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however, having no vital force, never spread beyond the states that Robertson the historian, then a student of limits of the court, and died with Akbar himself. But divinity, used to attend the meetings in order to hear though his eclectic system failed, the spirit of toleration Akenside's speeches. Some of his minor poems belong to which originated it produced in other ways many import- this period, such as his Ode " for the Winter Solstice," ant results; and, indeed, may be said to have done more the elegy called “Love," and the verses “to Cordelia.” to establish Akbar's power on a secure basis than all his He returned to his native town in 1741, and then his economic and social reforms. He conciliated the Hindoos friendship with Jeremiah Dyson had commenced, “a name by giving them freedom of worship; while at the same never to be mentioned by any lover of genius or noble time he strictly prohibited certain barbarous Brahminical deeds without affection and reverence” (Willmott). In practices, such as trial by ordeal and the burning of widows the years 1741 to 1743 he must have been ardent in his against their will. He also abolished all taxes upon pil- wooing of the Muses. In the summer or autumn of 1743 grims as an interference with the liberty of worship, and Dodsley carried with him to Pope at Twickenham a MS. the capitation tax upon Hindoos, probably upon similar for which the writer asked £120. The oracle of Twickengrounds. Measures like these gained for him during his life ham having read the poem, counselled the publisher to time the title of “Guardian of Mankind," and caused him to make no niggardly offer, because “ this was no every-day be held up as a model to Indian princes of later times, who writer.” It was something for Pope to be thus prescient in the matter of religious toleration have only too seldom in the absence of rhyme-albeit Pope's insertions in The followed his example. Akbar was a munificent patron of Seasons remain to attest that, supreme artist as he was in literature. He established schools throughout his empire rhyme, he could also manage blank verse with exquisite for the education of Hindoos as well as Moslems, and he cunningness. The MS. was the Pleasures of Imagination, gathered round him many men of literary talent, among which Dodsley published in 1744. In his twenty-third whom may be mentioned the brothers Feizi and Abul- year the author, like Byron, awoke to find himself famous. fazl. The former was commissioned by Akbar to trans. The assaults of Warburton and Hurd were scarcely a deduclate a number of Sanscrit scientific works into Persian; tion from the universal welcome. The poet's “ Epistle” to and the latter (see ABULFAZL) has left, in the Akbar-Nameh, Warburton was effective. He went to Leyden, and there an enduring record of the emperor's reign. It is also said pursued his medical studies with ardour. He obtained the that Akbar employed Jerome Xavier, a Jesuit missionary, degree of M.D., May 16th, 1744; his inaugural dissertato translate the four Gospels into Persian. The closing tion describing the formation and growth of the human years of Akbar's reign were rendered very unhappy by the foetus with original observation and acuteness. He now misconduct of his sons. Two of them died in youth, the returned to England, advancing more and more in his victims of intemperance; and the third, Selim, afterwards friendship with the good and large-hearted Dyson. He the emperor Jehanghir, was frequently in rebellion against chose Northampton as the place wherein he should comhis father. These calamities were keenly felt by Akbar, and mence practice. It was an unfortunate selection, as Sir may even have tended to hasten his death, which occurred James Stonehouse “possessed the confidence of the town," at Agra on the 13th October 1605. His body was deposited and it was deemed an intrusion. A not very creditable in a magnificent mausoleum at Sicandra, near Agra. controversy arose; and we are at a loss whether most to

AKEN, or ACKEN, a town in Prussian Saxony,' situated admire the stinging rebuffs in honeyed courtesies or the on the Elbe, 25 miles E.S.E. of Magdeburg, close to the mutual pretence of ultimate satisfaction and good-will. At frontiers of Anhalt. It has manufactures of cloth, leather, Northampton Akenside was on friendly terms with Dr chemicals, and optical instruments; large quantities of Doddridge. There, too, he wrote his " Epistle to Curio," beetroot sugar are produced in the neighbourhood; and which Lord Macaulay pronounced his best production, as there is a considerable transit trade on the Elbe. Popula- " indicating powers of elevated satire, which, if diligently tion (1871), 5273.

cultivated, might have disputed the pre-eminence of DryAKENSIDE, MARK. Like young Henry Kirke White, den.” Willmott traces some of the most nervous lines of the poet of the Pleasures of Imagination was the son of a the Pleasures of Hope to this " Epistle to Curio." Not butcher. He was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne on November succeeding in his profession at Northampton, he removed 9th, 1721. His school was the free one founded by a to Hampstead in 1747. The Odes had then been published. former mayor of Newcastle, Thomas Horsley. Later, one Dr Akenside came to Hampstead under the ægis of the of the ministers of the Presbyterians added to his school generous Dyson. Somehow, in Hampstead as at Northacquired knowledge in private. In his sixteenth year he ampton, he manifested a vanity of self-display and hauteur sent to the Gentleman's Magazine a copy of verses entitled of manner that made him many enemies. Within three “The Virtuoso.” Sylvanus Urban graciously printed the years he had to leave Hampstead for London. He set poem; but the old man was not difficult to please. Other up in Bloomsbury Square in a “fine house," and with verse contributions succeeded-imitative, yet not without an annuity of £300 from the still ungrudging Dyson. gleams of a true faculty. Some written in the Lake One is pleased to come on these words of a far greater poet country, while on visits with friends at Morpeth, have a century later, “I am not unfrequently," wrote Wordsworth Wordsworthian touches. The memories of these visits in 1837, "a visitor on Hampstead Heath, and I seldom pass transfigure the Pleasures of Imagination. In his nineteenth by the entrance of Mr Dyson's villa at Goulder's Hill, year, being intended for the clerical profession, he pro- close by, without thinking of the pleasure which Akenside ceeded to the university of Edinburgh; but within one often had there.” The generous clerk of the House of session, like many others, he changed his purpose, and Commons and secretary of the Treasury nobly earned his transferred his name from the theological to the medical imperishable place in the (revised) Pleasures of Imaginaclasses—although, indeed, then, as still, the opening years tion. Contemporaneous with his professional duties, the were occupied with the same studies for either. On his poet became an essayist and reviewer for Dodsley in the change he honourably returned certain moneys which his now forgotten Museum. In 1753 the university of Camfellow Presbyterians had advanced towards his theological bridge bestowed on him the degree of doctor of medicine. education. He attended the university for only two years. In 1754 he was elected a fellow of the College of PhysiWhile there, in 1740, a medical society, which combined cians. In 1755 he read before the college the Gulstonian with it a debating club, gave him a fine field for the Lectures; and in 1756 the Croonian Lectures. In 1759 exercise of his oratorical powers. Dugald Stewart | he was chosen assistant, and two months later chief,

name,

physician of St Thomas's IIospital. In this year he had became the secretary of the newly-established Numismatic removed to Craven Street. In 1762 he changed once more Society. In 1848 he was elected secretary to the Society to Burlington Street. In 1760 was published the Harveian of Antiquaries, an office which he was compelled to resign Oration by order of the College of Physicians. In 1761, in 1860 on account of failing health. He died on 18th along with Dyson, he passed from a somewhat noisy November 1873. Akerman published a considerable numWhiggery to the Tories, which added “renegade” to his

renegade” to his ber of works on his special subject, the more important In 1765–6 he was working upon the revised and being a Catalogue of Roman Coins (1839); a Numismatic enlarged copy of the Pleasures of Imagination. His fame Manual (1840); Roman Coins relating to Britain (1844), was widening professionally and poetically, when a putrid for which he received the medal of the French Institute'; fever carried him off suddenly on June 23d, 1770. He Ancient CoinsHispania, Gallia, Britannia (1846); and was buried at St James's Church on the 28th. As a man, Numismatic Illustrations of the New Testament (1846). He the nearer one gets to Akenside the less is there lovable wrote also a Glossary of Words used in Wiltshire (1842); about him; there seem to have been ineradicable mean Wiltshire Tales, illustrative of the Dialect (1853); and nesses in his nature. Lavish in his expenditure while Remains of Pagan Saxondom (1855). practically dependent on Dyson, and remaining dependent AKHALZIKH, a city of Georgia, in Asiatic Russia, on after his professional income ought to have released his an affluent of the Kur, 110 miles west of Tiflis, in 41° 40' patron, we cannot think of him as high-minded. His N. lat., 43° 1' E. long. It contains a strong castle, a college personal vanity was constantly bringing him sorenesses. and library, and a fine mosque, and has a considerable trade The “Doctor” in Peregrine Pickle was painted from the in silk, honey, and wax. Population (1867), 15,977. life, not a mere creation of Smollett's genius. As a poet, AKHISSAR, the ancient Thyatira, a town of Turkey the place of Akenside is secure, but it is not very lofty. in Asia, in Anatolia, 58 miles N.E. of Smyrna. The inháHis imagination is rhetorical rather than subtle, consisting bitants are Greeks, Armenians, and Turks. The houses more of pomp of words than greatness of thought. His are built of earth or turf dried in the sun, and are very chief defect is lack of emotion, and especially pathos. The low and ill-constructed; but there are six or seven mosques, enlarged Pleasures of Imagination, notwithstanding some which are all of marble. Remarkable inscriptions are to be noble additions, was a blunder. Some of his minor pieces seen in several parts of the town on portions of the ruins have a classical grace and charm of expression. (See the of the ancient city. Cotton of excellent quality is grown original editions of his writings; Bucke's Life, Writings, in the neighbourhood, and the place is celebrated for its and Genius of Akenside, 1832; Dyce and Willmott's edition scarlet dyes. Population, about 6000. of his Poems; Cunningham's Johnson's Lives of the Poets, AKHTYRKA, a town of Russia in Europe, in the 8.V.; Biog. Brit.; Medical Biog., s.v.) (A. B. G.) Ukraine, situated on a river of the same name, 45 miles

AKERBLAD, JAN DAVID (1760-1819), a learned N.W. of Kharkov. It has eight churches, one of which, Swede, distinguished for his researches in Runic, Coptic, containing an image of the Virgin, is held in great veneraPhænician, and ancient Egyptian literature. He entered tion. The town is enclosed by ditches; and the environs the diplomatic service as secretary to the Swedish embassy are fertile, the orchards producing excellent fruit. There at Constantinople, and utilised the leisure which the situa are some manufactures of light woollen stuffs, and a great tion afforded by visiting Jerusalem (1792) and the Troad market is held annually in May. Population (1867), 17,411. (1797). After an interval spent at Göttingen, he was AKIBA, BEN JOSEPH, a famous rabbi who flourished appointed ambassador to Paris. His last years were passed about the close of the first and the beginning of the second at Rome, where he enjoyed a pension from the Duchess centuries. It is almost impossible to separate the true from of Devonshire. Akerblad was a diligent student of hiero- the false in the numerous traditions respecting his life. glyphics ; and though he failed to decipher the Rosetta He became the chief teacher in the rabbinical school of stone, he arrived at certain conjectural conclusions with Jaffa, where, it is said, he had 24,000 scholars. Whatregard to the true method of interpretation, which were ever their number, it seems certain that among them was afterwards confirmed by Dr Young. His works include the celebrated Rabbi Meir, and that through him and letters on the Coptish cursive writing and on the Rosetta others Akiba exerted a great influence on the development inscription, both addressed to M. de Sacy; and a number of the doctrines embodied in the Talmud. He sided with of painphlets on the interpretation of various Runic and Barchochebas in his revolt, recognised him as the Messiah, Phoenician inscriptions.

and acted as his sword-bearer. Being taken prisoner by AKERMAN (perhaps the ancient Tyras or Julia Alba), the Romans under Julius Severus, he was flayed alive a town of Russia in Europe, in the province of Bessarabia, with circumstances of great cruelty, and met his fate, on a tongue of land projecting into the estuary of the according to tradition, with marvellous steadfastness and Dniester. Its harbour is too shallow to admit vessels of composure. He is said to have been a hundred and twenty large size; but the trade of the town is, notwithstand years old at the time of his death. The Jews were long ing, very considerable. Large quantities of salt are ob- accustomed to pay visits to his tomb, and he is one of the tained from the saline lakes in the neighbourhood; and ten Jewish martyrs whose names occur in a penitential corn, wine, wool, and leather are among the other exports. prayer still used once a year in the synagogue service. A The town, which is ill-built, contains several mosques and number of works commonly attributed to Akiba are of Greek and Armenian churches; it is guarded by ramparts, later origin; but the one entitled Nap??? (Doctrine and is commanded by a citadel placed on an eminence. of Rabbi Akiba) is probably genuine. Akerman derives some historical celebrity from the treaty AKOLA, a district and city of British India, in the concluded there in 1826 between Russia and the Porte, commissionership of West Berar, within the Haidarábád securing considerable advantages to the former. It was assigned districts. AKOLÁ DISTRICT lies between 20° 23' the non-observance of this treaty by Turkey that led to the and 21° 10' N. lat., and between 76° 25' and 77° 19' E. war of 1828. Population (1867), 29,609.

long.; its greatest length from N. to S. being 72 miles, and AKERMAN, JOHN YONGE, an antiquarian, distinguished its greatest breadth from E. to W. 63 miles. It is bounded chiefly in the department of numismatics, was born in on the N. by the Sátpurá range; on the E. by Elichpur Wiltshire on the 12th June 1806. He became early known district; on the S. by the Sátmál and Ajanta hills; and in connection with his favourite study, having initiated the on the W. by the Buldáná and Khandesh districts. The Numismatic Journal in 1836. In the following year he total area of the district in 1869 was 26974 square miles,

or 1,726,625 acres, of which 1,326,583 acres, or 2072.78 | extension of the Great indian Peninsular Railway, in 20° square miles were under cultivation; 127,003 acres, or 6' N. lat., and 76° 2' E. long. The town contains three or 198.45 square miles, cultivable but not actually under four wealthy merchants; and two markets are held each tillage; 41,198 acres, or 64:37 square miles, alienated land week-one on Sundays, the other on Wednesdays. The held rent free; the remaining 231,842 acres, or 362.25 commissioner's and deputy-commissioner's court-houses, the square miles, consisting chiefly of unarable land, but includ central jail (capable of holding 500 prisoners), the posting river-beds, tanks, village sites, pasturage land, or land office, and barracks or rest-houses for European troops, occupied for public uses, &c. The population of the dis- close to the station, are the principal public buildings. trict in 1869 numbered 487,558—viz., Hindus, 433,238; Besides these, there are a civil hospital, a charitable dispenMahometans, 39,030; aborigines, 15,157; Christians, 78; sary, an English high school, a town-hall, and an English Pársís, 45; Jews, 10. The district is square in shape church. A detachment of infantry is stationed at the town. and almost of a dead level, with the exception of two Population in 1869, 12,236. conical-shaped hills which stand out quite apart from any AKRON, a town of the United States, capital of Sum. other eminences, and rise straight up from the plain. The mit county, Ohio, situated on the Atlantic and Great principal river of Akolá, which, although not navigable, Western Railway, and on the Ohio and Erie Canal, at its represents the main line of drainage, and into which the junction with the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal, 36 miles other streams discharge themselves, is the Púrná, flowing S. of Cleveland. By means of the canal and the Little east and west. The principal tributaries on its south Cuyahoga river the town is amply supplied with waterbank are the Kátá Púrna, Murná, Núm, and Bordi; and power, which is employed in a variety of manufactures ; on its north bank, the Shahnúr, Idrúpá, and Wún. None and its mercantile business is extensive. It has several of these streams are navigable, and some of them almost flour mills, woollen factories, and manufactories of iron dry up after the rainy season.

goods. Mineral fire-proof paint, immense beds of which

are found in the vicinity, and wheat are important articles The extension line of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway from Bhosáwal to Nágpur intersects the district, with stations at Jalam of export. Akron was founded in 1825, and was made the Shegaon, Páras, Akolá, and Borgaon. of eight main roads, capital of the county in 1841. Population in 1870, 10,006. three have been metalled. The first runs from Åkolá to Akot, a

AK-SU, a town of Chinese Turkestan, is situated in rising cotton mart, and is 28 miles in length, running north-north: 41° 7' N. lat., 79° E. long., 250 miles N.E. of Yarkand. east. It is metalled, and all the smaller water-courses are bridged: It has a flourishing trade, and is resorted to for purposes The Púrná and Sháhnúr rivers, however, cross the line, and are not bridged, a circumstance which impairs the usefulness of the road of commerce by caravans from all parts of Central Asia. during the rainy season. The second road is known as the Básim There are some cotton manufactures; and the place is road, and runs for 24 miles southwards through the district. The celebrated for its richly-ornamented saddlery made from third road is 12 miles long, from Khámgaon to Nándurá railway station, and is metalled throughout. The other five lines of road are

deer-skin. A Chinese garrison is stationed here, and neither bridged nor metalled, but only marked out and levelled.copper and iron are wrought in the neighbourhood by The district imports piece goods from Bombay, and food grains from exiled Chinese criminals. The district is well cultivated, the adjoining districts. Its principal exports are cotton to Bombay, and sheep and cattle are extensively reared. The populaclarified butter, dyes (indigo and kusambá), and cattle. Internal tion of the town is about 20,000; that of the town and trade is chiefly carried on at weekly markets and by annual fairs. The principal manufacture of the district is the weaving of cotton. district 100,000. Carpets and coarse cloths are woven in almost every village, with AKYAB, a district and city within the Arákán division turbans at Bálápur, and silk cloths for native women at Akolá of British Burmah, and under the jurisdiction of the chief and in the larger towns. The principal agricultural products are as follows : – The wet weather or kharif crop consists of joár (eighteen commissioner of that province. The DISTRICT lies along the varieties); bajrá (two kinds); cotton (two kinds); túr, urid, and north-eastern shores of the Bay of Bengal, between 20° mug (three kinds of pulse); rice and kulkar (a smaller variety of and 211° N. lat., and 92° 12' and 94°E. long. It forms the rice); Indian corn ; rálá ; ganjá ; ajwán ; indigo ; and til (oil-seeds northernmost district of British Burmah, and the largest of two kinds). The cold weather or rabí crop consists of-wheat (three kinds) ; gram; linseed ; lakh (a pulse); peas ; musuri; tobacco; of the three districts of the Arákán division. It is bounded and mustard. The principal articles of garden produce are the follow. on the N. by the Chittagong district of Bengal; on the E. ing :-Sugar-cane (two kinds); Indian corn (two kinds); ground by the Sumadoung ranges, which separate it from Inde. nuts ; onions ; garlic; coriander ; pán leaves ; chillies ; opium; sweet pendent Burmah; on the S. by the Arákán districts of tables. A tenure peculiar to Akolá is that known as metkari hoid. Rámri and Sandoway; and on the W. by the Bay of Bengal ings. These consist of certain strips of land extending along the In 1871 the frontier or hill tracts of the district were placed whole breadth of the district at the foot of the frontier range. They under a special administration, with a view to the better are now of considerable value, and were originally held as payment government of the wild tribes which inhabit them. The for the maintenance of a chain of outposts or watch-towers on elevated points in the ridge, with a view to giving warning of the present area is returned at 4858 square miles, of which approach of the Bhil or Gond banditti, and warding off their attacks. 521 square miles are cultivated, 913 cultivable but not Seven towns are returned as containing a population exceeding 5000 actually under tillage, and 3424 square miles uncultivablo - viz., Akolá (the capital of the district), population 12,236; Akot, and waste. one of the principal cotton marts of Berar, and also celebrated for its amounted to 263,152, of whom 192,885 were Buddhists

The population of the district in 1872 cotton manufacture, 14,006; Khámgéon, now the largest cotton mart in the province, but which has only sprung into importance within or Jains, 47,349 Mahometans, 8687 Hindus, 13,928 aborirecent times, 9432; Bálápur, one of the chief military stations gines, and 303 Christians. The central part of the district in the Berars during the Mahometan rule, 12,631 ; Jalgaon, an consists of three fertile valleys, watered by the Myu, important cotton market, 8763 ; Patur, 6011; Shegaon, à station on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway, and a cotton market, Koladyne, and Lemyu. These rivers approach each other 7450. In 1869 there were 1 higher class, 10 middle class, and 63 at their mouths, and form a vast network of tidal chanlower schools for boys in Akola district; besides 7 female schools nels, creeks, and islands. Their alluvial valleys yield and 1 normal school for training Hindustání and Marhatí masters, inexhaustible supplies of rice, which the abundant water making a total of 82 schools in all. For the protection of person carriage brings down to the port of Akyab at a very cheap with a regular police force of 536 officers and men, equal to one man

rate. The four chief towns are Khúmgchú in the extremo to every five miles of the district area, or one man to every 909 of north-east of the district; Koladyne in the centre; Arákán, the population.

further down the rivers; and Akyab on the coast, where AKOLÁ Town, the headquarters of the district of the their mouths converge. This district passed into the hands same name, and also of the west Berar division of the of the British, together with the rest of Arákán division, Haidarabad assigned territory, is situated on the Nagpur at the close of the first Burmese war of 1825.

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AKYAB, Town and PORT, situated at the point of con from 105° to 60°; the mean temperature for the year being vergence of the three large rivers Myu, Koladyne, and a little over 60°. The average severity of the winter Lemyu, 20° 9' N. lat., and 92° 56' E. long., is the chief months is considered to have increased—a result due, it is town of the district of the same name, and the most flourish- said, mainly to the felling of the forests, which gives more ing city of the Arákán division. The town is regularly unrestricted scope to the cold north-west winds from the built, with broad streets running at right angles to each Rocky Mountains. The uplands are healthy, but the inother. The port is commodious, is the seat of a large export habitants of the low-lying lands are subject to attacks of trade in rice, and possesses steam communication direct intermittent, bilious, and congestive fevers. The stratified with Calcutta once a fortnight, except during the south-west rocks of the state belong to the silurian, carboniferous, monsoon. The population in 1871-72 numbered 15,281. cretaceous, and tertiary systems. The silurian strata throw Akyab monopolises almost the whole sea-borne trade of the up numerous mineral springs along the line of the antiprovince of Arákán, amounting in 1871-72 to £1,345,417; clinal axes, some of which, such as Blount Springs and to which the export of rice contributed £105,894. During the St Clair Springs, are much resorted to for their health1871-72, 256 vessels, of a total burden of 129,061 tons, giving properties. There are also several noted springs entered the port; and 262 vessels, of a burden of 130,203 arising from the tertiary beds, such as those of Tallahatta tons, cleared.

and Bladon. Alabama possesses extensive coal deposits. ALABAMA, one of the Southern States of the North Mr Tait, the state commissioner for the industrial resources American Union, lies between 30° 13' and 35° N. lat., and of Alabama, considers that the area of the coal-lands in between 85° and 88° 35' W. long. It is bounded by the state amounts to 5500 square miles, of which 5000 Florida and the Gulf of Mexico on the S., Mississippi belong to the Warrior, and the remaining 500 to the on the W., Tennessee on the N., and Georgia on the E Cahaw ba and Coosa fields. Assuming that only one-half of

this area can be worked to advantage, Mr Tait further esti

mates the aggregate possible yield at 52,250,000,000 tons. N

At present, however, the annual output probably does not exceed 12,000 tons. In regard to iron, the natural wealth of Alabama is also very great. Mr Tait asserts that a ridge of iron, of an average thickness of 15 feet, runs parallel to one of the principal railway lines for a distance of 100 miles; and in other parts of the country there are large deposits of ore, both red hematite and blackband. The ores of Alabama are said to yield from 10 to 20 per cent. more iron than those of Britain. Granite, marble, flagstones, roofing-slate, lime, and porcelain clay, are

among the other mineral products. A little gold has LSA (B MA

also been found in the state.

The soil of Alabama varies greatly in character, but is MONTGOMERY

for the most part productive to a greater or lesser extent, except in the south, where there are considerable tracts of sandy, barren, and almost worthless soil. The forests are mainly in the central and northern parts of the state, and embrace oaks, poplars, cedars, chestnuts, pines, hickories, mulberries, elms, and cypresses. The following table exhibits the chief agricultural statistics of Alabama for 1870, as compared with 1860, the year before the war:

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PMYPHIS

CORINT

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DALTONY

TUSCONDIA

LERATUR

RACOON

134

ATLANTA

KALLADESA

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TULCOSA

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Land in s Improved,

5,062,204 6,385,724 Farms. Unimproved,

9,898,974 12,718,821 Horses,

80,770 127,063 Live Stock | Mules and Asses,

76,675 111,687 Cattle,

487,163 773,396 Its length is 330 miles, average breadth 154, and area

Farms. Sheep,

241,934 370,156 Swine,

719,757 | 1,748,321 50,722 square miles. The Alleghany range stretches

'Indian Corn, bushels (16,977,948 33,226,282 into the northern portion of the state, but the elevation

Wheat,

1,055,068 1,218,444 is nowhere great; the centre is also hilly and broken; on

Rye,

18,977 72,457

Oats, . the south, however, for nearly 60 miles inland, the country

770,866 682,179 Potatoes,

2,033,872 5,931,563 is very flat, and raised but little above the sea-level.

Chief Pease and Beans,

156,574 1,482,036 The Alabama is the chief river of the state. It is Products. Butter,

Ib 3,213,753 6,028,478 med by the junction of the Coosa and the Talapoosa,

Cotton,

bales 429, 482 989,955 which unite about 10 miles above the city of Mont

Wool,

381,253 775, 117 Rice,

222,945 493, 465 gomery. Forty-five miles above Mobile the Alabama is

Tobacco,

152,742 232,914 joined by the Tombigbee, and from that point is known

Molasses,

gallons

433,281 140,768 as the Mobile River. It is navigable from Mobile to Wetumpka, on the Coosa, some 460 miles. The Tombig Alabama possesses comparatively few manufactures. It bee is navigable to Columbus, and the Black Warrior, one is estimated that in 1870 the capital invested amounted of its chief tributaries, to Tuscaloosa, The Tennessee to £1,140,806, and the total products in the same year flows through the northern portion of the state, and the were valued at £2,608,124. There were in 1870 thirteen Chattahoochee forms part of its eastern boundary. The establishments for the manufacture of cotton goods, whose climate of Alabama is semi-tropical. The temperature products amounted in all to 2,843,000 ib, including ranges from 82° to 18° Fahr. in winter, and in summer 4,518,403 yards of sheetings and shirtings, and 1,039,321

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Gravelly spring Rakeraville

Blurt alantville

Andrewso Ridera caliu
En á Birmingham-ellyCreek Munford

ROOS
Fayette Pinckneyville
Hatch Good Wafer

Alexalder
Black Hull

Loachapok fuburn
Faunsdale o Uniontown
Cubs Costop
mondPleasant Hill

ouisville Shillardsville

Mon Lawrence
Perdue Hill C ON

DA BEY Sunithville
Rinoch
tieto Pollard

PLATE A. VOL.I. [Compiled according to Census of 1880 and latest surreys.]

Long. West from 85 Greenwich
T88 E
N N

S
S
ESG
E

65 35 Lexingtoho Anderson CHA

Francisco Bridgeport
Katerloo AUDERDALE

- New Market

Stevenson
Corinth
Dikson
LIM SS ONE

SmaN
Cherokee
Leighton
Athens

Scale of Miles
Allebs ro

Scottsborough

10 20 30 40
Couttland

50
LLBERT
Blue
Spring Valley
Hillsboro

Woodville

valley Head
Kirby'. G.

County Towns
Frankfort Rússiiville LAWRENCE Decatures

Railroads
Moulton
FRAN-KL
MORGAN

For Payne
Cedar

( Cedar Spr.
Burlesoni

Ridge
Chul Hi

Falkym Lawrence Cove Guntetsville

Crorsyille

Band MLS
Chalk Blum
Littleşville

Eth

Crooked Creeld
Ireland Hill Houston

Woofea
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Pikeville

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Springville

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Childersburgh Ashland

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Tuscaloosa

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Memphis Bethany Hekmadienio

Marble Valley 3
Iwana

33 33

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Union Springs
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Hampdenen
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Allentong
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Batesville
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Bursonville
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Brundridge
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Rutledge
Grove Hill

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Mount! Henderson
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Brewtong

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Gordon
Lewis

Station
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Whiting
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