than they really are to the point towards which the earth lies within easy reach. Population (1871), 6898. is at the moment moving. That point is necessarily on ABETTOR, a law term implying one who instigates, the ecliptic, and 90° in advance of the earth in longitude. encourages, or assists another to perform some criminal The effect is to make a star at the pole of the ecliptic action. See ACCESSORY. appear to move in a plane parallel to the ecliptic, so as to ABEYANCE, a law term denoting the expectancy of an form a small ellipse, similar to the earth's orbit, but having estate. Thus, if lands be leased to one person for life, with its major axis parallel to the minor axis of that orbit, and reversion to another for years, the remainder for years

is vice versa. As we proceed from the pole, the apparent in aboyance till the death of the lessee. orbits the stars describe become more and more elliptical, ABGAR, the name or title of a line of kings of Edessa till in the plane of the ecliptic the apparent motion is in in Mesopotamia. One of them is known from a correa straight line. The length of this line, as well as of the spondence he is said to have had with Jesus Christ. The major axes of the different ellipses, amounts, in angular letter of Abgar, entreating Jesus to visit him and heal him measure, to about 40":8. The stars thus appear to oscil- of a disease, and offering Him an asylum from the wrath late, in the course of the year, 20":4 on each side of their of the Jews, and the answer of Jesus promising to send a true position, in a direction parallel to the plane of the disciple to heal Abgar after His ascension, are given by ecliptic, and the quantity 20":4 is therefore called the Eusebius, who believed the documents to be genuine. The constant of aberration.

same belief has been held by a few moderns, but there can For the discovery of the aberration of light, one of the be no doubt whatever that the letter of Jesus at least is finest in modern astronomy, we are indebted to the dis- apocryphal. It has also been alleged that Abgar possessed tinguished astronomer Dr Bradley. He was led to it, in a picture of Jesus, which the credulous may see either at 1727, by the result of observations he made with the view Rome or at Genoa. Some make him the possessor of the of determining the annual parallax of some of the stars; handkerchief a woman gave Jesus, as He bore the cross, that is, the angle subtended at these stars by the diameter to wipe the sweat from His face with, on which, it is of the earth's orbit. He observed certain changes in the fabled, His features remained miraculously imprinted. positions of the stars that he could not account for. The ABIAD, BAAR-EL-, a name given to the western branch deviations were not in the direction of the apparent motion of the Nile, above Khartoum. It is better known as the that parallax would give rise to; and he had no better White Nile. See Nile.

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