part of a mixed race, combining the finer personal traits of Lanarkshire, il miles E. of Glasgow and 32 W. of Edin. the Berbers with the characteristics of the negro. The burgh. The high road between these cities passes through king or sultan of Air occupies a very precarious position, Airdrie, forming its principal street, from which others being to a great extent dependent on the chiefs of the diverge at right angles. It is well built, paved, and lighted Tawarek tribes inhabiting a vast tract of the Sahara to with gas, but it contains little that is beautiful or attracthe north-west, who are continually at war among them- tive. It possesses a fine town-hall and a handsome edifice selves. A large part of the revenue of the king is derived erected as the county buildings, as well as two places of from tribute exacted from the salt caravan. His authority worship belonging to the Church of Scotland, three to the does not seem to be great in the outlying parts of his Free Church, two to the United Presbyterians, and one dominions. The chief town of Air is AGADES (q.v.) (See each to the Reformed Presbyterians, the Congregationalists, Dr Barth's Travels in Central Africa, vol. i.)

the Baptists, the Wesleyan Methodists, and the Roman AIRAY, HENRY, D.D. This celebrated Puritan presi- Catholics; five branch banks, with excellent places of dent of Queen's College, Oxford, was born at Kentmere, business constructed or in course of construction; a menear Windermere, but no record remains of the date of chanies' institute, and several schools. The extensive coal either birth or baptism. Anthony à Wood names West- and iron mines in the vicinity give employment to a large moreland as his birthplace. In the well-known Life of part of the population of Airdrie, and have been the means Bernard Gilpin it is told that when he was making pre- of raising it, since the commencement of the century, from parations for martyrdom, he “received the account with the insignificance of a village to its present prosperity. In great composure ; and immediately after called up William the town itself there are manufactories of cotton goods and Airay, a favourite domestic, who had long served him as iron wares, besides foundries, engineering shops, saw-mills, his almoner and steward." From the great kindness and other branches of industry. A branch of the North shown to our Airay by Gilpin, and from the vicinity British Railway from Glasgow, passing through Airdrie to of Kentmere to the Rectory, it does not appear to be Edinburgh, connects it by a direct line with both cities. hazarding too much to assume that this William Airay It is also connected with Glasgow by the Monkland Canal, was his father, and that the family tradition is right in which comes within a mile of the town. By the Reform Act assigning Kentmere, not Barton or Wilford, as his birth of 1832 Airdrie was created a parliamentary burgh, uniting place. The truly apostolic man's bounty showed itself in with Falkirk, Hamilton, Lanark, and Linlithgow in sendsending Henry and a (probable) brother Ewan or Evan ing one member to parliament. Its municipal corporation, to his own endowed school, where they were fully educated which dates from 1821, consists of twelve councillors, in“in grammatical learning,” and were in attendance at cluding a provost and three bailies. There are weekly Oxford when Gilpin lay a-dying. From the Athence we courts held by the magistrates, and courts are held twice glean the details of Airay's college attendance. He was a week by the sheriff-substitute and the justices of the “sent,” says Wood, “to St Edmund's Hall in 1579, aged peace respectively. The market-day is Tuesday, but the nineteen or thereabouts." “Soon after,” he continues, market is of little importance. By the census of 1871 the “our author, Airay, was translated to Queen's College, population of Airdrie was 13,488, the number of inhabited where he became pauper puer serviens; that is, a poor houses 1167, and the parliamentary constituency 1702, serving child that waits on the fellows in the common increased in 1873 to 1932. The annual value of real prohall at meals, and in their chambers, and do other servile perty in the burgh, not including railways, is £26,145; work about the college." His transference to Queen's and the corporation revenue for 1873, £3401. College is explained by its having been Gilpin's own AIRE, an English river which rises in the West Riding college, and by his Westmoreland origin giving him a of Yorkshire and pursues a south-easterly course through claim on Eaglesfield's foundation. He proceeded B.A. on the populous “clothing district” of which Leeds is the June 19, 1583. On June 15, 1586, he passed M.A.; B.D.capital. At Castleford, below Leeds, it receives a small in 1594; and D.D. on June 17, 1600—all in Queen's tributary, the Calder, and it joins the Ouse shortly before College. “ About the time he was master” (1586)," he that river's expansion into the estuary of the Humber entered holy orders, and became a frequent and zealous above Hull. It is navigable to Leeds for small craft. preacher in the university." His Commentary on the AIRE, a fortified town of France, on the river Lys, in Epistle to the Philippians (1618), reprinted 1864, is a the department of Pas-de-Calais, 10 miles S.E. of St Omer. specimen of his preaching before his college, and of his Although its situation is low and marshy, the town is neat fiery denunciation of Popery, and his fearless enunciation and well built. It possesses extensive barracks; and the of that Calvinism which Oxford, in common with all Church of St Paul is a handsome Gothic structure. Its England, prized then. In 1598 he was chosen provost of manufactures consist of hats, cotton and woollen goods, his college, and in 1606 was vice-chancellor of the uni hardware, yarn, soap, and oil. Population, 8803. versity. In the discharge of his vice-chancellor's duties, AIRE, a town in the south of France, in the department he came into conflict with Laud, who even thus early was of Landes, on the left bank of the Adour, 14 miles S.S.E. betraying his Romish tendencies. He was also rector of of St Sever. At one time it was the capital of the VisiOtmore (or Otmoor), near Oxford, a living which involved goths, and since the fifth century it has been the seat of him in a trying litigation, whereof present incumbents a bishopric. It has a college and cathedral; and there are reap the benefit. He died on 6th October 1616. His manufactories of leather and hats. Population, 5144. character as a man, preacher, divine, and as an important AISLE, sometimes written Isle, YLE, and ALLEY (Lat. ruler in the university, will be found portrayed in the and Ital. Ala, a wing ; Fr. Aile, Bas côté; Ger. Seitenschiff, Epistle by Potter, prefixed to the Commentary. He must Seitenchor), in its primary sense, the wing of a house, but have been a fine specimen of the more cultured Puritans— generally used to describe the alleys or passages at the possessed of a robust common-sense in admirable contrast sides of the naves and choirs of churches. In reckonwith some of his contemporaries. (Lectures on the whole ing their number, the nave is usually counted. Thus a Epistle of Paul to the Philippians, 1618, 1864; Wood's nave with an aisle on each side is generally called a threeAthenæ, by Bliss, ii. 177, 178, &c.; Laud's Works; Wills aisled church; if with two aisles on each side, a five(Surtees Society.)

(A. B. G.) aisled church. In England there are many churches with AIRDRIE, à parliamentary and municipal burgh and one side aisle only; but there is only one cathedral with market-town of Scotland, in the parish of New Monkland, five aisles, that at Chichester. There are, however, very

many such on the Continent, the most celebrated of which | rendered them the principal scene of be tanical culture in are at Milan and Amiens. Others have three aisles on each the kingdom. In 1783 his merit was rewarded with the side, or seven aisles in all, as the cathedrals at Antwerp lucrative office of manager of the pleasure and kitchen and Paris. The most extraordinary, however, is that at gardens of Kew, which he was allowed to hold along with Cordova, originally erected for a mosque. It was first built the botanical direction. In 1789 he published his Hortus with a nave and five aisles on each side, and eight others Kewensis, a catalogue of the plants cultivated in the Royal afterwards were added, making nineteen aisles in all. Old Botanical Garden at Kew, in 3 vols. 8vo, with 13 platesEnglish writers frequently call the transepts “the cross a work which had been the labour of many years. The isle, or yle," and the nave the middle ile.”

Hortus, in which the Linnæan system of arrangement, with AISNE, a frontier department in the north-east of some modification, was adopted, was very favourably reFrance, bounded on the Ñ. by the department of Nord ceived by students of science, and a second edition was and the kingdom of Belgium, on the E. by the department issued (1810-3) by W. T. Aiton, his eldest son and sucof Ardennes, on the S.E. by that of Marne, on the S. by cessor. He was for many years honoured with the friendthat of Seine-et-Marne, and on the W. by those of Oise ship of Sir Joseph Banks, the president of the Royal Society, and Somme; extending at the widest points 75 miles and was aided by the Swedish naturalists, Solander and from N. to S., and 53 from E. to W., with an area of Dryander, in the preparation of his Hortus Kewensis. 2838 square miles. The surface of the department con AITZEMA, LEON VAN, Dutch historian and statesman, sists of fine undulating plains, diversified in the north by was born at Doccum, in Friesland, on the 19th November hilly ground which forms a part of the mountain system 1600, and died at the Hague on the 23d February 1669. of the Ardennes. The chief rivers are the Somme, the In his youth he published a volume of Latin poems under Escaut, and the Sambre in the north ; the Oise, traversing the title of Poemata Juvenilia. He subsequently devoted the north-west, with its tributaries the Serre and the Aisne, himself almost entirely to political life, and held for a the latter of which joins it beyond the limits of the depart- lengthened period the position of resident at the Hague ment; and the Marne and the Ourcq in the south. The for the towns of the Hanseatic League. His most imsoil of Aisne is, as a whole, fertile, and in some parts very portant work was the Historie oft Verhaal van Saäken van rich, yielding wheat, barley, rye, oats, hops, flax, fruit, Staet in Oorlogh (14 vols 4to, 1657–71), embracing the beetroot, and potatoes; there is good pasturage, and much period from 1621 to 1668. It contains a large number of attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, sheep, and horses. state documents, and is an invaluable authority on one of Wine is produced, but, except in the valley of the Marne, the most eventful periods of Dutch history. its quality is inferior. Large tracts of the department are AIX, an ancient city of France, the chief town of the under wood, the chief forests being those of Nouvion and arrondissement of the same name, in the department of St Michel in the north, Coucy and St Gobain in the centre, the Bouches-du-Rhone. It was the Aquæe Sextio of the and Villers-Cotterets in the south. There are no minerals Romans, and between this and Arelate (Arles) is the field of importance in the department, but good building-stone on which Marius gained his great victory over the Teutons. and slates of a fair quality are found. Aisne is an im- Under the counts of Provence, Aix became celebrated as portant manufacturing department; its chief industrial pro- a seat of learning; and it still retains many relics of its ducts being shawls and muslin—as well as other cotton, former splendour, and is distinguished by the number and linen, and woollen goods-glass, including the famous excellence of its literary institutions. It has a library of mirrors of St Gobain, iron wares, beetroot sugar, leather, 100,000 volumes, an academy of law, science, and theo. and pottery. It has a good trade, which is much facilitated logy, a museum, and a chamber of commerce. The by railroads (the most important being those between Paris cathedral—the baptistry of which is said to have been and Strasbourg, and Paris and Mons), canals, and the constructed from the remains of a Roman temple—the navigable portions of the rivers. Aisne, which is com- “Palais,” the town-hall, and the clock-tower, are fine speciposed of parts of the ancient provinces of Picardy and the mens of ancient architecture. There are numerous public Isle of France, is divided into five arrondissements—St fountains, on one of which is sculptured a figure of King Quentin and Vervins in the north, Laon in the centre, and Réné by David. The hot springs, from which the city Soissons and Chateau Thierry in the south. It contains in derives its name, are not now in much repute. Aix is the all 37 cantons and 837 communes. Laon is the capital, seat of a court of justice and an archbishopric. The chief and Soissons the seat of the bishop. The other towns of manufactures are cotton, silk, thread, and hardware; and importance are Chauny, St Quentin, Vervins, Hirson, Suise, olives and almonds are cultivated on the surrounding hills. Villers-Cotterets, and Chateau Thierry. Population in 1872, There is considerable commerce in corn, wine, and oil. 552,439, of whom 183,104 could neither read nor write, The naturalists Adanson and Tournefort, and the painter and 28,651 could read, but could not write.

Vanloo, were born at Aix. Population (1872), 29,020. AITON, WILLIAM (1731-1793), an eminent botanist AIX, or AIX-LES-BAINS, a town of France, in the departand gardener, was born near Hamilton in Scotland. Having ment of Savoie, near Lake Bourget, 8 miles north of been regularly trained to the profession of a gardener, he Chambéry. It was a celebrated bathing-place in the time travelled to England in the year 1754, where he became of the Romans, and possesses numerous ancient remains. assistant to Philip Miller, then superintendent of the The hot springs, which are of sulphureous quality, and have physic garden at Chelsea. In 1759 he was appointed a temperature of from 109° to 113° Fahr., are still much director of the newly-established botanical garden at Kew, frequented, attracting annually above 2000 visitors. They in which office he continued till his death. The garden are used for drinking as well as for bathing purposes. at Kew, under the auspices of King George III., was Population, 4430. destined to be the grand repository of all the vegetable AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, the German AACHEN, the capital riches which could be accumulated by regal munificence, of a district of the same name in Rhenish Prussia, situated front researches through 'every quarter of the globe. near the Wurm, a tributary of the Meuse, in a pleasant Aiton's care and skill in cultivation, and intelligence in and fertile valley about 40 miles west of Cologne, with arrangement, gained for him high reputation among the which it is connected by railway. It is well built, and is lovers of the science, and the particular esteem of his royal enclosed by ramparts that

ave converted into propatrons. Under his superintendence many improvements menades, and its appearance is rather that of a prosperous took place in the plan and edifices of Kew gardens, which modern town than of an ancient city full of historical

associations. Its town-house, built in 1353 on the ruins A treaty of peace between France and Spain was also signed of Charlemagne's palace, contains the magnificent corona in this city in 1668, whereby Louis XIV. gave up his claim tion hall of the German emperors, 162 feet long by 60 feet to the Spanish Netherlands, but was left in possession of wide. Near the town-house are two ancient towers, one of much that he had already conquered. which, called the Granusthurm, is sometimes said to be of AJACCIO, the chief town of Corsica, one of the departRoman origin; and a fountain, with a statue of Charle- ments of France. It is a seaport, situated on the west magne, which was erected in 1620. The cathedral of coast of the island, in 41° 54' N. lat., and 8° 44' E. long. Aix-la-Chapelle consists of two parts, distinct both as to The harbour is commodious, and sheltered on all sides save the time of their erection and their style of architecture. the south-west. The town is well built, and its principal The older portion may be said to date either from 796 A.D., buildings are the cathedral, the town-house, and the citadel. when it was erected by Charlemagne as the palace chapel, It is the seat of a bishop and a court of justice, and has a or from 983, when it was rebuilt on the old model by commercial college, a school of hydrography, a large library, Otho III., after having been almost entirely destroyed by and a botanic garden. Wine, fruits, and olive oil are the the Normans. It consists of an octagon, planned after chief articles of trade; and anchovy and coral fisheries are that of St Vitale at Ravenna, surrounded by a sixteen- extensively prosecuted along the coast. Ajaccio is celesided gallery, and terminating in a cupola. It contains brated as the birthplace of Napoleon Bonaparte. The house the tomb of Charlemagne, which was opened in the year where he was born (15th August 1769) is still standing in 1000, when the body of the emperor was found seated on good preservation. A marble statue was erected to his a marble throne which was afterwards used in the imperial honour in 1850, and the people still retain strong Bonapartist coronation ceremonies. The Gothic choir, which forms sympathies. Population (1872), 16,545. the more modern portion of the cathedral, was added AJAN (the ancient Azania), a tract which forms the during the latter half of the 14th and the beginning of the eastern horn of Africa, with a coast-line of about 10° of 15th centuries. The cathedral possesses many relics, the latitude, from Cape Gardafui nearly to the equator. most sacred of which are exhibited only once every seven It extends inland to the territory of the Gallas, but its years, when they attract large crowds of worshippers. Be- limits cannot be strictly defined, as this part of Africa has sides these buildings, almost the only other of any antiquity been little explored. The coast towards the south is low is the corn exchange, probably of the 12th century. Of and sandy, but northward, near Cape D'Orfui, it becomes modern edifices, Aix-la-Chapelle possesses a theatre, a public high and mountainous, with some fertile valleys interlibrary, a gymnasium, and several churches and hospitals. spersed. Cape Gardafui, the most eastern point of Africa, The chief manufactures of Aix-la-Chapelle are woollen is a bold promontory backed by lofty hills. There are no cloths, stockings, shawls, silks, leather, glass, needles, pins, considerable rivers in Ajan, and the land for the most part machines, general ironmongery, carriages, beer, brandy, is barren. The inhabitants, a tribe of the Somali, carry on tobacco, and chemicals. There is a good trade in these a trade with the Arabs in ivory and gum, and the country articles, not only with Germany and other continental possesses an excellent breed of horses. countries, but also, in the case of cloth especially, with AJAX (Aias), the son of Telamon. In Greek legend the United States of America. The hot sulphur springs Ajax represents throughout only physical qualities, like of Aix-la-Chapelle are another important source of revenue Hercules, with whom, indeed, a likeness must have been to the inhabitants. These springs were known to the recognised, or there would have been no sufficient basis for Romans, and have long been celebrated for the cure of the belief that the child Ajax was born at the prayer of rheumatism and gout. There are six in all, of which the Hercules in behalf of his friend Telamon (the name Aias Kaiserquelle is the chief, with a temperature reaching as high -or Ai-as with digamma-being an allusion to the eagle, as 136° Fahr. There are also two cold chalybeate springs. aietos, which appeared to announce the success of the Aix-la-Chapelle is the Aquisgranum, or Civitas Aquensis, prayer); and again, that Hercules was present at the birth of the Romans. Charlemagne, who perhaps was born and of the infant, and by wrapping it in his lion's skin made certainly died in the town, made it the second city of his it invulnerable, except in the armpit. In respect of being empire and the capital of his dominions north of the Alps. open to a wound in only one small spot Ajax resembles He conferred numerous privileges upon its citizens, exempt Achilles, with whom in the usual genealogy he claims to ing them from military service and from all taxes, even when be related as cousin. But of this relationship there is no they were living in other parts of the empire. From 813 evidence in the Iliad, where Ajax appears of colossal frame to 1531 the emperors of Germany were crowned at Aix-la- (Telusplos), in himself a tower of strength (Túpyos ’Ayacôv), Chapelle, which during that period became one of the most and, as the simile implies, prepared for defence, not to important free imperial cities, although it was ravaged by lead assaults, unmoved by the shafts of enemies as is an ass the Normans in 851, and again in 882. By the removal of in a corn-field by the pelting of boys (Iliad, xi. 556-566), the coronations to Frankfort, Aix-la-Chapelle lost its lead while Achilles is no less clearly drawn as sensitive to finer ing position in Germany, and its internal prosperity was passions and tastes, if equally bold in war. Unwarranted much injured by a disastrous fire in 1656. During the as it was by the Iliad, the identification of Ajax with the revolution it for a time belonged to France, but in 1815 it family of Æacus was chiefly a matter which concerned the was ceded to Prussia, and has now become one of the chief Athenians, and that not until Salamis had come into their seats of commerce in that kingdom. Population of Aix-la- possession, on which occasion Solon inserted a line in the Chapelle (1871), 74,238.

Iliad (ii. 557) for the purpose of supporting the Athenian AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, Congresses and Treaties of. The first claim to the island. Ajax then became an Attic hero, his congress of Aix-la-Chapelle concerned the succession of name being given to one of the tribes. In this way his Maria Theresa to the empire. It was held in 1748, and deeds came to be a favourite subject of the Attic drama, though resulted in the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, signed in the they are not always represented in a creditable manner—as, same year, by which Maria Theresa was left in possession for example, when, contrary to his steady character in the of most of her hereditary dominions, the chief exception Iliad of being respectful to the gods, he is charged with insult being Silesia, which was ceded to Prussia. The second to Athena, to account for her having influenced the decision congress, held in 1818, resulted in the convention of Aix- against him in his competition with Ulysses for the armour la-Chapelle. The object of this congress was the regulation of Achilles. It was Athena, also, who made him insane of the affairs of Europe, especially of France, after the war. then, and led him to take his own life. From his blond

sprang a flower, as at the death of Hyacinthus, which bore which can be dignified with that name, and it only touches the initial letter of his name. In later times the people of the south-eastern boundary of the district so as to irrigate Novum Ilium believed him to have been wronged by the the Pargana of Samur. Four small streams—the Ságardecision, and told how, when Ulysses had been shipwrecked, matí, Saraswatí, Khari, and Dai-also intersect the disthe armour of Achilles was wafted by the tide upon the trict. In the dry weather they are little more than brooks. shore near the tomb of Ajax.

(A. S. M.) The Ságar-mati and Saraswati unite at Gobindgarh, the AJAX OILEUS, or the LESSER AJAX, was a son of the united waters flowing on under the name of the Luní (or King of Locri, whose subjects he led before Troy, contribut- salt water) river. There are two first-class roads in Ajmir, ing a contingent of forty ships. In boldness he was in the viz., one from Ajmír city to Gangwana, and thence through first rank among the Greeks there, equal to make a stand the Krishnagarh and Jaipur states to Agra; and another against Hector, and swift of foot next to Achilles. But, com from the city to the cantonment station of Nasírábád, a pared with the other leaders, he is impatient and overbear- distance of 14 miles. There is also a second-class road ing. Like the Telamonian Ajax, he appears as an enemy from Ajmír to Naya Nagar, a distance of 36 miles, besides of Ulysses, and as the victim of Athena's vengeance. It was sixteen third-class tracks connecting the principal towns due to her influence that he, known for his speed, lost and villages with the city. The principal products of the the race with Ulysses at the games in honour of Patroclus district are wheat, barley, rice, sugar-cane, peas, bajrá, (Iliad, xxiii. 754–784); and again it was through her that maize, til (oil-seed), tobacco, and cotton. With the excepon his return homeward his ship was wrecked upon the tion of woollen blankets, turbans, &c., manufactures can mythical Gyræan rock (Odyssey, iv. 499). As it stands in be scarcely said to exist in Ajmír. Salt is made in a rude later story, he had drawn down Athena's anger by his assault method at Rámsur, from the saline exudations of the soil, upon Cassandra at the image of the goddess. Ulysses to the extent of 3000 cwt. per annum. After supplying charged him with this offence, and demanded that he should local wants, the surplus is exported towards Málwa and be stoned. But, according to another version of the legend, Ságar. The principal trade is in wool, cotton, opium, he had only carried her off to his tent without any harm, printed cloths, and tobacco. A large quantity of cotton when Agamemnon took her from him, and spread a report is exported to Nayá Nagar, in Mairwará district, whence it that Athena would destroy the whole army unless Ajax were finds its way into the Bombay market. Oil is also a proslain; upon which, thinking of the unjust verdict given fitable article of trade. The domestic animals are sheep, against his namesake, he went to sea in a frail vessel and horses, bullocks, camels, and goats. Cattle, and especially perished. The news was received in the camp with grief, bullocks, are much valued, but are very scarce, owing partly a funeral pile was erected on the ship which had conveyed to the want of sufficient pasturage and partly to frequent him to Troy, sacrifice was offered, and when the evening wind droughts. When these occur, the cattle are sent away to came on, the burning ship was cut adrift. (A. S. M.) the neighbouring states, where better pasture can be pro

AJEHO, or A-SHE-HOH, also called ALCHUKU, a consider- cured, and very few find their way back. The imperial able and rapidly increasing city of Manchuria, 30 miles revenue obtained from the district in 1867 amounted to south of the river Soongari, and about 120 north of Kirin. £61,791, 8s., exclusive of local funds raised by a road, It is advantageously situated on the slopes of a gentle tank, and postal cess. descent leading to the river. The country around is very The tenures of the agricultural village communities in Ajmír are fertile, producing in abundance various kinds of grain, of a very simple and uniform kind. They all belong to the type besides pulse and opium. The population of the district known as imperfect patidári,” by which the better descriptions of consists entirely of Chinese immigrants, who are engaged in

land are held in severalty by each member of the proprietary body. the reclamation and cultivation of the soil, which is given his holding; but in event of the default of any shareholder, the

Each member is responsible for the amount of revenue allotted on to them at a nominal price. A large trade is done in the whole community is collectively liable for the total sum. The town; and although the shops are of mean appearance, inferior and wasto lands remain the property of the whole village,

and the income derived from them is credited to the common account. quantities of porcelain and other ornamental articles exposed for sale indicate its growing wealth. The population large portion of Ajmir district is parcelled out into estates, varying

The cultivators are nearly all proprietors of the land they till. A is about 40,000, and includes a considerable number of in sizo from a single village to a large parganá (or fiscal division), Mahometans.

These estates are held by Rájput chiefs, some of whom descend AJMÍR, a district and town of British India, in Rájpu- force or to the favour of the reigning power. They have all been

from the original ruling families, while others owe their position táná. The DISTRICT lies between 25° 43' and 26° 42' N.

confirmed in their estates by the British on payment of a fixed lat., and 74° 22' and 75° 33' E. long., measuring 80 miles annual quit rent. Three towns are returned as containing a popuin length from north to south, by 50 miles in breadth, lation of upwards of 5000 inhabitants in 1867-viz., Ajmír city (the and comprising an area of 2057 square miles.

It is capital and the only municipality in the district), population bounded on the E. by the states of Krishnagar and Jaipur, Cantonment at Nasírábád, the garrison of which in 1867 consisted

34,763; Kekrí, 6357; and Pisangun, 5055. There is also a military on the S. by Mewar, on the W. by the British district of of a battery of European artillery, a European infantry regiment, a Mairwárá, and on the N.W. by the state of Jodhpur. The squadron of native cavalry, and a regiment of native infantry. In population in 1865 was returned at 426,268; of whom

1867 there were eighteen government schools in the district, attended 363,539, or 85 per cent., were Hindus, and the remainder by 647 pupils, and a government college at Ajmír city attended by

320 students. Besides these there were three mission schools for chiefly Mahometans. The eastern portion of the district boys and one for girls in Ajmír city, and eight others in its neigh; is generally flat, broken only by gentle undulations, but bourhood. The average attendance at the mission schools amounted the north and north-western parts are intersected by to 347. the great ARAVALLI range (q.v.) Many of the valleys in Ajmír City, the capital of Ajmír district, is situated in this region are mere sandy deserts, with an occasional oasis a picturesque and fertile valley surrounded by mountains, of cultivation, but there are also some very fertile tracts ; | in 26° 29' N. lat. and 74° 43' E. long. The town is among these is the plain on which lies the town of Ajmír. partly built on the lower slope of the Tárágarh bill, and This valley, however, is not only fortunate in possessing surrounded by a stone wall with five handsome gates. To a noble artificial lake, but is protected by the massive the north of the city is a large artificial lake called the walls of the Nág-páthar range or Serpent rock, which forms Anaságar, wherce the water supply of the place is derived a barrier against the sand. The only hills in the district The town is clean, and possesses several handsome streets, are the Aravalli range and its offshoots. Ajmír is almost the dwellings of the better classes being large and well totally devoid of rivers, the Banás being the only stream built. The population in 1867 numbered 34,763, about

two-thirds being Hindus, and the remainder Mahometans. rendered somewhat difficult; and its navigation is dangerThe city trade chiefly consists of salt and opium. The ous on account of the numerous coral reefs, and the sudden former is imported in large quantities from the Sambar squalls which sweep down from the adjacent mountains, lake and Rámsur. Oilmaking is also a profitable branch many of which rise perpendicularly to a height of 2000 of trade. Cotton cloths are manufactured to some extent, feet. The only well-sheltered harbour is that called the for the dyeing of which the city has attained a high repu Golden Port, situated on its western shore about 33 miles tation. A municipal income of about £2000 a-year is from the entrance, and 29 miles E. of Mount Sinai. derived from octroi duties levied on articles consumed in About 24 miles from the head of the gulf is the village the town. Out of this the police and conservancy arrange

of AKABAH, with a fortified castle, garrisoned by a few ments are paid, the balance being spent on roads and in soldiers for the protection of the Moslem pilgrims on their the support of charitable institutions. The Ajmír college, way to Mecca. In the vicinity of the village there are affiliated to the Calcutta university, had 320 pupils in extensive date groves; and there is abundance of good 1867. The college buildings being inadequate to this water, fruit, and vegetables. Akabah, though now of number of pupils, the foundation-stone of a new structure small importance, is not devoid of historical interest. It was laid on the 17th February 1868. The agent to the is supposed to occupy the site of the Elath of Scripture, governor-general for Rajputánă resides at Ajmir, which is which in remote ages carried on an extensive commerce; also the headquarters of the commissioner of the Ajmír and and some ruins in the sea a short distance southward are Mairwará division. It is likewise a station of a Scotch surmised to be the remains of Eziongeber. Presbyterian mission.

AKBAR, AKHBAR, or AKBER, JELLALADIN MOHAMThe chief object of interest is the dargá, or tomb of a famous MED, one of the greatest and wisest of the Moghul emperors, Mahometan saint named Mayud-ud-dín. It is situated at the was born at Amerkote in Sindh on the 14th October 1542, foot of the Tárágarh mountain, and consists of a block of white his father, Humayun, having been driven from the throne marble buildings, without much pretension to architectural beauty. To this place the emperor Akbar, with his empress, performed a

a short time before by the usurper Sher Khan. After more pilgrimage on foot from Agra, in accordance with the terms of a vow than twelve years' exile, Humayun regained his sovereignty, he had made when praying for a son. The large pillars erected at which, however, he had held only for a few months when intervals of two miles the whole way, to mark the daily halting-place he died. Akbar succeeded his father in 1556 under the of the imperial pilgrim, are still extant. An ancient Jain temple, now converted into a Mahometan mosque, is situated on the regency of Bahram Khan, a Turkoman noble, whose energy lower slope of the Tárágarh hill. With the exception of that part in repelling pretenders to the throne, and severity in mainused as a mosque, nearly the whole of the ancient temple has fallen taining the discipline of the army, tended greatly to the into ruins, but the relics are not excelled in beauty of architecture consolidation of the newly-recovered empire. Bahram, and sculpture by any remains of Hindu art. Forty columns support the roof, bút no two are alike, and great fertility of invention however, was naturally despotic and cruel; and when order is manifested in the execution of the ornaments. T'he summit of was somewhat restored, Akbar found it necessary to take Tárágarh mountain, overhanging Ajmír, crowned by a fort, the the reins of government into his own hands, which he did lofty thick battlements of which run along its brow and enclose the by a proclamation issued in March 1560. The discarded table-land. The walls are 2 miles in circumference, and the fort can only be approached by steep and very roughly-paved planes, com

regent lived for some time in rebellion, endeavouring to manded by the fort and the outworks, and by the hill to the west. establish an independent principality in Malwah, but at On coming into the hands of the English, the fort was dismantled last he was forced to cast himself on Akbar's mercy. The by order of Lord William Bentinck, and is now converted into a emperor not only freely pardoned him, but magnanimously sanitarium for the troops at Nasirábád. Ajmír was founded

offered him the choice of a high place in the army or a about the year 145 A.D. by Aji, a Chohán, who established the dynasty which continued to rule the country (with many vicissi- suitable escort for a pilgrimage to Mecca, and Bahram tudes of fortune) while the repeated waves of Mahometan invasion preferred the latter alternative. When Akbar ascended swept over India, until it eventually became an appanage of the the throne, only a small portion of what had formerly been handed over to its ancient rulers upon the payment of a heavy comprised within the Moghul empire owned his authority, tribute to the conquerors. It then remained feudatory to Dehli and he devoted himself with great determination and martill 1365, when it was captured by the ruler of Mewar. In 1509 vellous success to the recovery of the revolted provinces. the place became a source of contention between the chiefs of Mewár Over each of these, as it was restored, he placed a governor, and Márwár, and was ultimately conquered in 1532 by the latter whom he superintended with great vigilance and wisdom. prince, who in his turn in 1559 had to give way before the emperor He tried by every means to develop and encourage comAkbar. It continued in the hands of the Mughuls, with occasional revolts, till 1770, when it was ceded to the Marhattás, from which merce; he had the land accurately measured for the purpose time up to 1818 the unhappy district was the scene of a continual struggle, being seized at different times by the Mewar and Márwár tions to prevent extortion on the part of the tax-gatherers,

of rightly adjusting taxation; he gave the strictest instruc1818 the latter ceded it to the British in return for a payment of and in many other respects displayed an enlightened and 50,000 rupees.

Since then the country has enjoyed unbroken equitable policy. Thus it happened that, in the fortieth peace and a stable government.

year of Akbar's reign the empire had more than regained AJURUOCA, a town of Brazil, in the province of Minas all that it had lost, the recovered provinces being reduced, Geraes, 117 miles N. of Rio de Janeiro. It is situated on not to subjection only as before, but to a great degree of the Ajuruoca river, which is here crossed by a bridge. Gold peace, order, and contentment. Akbar's method of dealing was once found in the vicinity, but the soil has been long with what must always be the chief difficulty of one who exhausted of the precious metals; and the people are has to rule widely diverse races, affords perhaps the crownchiefly engaged in agriculture, and in rearing animals for ing evidence of his wisdom and moderation. In religion the markets of Rio. The land is fertile, and produces he was at first a Mussulman, but the intolerant exclumillet, mandioca, coffee, sugar-cane, and tobacco. The siveness of that creed was quite foreign to his character. population of the town and district is 12,000.

Scepticism as to the divine origin of the Koran led him to AKABAH, THE GULF OF, the Sinus Elanites of anti seek the true religion in an eclectic system. He accordquity, is the eastmost of the two divisions into which the ingly set himself to obtain information about other religions, Red Sea bifurcates near its northern extremity. It pene- sent to Goa, requesting that the Portuguese missionaries trates into Arabia Petræa in a N.N.E. direction, from 28° there would visit him, and listened to them with intelligent to 29° 32' N. lat., a distance of 100 miles, and its breadth attention when they came.

As the result of these inquiries, varies from 12 to 17 miles. The entrance is contracted he adopted the creed of pure deism and a ritual based by Tiran and other islands, so that the passage is upon the system of Zoroaster. The religion thus founded,

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