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however, having no vital force, never spread beyond the limits of the court, and died with Akbar himself. But though his eclectic system failed, the spirit of toleration which originated it produced in other ways many important results; and, indeed, may be said to have done more to establish Akbar’s power on a secure basis than all his economic and social reforms. He conciliated the Hindoos by giving them freedom of worship; while at the same time he strictly prohibited certain barbarous Brahminical practices, such as trial by ordeal and the burning of widows against their will. He also abolished all taxes upon pilgrims as an interference with the liberty of worship, and the capitation tax upon Hindoos, probably upon similar grounds. Measures like these gained for him during his lifetime the title of “Guardian of Mankind,” and caused him to be held up as a model to Indian princes of later times, who in the matter of religious toleration have only too seldom followed his example. Akbar was a munificeut patron of literature. He established schools throughout his empire for the education of Hindoos as well as Moslems, and he gathered round him many men of literary talent, among whom may be mentioned the brothers Feizi and Abulfazl. The former was commissioned by Akbar to translate a number of Sanscrit scientific works into Persian; and the latter (see ABULFAzL) has left, in the Akbar-Nameh, an enduring record of the emperor’s reign. It is also said that Akbar employed Jerome Xavier, a Jesuit missionary, to translate the four Gospels into Persian. The closing years of Akbar’s reign were rendered very unhappy by the misconduct of his sons. Two of them died in youth, the victims of intemperance; and the third, Selim, afterwards the emperor J ehanghir, was frequently in rebellion against his father. These calamities were keenly felt by Akbar, and may even have tended to hasten his death, which occurred at Agra on the 13th October 1605. His body was deposited in a magnificent mausoleum at Sicandra, near Agra.

AKEN, or ACKEN, a town in Prussian Saxonyfsituated on the Elbe, 25 miles ESE. of Magdeburg, close to the frontiers of Anhalt. It has manufactures of cloth, leather, chemicals, and optical instruments; large quantities of beetroot sugar are produced in the neighbourhood,- and there is a considerable transit trade on the Elbe. Population (1871), 5273.

AKENSIDE, MARK. Like young Henry Kirke White, the poet of the Pleasures of Imagination was the son of a butcher. He was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne on November 9th, 1721. His school was the free one founded by a former mayor of Newcastle, Thomas Horsley. Later, one of the ministers of the Presbyterians added to his schoolacquired knowledge in private. In his sixteenth year he sent to the Gentleman's illagazine a copy of verses entitled “The Virtuoso.” Sylvanus Urban graciously printed the poem ,' but the old man was not difiicult to please. Other verse contributions succeeded—imitative, yet not without gleams of a true faculty. Some written in the Lake country, while on visits with friends at Morpeth, have Wordsworthian touches. The memories of these visits transfigure the Pleasures of Imagination. In his nineteenth year, being intended for the clerical profession, he proceeded to the university of Edinburgh; but within one session, like many others, he changed his purpose, and transferred his name from the theological to the medical classes—although, indeed, then, as still, the opening years were occupied with the same studies for either. On his change he honourably returned certain moneys which his fellow Presbyterians had advanced towards his theological education. He attended the university for only two years. While there, in 1740, a medical society, which combined with it a debating club, gave him a fine field for the exercise of his oratorical powers. Dugald Stewart

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states that Robertson the historian, then a student of divinity, used to attend the meetings in order to hear Akenside’s speeches. Some of his minor poems belong to this period, such as his Ode “ for the Winter Solstice,” the elegy called “Love,” and the verses “ to Cordelia.” He returned to his native town in 1741, and then his friendship with Jeremiah Dyson had commenced, “ a name never to be mentioned by any lover of genius or noble deeds without affection and reverence” (Willmott). In the years 1741 to 1743 he must have been ardent in his wooing of the Muses. In the summer or autumn of 1743 Dodsley carried with him to Pope at Twickenham a MS. for which the writer asked £120. The oracle of Twickenham having read the poem, counselled the publisher to make no niggardly ofi'er, because “this was no every-day writer.” It was something for Pope to be thus prescient in the absence of rhyme—albeit Pope's insertions in Tlw Seasons remain to attest that, supreme artist as he was in rhyme, he could also manage blank verse with exquisite cunningness. The MS. was the Pleasures of Imagination, which Dodsley published in 1744. In his twenty-third year the author, like Byron, awoke to find himself famous. The assaults of Warburton and Hurd were scarcely a deduction from the universal welcome. The poet's “ Epistle” to Warburton was effective. He went to Leyden, and there pursued his medical studies with ardour. He obtained the degree of M.D., May 16th, 1744; his inaugural disserta~ tion describing the formation and growth of the human foetus with original observation and acuteness. He now returned to England, advancing more and more in his friendship with the good and large-hearted Dyson. He chose Northampton as the place wherein he should commence practice. It was an unfortunate selection, as Sir James Stonehouse “possessed the confidence of the town,” and it was deemed an intrusion. A not very creditable controversy arose; and we are at a loss whether most to admire the stinging rebuffs in honeyed courtesies or the mutual pretence of ultimate satisfaction and good-will. At Northampton Akenside was on friendly terms with Dr Doddridge. There, too, he wrote his “Epistle to Curio,” which Lord Macaulay pronounced his best production, as “indicating powers of elevated satire, which, if diligently cultivated, might have disputed the preeminence of Dryden.” Willmott traces some of the most nervous lines of the Pleasures of Hope to this “Epistle to Curio.” Not succeeding in his profession at Northampton, he removed to Hampstead in 1747. The Odes had then been published. Dr Akenside came to Hampstead under the 2egis of the generous Dyson. Somehow, in Hampstead as at Northampton, he manifested a vanity of sclfdisplay and hauteur of manner that made him many enemies. Within three years he had to leave Hampstead for London. He set up in Bloomsbury Square in a. “fine house,” and with an annuity of £300 from the still ungrudging Dyson. One is pleased to come on these words of a far greater poet a century later, “I am not unfrequently,”wrote Wordsworth in 1837, “a visitor on Hampstead Heath, and I seldom pass by the entrance of Mr Dyson’s villa at Goulder's Hill, close by, without thinking of the pleasure which Akenside often had there.” The generous clerk of the House of Commons and secretary of the Treasury nobly earned his imperishable place in the (revised) Pleasures of Imagination. Contemporaneous with his professional duties, the poet became an essayist and reviewer for Dodsley in the now forgotten Museum. In 1753 the university of Cambrid e bestowed on him the degree of doctor of medicine. In 1%54 he was elected a fellow of the College of Physicians. In 1755 he read before the college the Gulstonian Lectures; and in 1756 the Croonian Lectures. In 1759 he was chosen assistant, and two months later chief, physician of St Thomas’s Hospital. In this year he had removed to Craven Street. In 1762 he changed ‘once more to Burlington Street. In 1760 was published the Hart-Elan ()ration by order of the College of Physicians. In 1161, along with Dyson, he passed from a somewhat noisy Whiggery to the Tories, which added “renegade” to his name. In 1765-6 he was working upon the revised and enlarged copy of the Pleasures of Imagination. His fame was widening professionally and poetically, when a putnd fever carried him 06' suddenly on June 23d, 1770. He was buried at St J ames’s Church on the 28th. As a man, the nearer one gets to Akenside the less is there lovable about him; there seem to have been ineradicable meannesses in his nature. Lavish in his expenditure while practically dependent on Dyson, and remaining dependent after his professional income ought to have released his patron, we cannot think of him as high-minded. HIS personal vanity was constantly bringing him sorenesses. The “Doctor ” in Peregrine Pickle was painted from the life, not a more creation of Smollett’s genius. As a poet, the place of Akenside is secure, but it is not very lofty. His imagination is rhetorical rather than subtle, consisting more of pomp of words than greatness of thought. His chief defect is lack of emotion, and especially pathos. The enlarged Pleasures of Imagination, notwithstanding some noble additions, was a blunder. Some of his minor pieces have a classical grace and charm of expression. (See the original editions of his writings; Bucke’s Life, Writings, and Genius of Akenside, 1832 ; Dyce and Willmott’s edition of his Poems; Cunningham’s Johnson’s Lives of the Poets, s.v. ; Biog. Brit; M'edical Biog., s.v.) (A. B. G.)

AKERBLAD, JAN DAVID (1760-1819), a learned Swede, distinguished for his researches in Runic, Coptic, Phoenician, and ancient Egyptian literature. He entered the diplomatic service as secretary to the Swedish embassy at Constantinople, and utilised the leisure which the situation afl'orded by visiting Jerusalem (1792) and the Troad (1797). After an interval spent at Gilttingen, he was appointed ambassador to Paris. His last years were passed at Rome, where he enjoyed a pension from the Duchess of Devonshire. Akerblad was a diligent student of hieroglyphics; and though he failed to decipher the Rosetta stone, he arrived at certain conjectural conclusions with regard to the true method of interpretation, which were afterwards confirmed by Dr Young. His works include letters on the Coptish cursive writing and on the Rosetta inscription, both addressed to M. de Sacy; and a number of pamphlets on the interpretation of various Runic and Phoenician inscriptions.

AKERMAN (perhaps the ancient Tyros or Julia Alba), a town of Russia in Europe, in the province of Bessarabia, on a tongue of land projecting into the estuary of the Dnicster. Its harbour is too shallow to admit vessels of large size; but the trade of the town is, notwithstanding, very considerable. Large quantities of salt are obtained from the saline lakes in the neighbourhood; and corn, wine, wool, and leather are among the other exports. The town, which is ill-built, contains several mosques and Greek and Armenian churches; it is guarded by ramparts, and is commanded by a citadel placed on an eminence. Akerman derives some historical celebrity from the treaty concluded there in 1826 between Russia and the Porte, securing considerable advantages to the former. It was the non-observance of this treaty by Turkey that led to the war of 1828. Population (1867), 29,609.

AKERMAN, J OHN YoNoE, an antiquarian, distinguished chiefly in the department of numismatics, was born in Wiltshire on the 12th J unc 1806. He became early known in connection with his favourite study, having initiated the Numismatic Journal in 1836. In the following year he

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became the secretary of the newly-established Numismatic Society. In 1848 he was elected secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, an oflice which he was compelled to resign in 1860 on account of failing health. He died on 18th November 1873. Akerman published a considerable number of works on his special subject, the more important being a Catalogue of Roman Coins (1839); a Numismatic .Manual (1840); Roman. Coins relating to Britain (1844), for which he received the medal of the French Institute; Ancient Coins—Hispania, Gallia, Britannia (1846); and Numismatic I llztstrations of the New Testament (1846). He wrote also a Glossary of Words used in Wiltshire (1842) ; Wiltshire Tales, illustrative of the Dialect (1853); and Remains of Pagan Saxondom (1855).

AKHALZIKH, a. city of Georgia, in Asiatic Russia, on an afiiuent of the Kur, 110 miles west of Tiflis, in 41° 40' N. lat., 43° 1’ E. long. It contains a strong castle, a college and library, and a fine mosque, and has a considerable trade in silk, honey, and wax. Population (1867), 15,977.

AKHISSAR, the ancient Thyatira, a town of Turkey in Asia, in Anatolia, 58 miles N.E. of Smyrna. The inhabitants are Greeks, Armenians, and Turks. The houses are built of earth or turf dried in the sun, and are very low and ill-constructed ; but there are six or seven mosques, which are all of marble. Remarkable inscriptions are to be seen in several parts of the town on portions of the ruins of the ancient city. Cotton of excellent quality is grown in the neighbourhood, and the place is celebrated for its scarlet dyes. Population, about 6000.

AKHTYRKA, a town of Russia in Europe, in the Ukraine, situated on a river of the same name, 45 miles N.W. of Kharkov. It has eight churches, one of which, containing an image of the Virgin, is held in great veneration. The town is enclosed by ditches; and the environs are fertile, the orchards producing excellent fruit. There are some manufactures of light woollen stuffs, and a eat market is held annually in May. Population (1867 ), 17,411.

AKIBA, BEN JOSEPH, a famous rabbi who flourished about the close of the first and the beginning of the second centuries. It is almost impossible to separate the true from the false in the numerous traditions respecting his life. He became the chief teacher in the rabbinical school of Jafl‘a, where, it is said, he had 24,000 scholars. Whatever their number, it seems certain that among them was the celebrated Rabbi Meir, and that through him and others Akiba exerted a great influence on the development of the doctrines embodied in the Talmud. He sided with Barchochebas in his revolt, recognised him as the Messiah, and acted as his sword-bearer. Being taken prisoner by the Romans under Julius Severus, he was flayed alive with circumstances of great cruelty, and met his fate, according to tradition, with marvellous steadfastness and composure. He is said to have been a hundred and twenty years old at the time of his death. The Jews were long accustomed to pay visits to his tomb, and he is one of the ten Jewish martyrs whose names occur in a penitential prayer still used once a year in the synagogue service. A number of works commonly attributed to Akiba are of later origin; but the one entitled 83712’: ‘PT; “5?? (Doctrine of Rabbi Akiba) is probably genuine.

AKOLA, a district and city of British India, in the commissionership of West Berar, within the Haidarabad assigned districts. AKoLA DISTRICT lies between 20° 23' and 21° 10' N. lab, and between 76° 25’ and 77° 19' E. long. ; its greatest length from N. to S. being 7 2. miles, and its greatest breadth from E. to W. 63 miles. It is bounded on the N. by the Satpura range; on the E. by Elichpur district; on the S. by the Satmal and Ajanta hills; and on the W. by the Buldana and Khanclesh districts. The total area of the district in 1869 was 2697';1 square miles,

or 1,726,625 acres, of which 1,326,583 acres, or 207278 square miles were under cultivation; 127,003 acres, or 19845 square miles, cultivable but not actually under tillage; 41,198 acres, or 6437 square miles, alienated land held rent free; the remaining 231,842 acres, or 36225 square miles, consisting chiefly of unarable land, but including river-beds, tanks, village sites, pasturage land, or land occupied for public uses, 4:0. The population of the district in 1869 numbered 487,558—viz., Hindus, 433,238; Mahometans, 39,030; aborigines, 15,157; Christians, 78; Parsis, 45; Jews, 10. The district is square in shape and almost of a dead level, with the exception of two conical-shaped hills which stand out quite apart from any other eminences, and rise straight up from the plain. The principal river of Akola, which, although not navigable, represents the main line of drainage, and into which the other streams discharge themselves, is the Puma, flowing east and west. The principal tributaries on its south bank are the Kata Puma, Murna, Num, and Bordl ; and on its north bank, the Shahnur, Idrupa, and Wun. None of these streams are navigable, and some of them almost dry up after the rainy season.

The extension line of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway from Bhosawal to Nagpur intersects the district, with stations at Jalam Shcgion, Pziras, Akola, and Borgiiion. Of eight main roads, three have been metalled. The first runs from Akolé. to Akot, a rising cotton mart, and is 28 miles in length, running north-northcast. It is metalled, and all the smaller water-courses are bridged. The ram; and Shahmir rivers, however, cross the line, and are not bridged, a circumstance which impairs the usefulness of the road during the rainy season. The second road is known as the Basim road, and runs for 24 miles southwards through the district. The third road is 12 miles long, from Khamgaon to Nandura railway station, and is metalled throughout. The other five lines of road are neither bridged nor metalled, but only marked out and levelled. The district imports piece goods from Bombay, and food grains from the adjoining districts. Its principal exports are cotton to Bombay, clarified butter, dyes (indigo and kusamba), and cattle. Internal trade is chiefly carried on at weekly markets and by annual fairs. The principal manufacture of the district is the weaving of cotton. Csfints and coarse cloths are woven in almost every village, with tur s at Balapur, and silk cloths for native women at Akola and in the larger towns. The rinci al agricultural roducts are as follows :—The wet weather or aritP crop consists o joar (ei htccn varieties); bajra (two kinds); cotton two kinds); tur, uri , and mag (three kinds oft'fiplse); rice and ulkar (a smaller variety of rice); Indian corn; ; ganja; sjwan; indigo; and til (oil-seeds of two kinds). The cold weather or rabi crop consists of—wheat (three kinds) ; ;linsccd;1akh(a ulse); peas;musuri;,tobacco; and mustard. he rincipialll articles 0 garden produce are the following:—Sugar-cane two ' ds); Indian corn (two kinds); ground nuts; onions; garlic; coriander; in leaves; chillies; o ium; sweet ‘potatoes ; grapes; plantsins; sa ran; and numerous kinds of vevetables. A tenure peculiar to Akola is that known as metlcari ho dings. These consist of certain strips of land extending alon the whole breadth of the district at the foot of the frontier range. hey are now of considerable value, and were originally held as payment for the maintenance of a chain of outposts or watch-towers on elevated points in the ridge, with a view to giving warning of the approach of the Bhil or (load banditti, and warding oil‘ their attacks. Seven towns are returned as containing a population exceeding 6000 -viz., Akola (the capital of the district), population 12,236; Akot, one of the principal cotton marts of Bersr, and also celebrated for its cotton manufacture, 14,006 ; Khamga'ion, now the largest cotton mart in the province, but which has only sprung into importance within recent times, 9432; Bald ur, one of the chief military stations in the Berars during the ahometan rule, 12,631; Jalgaon, an important cotton market, 8763; Patur, 6011 ; Shegaon, a station on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway, and a cotton market, 7450. In 1869 there were 1 hi her class, 10 middle class, and 63 lower schools for boys in Akol district; besides 7 female schools and 1 normal school for training Hindustfmi and Marhati masters, making a total of 82 schools in all. For the protection of person and property there were in 1869 13 police stations and 12 outposts, with a re lar lice force of 536 oflicers and men, equal to one man to every ve miles of the district area, or one man to every 909 of the population.

AxoLA Town, the headquarters of the district of the same name, and also of the west Berar division of the Hsidaraliad assigned territory, is situated on the Nagpur

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extension of the Great indian Peninsular Railway, in 20° 6' N. lat., and 76° 2' E. long. The town contains three or four wealthy merchants; and two markets are held each week—one on Sundays, the other on Wednesdays. The commissioner's and deputy-commissioner’s court-houses, the central jail (capable of holding 500 prisoners), the postoflice, and barracks or rest-houses for European troops, close to the station, are the principal public buildings. Besides these, there are a civil hospital, a charitable dispensary, an English high school, a town-hall, and an English church. A detachment of infantry is stationed at the town. Population in 1869, 12,236.

AKRON, a town of the United States, capital of Sam mit county, Ohio, situated on the Atlantic and Great Western Railway, and on the Ohio and Erie Canal, at its junction with the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal, 36 miles S. of Cleveland. By means of the canal and the Little Cuyahoga river the town is amply supplied with waterpower, which is employed in a variety of manufactures; and its mercantile business is extensive. It has several flour mills, woollen factories, and manufactories of iron goods. Mineral fire-proof paint, immense beds of which are found in the vicinity, and wheat are important articles of export. Akron was founded in 1825, and was made the capital of the county in 1841. Population in 1870, 10,006.

AK-SU, a town of Chinese Turkcstan, is situated in 41° 7’ N. lat, 79° E. long., 250 miles NE. of Yarkand. It has a flourishing trade, and is resorted to for purposes of commerce by caravans from all parts of Central Asia. There are some cotton manufactures; and the place is celebrated for its richly-ornamented saddlery made from deer-skin. A Chinese garrison is stationed here, and copper and iron are wrought in the neighbourhood by exiled Chinese criminals. The district is well cultivated, and sheep and cattle are extensively reared. The population of the town is about 20,000; that of the town and district 100,000.

AKYAB, a district and city within the Arakan division of British Burmah, and under the jurisdiction of the chief commissioner of that province. The msrmcr lies along the north-eastem shores of the Bay of Bengal, between 20° and 21%° N. lat., and 92° 12' and 94° E. long. It forms the northernmost district of British Burmah, and the largest of the three districts of the Arakan division. It is bounded on the N. by the Chittagong district of Bengal; on the E. by the Sumadoung ranges, which separate it from Independent Burmah; on the S. by the Arakan districts of Ramri and Sandoway; and on the W. by the Bay of Bengal. In 1871 the frontier or bill tracts of the district were placed under a special administration, with a view to the better government of the wild tribes which inhabit them. The present area is returned at 4858 square miles, of which 521 square miles are cultivated, 913 cultivable but not actually under tillage, and 3424 square miles uncultivable and waste. The population of the district in 1872 amounted to 263,152, of whom 192,885 were Buddhists or Jains, 47,349 Mahometans, 8687 Hindus, 13,928 aborigines, and 303 Christians. The central part of the district consists of three fertile valleys, watered by the Myu, Koladyne, and Lemyu. These rivers approach each other at their mouths, and form a vast network of tidal channels, creeks, and islands. Their alluvial valleys yield inexhaustible supplies of rice, which the abundant water carriage brings down to the port of Akyab at a very cheap rate. The four chief towns are Khumgchu in the extreme north-east of the district; Koladyne in the centre; Arakan, further down the rivers; and Akyab on the coast, where their mouths converge. This district passed into the hands of the British, together with the rest of Ari'ikan division, at the close of the first Burmese war of 1825.

AKYAB, TOWN and Pom‘, situated at the point of convergence of the three large rivers Myu, Koladyne, and Lemyu, 20° 9' N. lat., and 92° 56' E. long, is the chief town of the district of the same name, and the most flourishing city of the Arakan division. The town is regularly built, with broad streets running at right angles to each other. The port is commodious, is the seat of a large export trade in rice, and possesses steam communication direct with Calcutta once a fortnight, except during the south-west monsoon. The population in 1871—72 numbered 15,281. Akyab monopolises almost the whole sea-home trade of the province of Arakan, mounting in 1871—72 to £1,345,417; to which the export of rice contributed £105,894. During 1871-7 2, 256 vessels, of a total burden of 129,061 tons, entered the port; and 262 vessels, of a burden of 130,203 tons, cleared.

ALABAMA, one of the Southern States of the North American Union, lies between 30° 13’ and 35° N. lot, and between 85° and 88° 35’ W. long. It is bounded by Florida and the Gulf of Mexico on the 8., Mississippi on the W., Tennessee on the N., and Georgia on the E.

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Its length is 330 miles, average breadth 154, and area

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50,722 square miles. The Alleghany range stretches into the northern portion of the state, but the elevation is nowhere great; the centre is also hilly and broken; on the south, however, for nearly 60 miles inland, the country is very flat, and raised but little above the sea-level. The Alabama is the chief river of the state. It is formed by the junction of the Coosa and the Talapoosa, which unite about 10 miles above the city of Montgomery. Forty-five miles above Mobile the Alabama is joined by the Tornbigbee, and from that point is known as the Mobile River. It is navigable from Mobile to Wetumpka, on the Coosa, some 460 miles. The Tombigbee is navigable to Columbus, and the Black Warrior, one of its chief tributaries, to Tuscaloosa.‘ The Tennessee flows through the northern portion of the state, and the Chattahoochee forms part of its eastern boundary. The climate of Alabama is semi-tropical. The temperature ranges from 82° to 18° Fahr. in winter, and in summer

from 105° to 60° ; the mean temperature for the year being a little over 60°. The average severity of the winter months is considered to have increased—a result due, it is said, mainly to the felling of the forests, which gives more unrestricted scope to the cold north-west winds from the Rocky Mountains. The uplands are healthy, but the in~ habitants of the low-lying lands are subject to attacks of intermittent, bilious, and congestive fevers. The stratified rocks of the state belong to the silurian, carboniferous, cretaceous, and tertiary systems. The silurian strata throw up numerous mineral springs along the line of the antlclinal axes, some of which, such as Blount Springs and the St Clair Springs, are much resorted to for their healthgiving properties. There are also several noted springs arising from the tertiary beds, such as those of Tallahatta and Blaclon. Alabama possesses extensive coal deposits. Mr Tait, the state commissioner for the industrial resources of Alabama, considers that the area of the coal-lands in the state amounts to 5500 square miles, of which 5000 belong to the Warrior, and the remaining 500 to the Cahawba and Coosa fields. Assuming that only one-half of this area can be worked to advantage, Mr Tait further estimates the aggregate possible yield at 52,250,000,000 tons. At present, however, the annual output probably does not exceed 12,000 tons. In regard to iron, the natural wealth of Alabama is also very great. Mr Tait asserts that a ridge of iron, of an average thickness of 15 feet, runs parallel to one of the principal railway lines for a distance of 100 miles; and in other parts of the country there are large deposits of ore, both red hematite and blackband. The ores of Alabama are said to yield from 10 to 20 per cent. more iron than those of Britain. Granite, marble, flagstones, roofing-slate, lime, and porcelain clay, are among the other mineral products. A little gold has also been found in the state.

The soil of Alabama varies greatly in character, but is for the most part productive to a greater or lesser extent, except in the south, where there are considerable tracts of sandy, barren, and almost worthless soil. The forests are mainly in the central and northern parts of the state, and embrace oaks, poplars, cedars, chestnuts, pines, hickories, mulberries, elms, and cypresses. The following table exhibits the chief agricultural statistics of Alabama for 1870, as compared with 1860, the year before the war :—

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Alabama possesses comparatively few manufactures. It is estimated that in 1870 the capital invested amounted to £1,140,806, and the total products in the same year were valued at £2,608,124. There were in 1870 thirteen establishments for the manufacture of cotton goods, whose products amounted in all to 2,843,000 lb, including 4,518,403 yards of shootings and shirtings, and 1,039,321

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ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA, NINTH EDITION.

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