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and received gifts from the authorities. In 1497 a A B E

3,9
dare is connected with the coast by canal and railwa Y.
Owing to the great development of the coal and iron

was built at the harbour mouth as a
trade, it has rapidly increased from a mere village to a against the English. During the religious struggle in the
large and flourishing town. Handsome churches, banks, 17th century between the Royalists and Covenanters the
and hotels have been erected, a good supply of water has city was plundered by both parties.

In 1715 Earl
been introduced, and a public park has been opened. Marischal proclaimed the Pretender at Aberdeen. In 1745
Two markets are held weekly. The whole parish falls the Duke of Cumberland resided a short time in the city.
within the parliamentary borough of Merthyr-Tydvil. In the middle of the 18th century boys were kidnapped
The rapid growth of its population is seen by the fol- in Aberdeen, and sent as slaves to America. In 1817 the
lowing figures : in 1841 the number of inhabitants was city became insolvent, with a debt of £225,710, contracted
6471; in 1851, 14,999; in 1861, 32,299; and in 1871, by public improvements, but the debt was soon paid off.
37,774.

The motto on the city arms is Bon-Accord. It formed the
ABERDEEN, a royal burgh and city, the chief part of a watchword of the Aberdonians while aiding King Robert
parliamentary burgh, the capital of the county of Aberdeen, the Bruce in his battles with the English.
the chief seaport in the north of Scotland, and the fourth Of eminent men connected with Aberdeen, New and
Scottish town in population, industry, and wealth. It lies Old, may be mentioned—John Barbour, Hector Boece or
in lat. 57° 9' N. and long. 2° 6' W., on the German Ocean, Boethius, Bishop Elphinstone, the Earls Marischal ; George
near the mouth of the river Dee, and is 542 miles north Jamesoné, the famous portrait painter ; Edward Raban, the
of London, and 111 miles north of Edinburgh, by the first printer in Aberdeen, 1622; Rev. Andrew Cant,
shortest railway routes.

the Covenanter; David Anderson (Davie do a' thing), a
mechanic; James Gregory, inventor of the reflecting
telescope ; Dr Thomas Reid, the metaphysician; Dr George
Campbell, Principal of Marischal College, author of several
important works, and best known by his Philosophy of

Rhetoric; Dr James Beattie; Lord Byron ; Sir James
PODSiok es

ABERDEEN

Mackintosh; Robert Hall; Dr R. Hamilton, who wrote on
the National Debt.

Till 1800 the city stood on a few eminences, and had
steep, narrow, and crooked streets, but, since the Improve-
ment Act of that year, the whole aspect of the place has
been altered by the formation of two new spacious and
nearly level streets (Union Street and King Street, meet-
ing in Castle Street), and by the subsequent laying out of
many others, besides squares, terraces, &c., on nearly flat
ground. The city is above eight miles in circuit, and is
built on sand, gravel, and boulder clay. The highest parts
are from 90 to 170 feet above the sea. The chief thorough-
fare is Union Street, nearly a mile long and 70 feet broad.
It runs W.S.W. from Castle Street, and crosses the Den-
burn, now the railway valley, by a noble granite arch 132
feet in span and 50 feet high, which cost, with a hidden
arch on each side, £13,000.

Aberdeen is now a capacious, elegant, and well-built Public town, and from the material employed, consisting chiefly of Buildings. light grey native granite, is called the "granite city.” It contains many fine public buildings. The principal of these is Marischal College or University Buildings, which stands on the site of a pre-Reformation Franciscan Convent, and was rebuilt, 1836-1841, at a cost of about £30,000. It forms three sides of a court, which is 117 by 105 feet, and has a back wing, and a tower 100 feet high. The

accommodation consists of twenty-five large class-rooms and History. Aberdeen, probably the Devana on the Diva of Ptolemy, laboratories, a hall, library, museums, &c.

was an important place in the 12th century. William the The University of Aberdeen was formed by the union
Lion had a residence in the city, to which he gave a char- and incorporation, in 1860, by Act of Parliament, of the
ter in 1179, confirming the corporate rights granted by University and King's College of Aberdeen, founded in Old
David I. The city received many subsequent royal Aberdeen, in 1494, by William Elphinstone, Bishop of
charters. It was burned by Edward III. in 1336, but Aberdeen, under the authority of a Papal bull obtained by
it was soon rebuilt and extended, and called New Aber- James IV., and of the Marischal College and University of
deen. The houses were of timber and thatched, and Aberdeen, founded in New Aberdeen, in 1593, by George
many such existed till 1741. The burgh records are the Keith, Earl Marischal, by a charter ratified by Act of Par-
oldest of any Scottish burgh. They begin in 1398, and are liament. The officials consist of a chancellor, with rector
complete to the present time, with only a short break. and principal; there are 21 professors and 8 assistants,
Extracts from them, extending from 1398 to 1570, have Arts and divinity are taught in King's College, and medicine,
been published by the Spalding Club. For many centuries natural history, and law in Marischal College. The arts
the city was subject to attacks by the barons of the sur session lasts from the end of October to the beginning
rounding districts, and its avenues and six ports had to of April. The arts curriculum of four years, with gradua-
be guarded. The ports had all been removed by 1770. tion, costs £36, 11s. There are 214 arts bursaries, 29
Several monasteries existed in Aberdeen before the Re divinity, and 1 medical, of the aggregate annual value of
formation. Most of the Scottish sovereigns visited the £3646, £650, and £26, respectively. About 60 arts

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bursaries, mostly from £10 to £35 in value, are given | diameter at the mouth, 31 feet high, and very thick. The
yearly by competition, or by presentation and examination. Union Street front of the churchyard is occupied by a
Two-thirds of the arts students are bursars. Seventeen very elegant granite façade, built in 1830, at the cost of
annual scholarships and prizes of the yearly value of £758 £1460. It is 1471 feet long, with a central arched gateway
are given at the end of the arts curriculum.

The average and entablature 324 feet high, with two attached Ionic
yearly number of arts students, in the thirteen years columns on each side. Each of the two wings has six
since the union of the arts classes of the two colleges in Ionic columns (of single granite blocks, 15 feet 2 inches
1860, has been 342, while in the separate colleges together long), with basement and entablature, the whole being 23}
for the nine years before the union, it was 431. In winter feet high. The following are the style, cost, and date of
session 1872-73 there were 623 matriculated students in erection of the other principal Aberdeen churches—St An-
all the faculties. In 1872, 32 graduated in arts, 68 in drew's, Episcopal, Gothic, £6000, 1817; North Church,
medicine, 5 in divinity, and 1 in law. The library has Established, Greek, £10,000, 1831; three churches in a
above 80,000 volumes. The General Council in 1873 had cruciform group, Free, simple Lancet Gothic, with a fine
2075 registered members, who, with those of Glasgow Uni- brick spire 174 feet high, £5000, 1844; Roman Catholic,
versity, return one member to Parliament.

Gothic, £12,000, 1859; Free West, Gothic, £12,856, 1869,
The Free Church Divinity College was built in 1850, with a spire 175 feet high.
at the cost of £2025, in the Tudor-Gothic style. It has a In 1873 there were in Aberdeen about 110 schools, with
large hall, a library of 12,000 volumes, and 15 bursaries of from 10,000 to 11,000 pupils in attendance. About 2500
the yearly value of from £10 to £25.

students attend the University, Mechanics' Institution, and
At the east end of Union Street, and partly in Castle private schools for special branches.
Street, on the north side, are the new County and Muni Five miles south-west of Aberdeen, on the south side of
cipal buildings, an imposing Franco-Scottish Gothic pile, the Dee, in Kincardineshire, is St Mary's Roman Catholic
225 feet long, 109 feet broad, and 64 feet high, of four College of Blairs, with a president and three professors.
stories, built 1867-1873 at the cost of £80,000, including The Aberdeen Grammar School, dating from about 1263,
£25,000 for the site. Its chief feature is a tower 200 is a preparatory school for the university. It has a rector
feet high. It contains a great hall, 74 feet long, 35 feet and four regular masters, who teach classics, English,
broad, and 50 feet high, with an open timber ceiling : a arithmetic, and mathematics, for the annual fee of £4, 10s.
Justiciary Court-House, 50 feet long, 37 feet broad, and for each pupil. Writing, drawing, &c., are also taught.
31 feet high; a Town Hall, 41 feet long, 25 feet broad, Nearly 200 pupils attend, who enter about the age of
and 15 feet high, and a main entrance corridor 60 feet twelve. Like the Edinburgh High School, it has nu
long, 16 feet broad, and 24 feet high. A little to the west elementary department.

There are 30 bursaries. A new is the Town and County Bank, a highly ornamented building granite building for the school was erected, 1861–1863, inside and outside, in the Italian style, costing about in the Scotch baronial style, at the cost of £16,000, in£24,000.

cluding site. It is 215 feet long and 60 feet high, and A very complete closed public market of two floors was has three towers. built in 1842, at a cost of £28,000, by a company incor The Mechanics’ Institution, founded 1824, and reporated by Act of Parliament. The upper floor or great organised 1834, has a hall, class-rooms, and a library of hall is 315 feet long, 106 feet broad, and 45 feet high, 14,000 volumes, in a building erected in 1846, at a cost of with galleries all round The lower floor is not so high. £3500. During the year 1872–73, there were at the School The floors contain numerous small shops for the sale of of Science and Art 385 pupils; and at other evening classes, meat, fowls, fish, &c., besides stalls and seats for the sale | 538. of vegetables, butter, eggs, &c. The galleries contain small Aberdeen has two native banks, besides branch banks, Banks, &c shops for the sale of drapery, hardware, fancy goods, and and a National Security Savings Bank; three insurance books. On the upper floor is a fountain of polished Peter- companies, four shipping companies, three railway comhead granite, costing £200, with a basin 7 feet diameter, panies, and a good many miscellaneous companies. There cut out of one block of stone. Connected with this under are ten licensed pawnbroking establishments, with about taking was the laying out of Market Street from Union 440,000 pledges in the year for £96,000, and with a Street to the quay. At the foot of this street is being built capital of £27,000. There are seven incorporated trades, in the Italian style the new post and telegraph office, at a originating between 1398 and 1527, and having charitable cost of £16,000, including £4000, the cost of the site. funds for decayed members, widows, and orphans. They It is to form a block of about 100 feet square and 40 feet have a hall, built in 1847 for £8300, in the Tudor Gothic high.

style. The hall, 60 feet long, 29 wide, and 42 high, conAberdeen has about 60 places of Worship, with nearly tains curious old chairs, and curious inscriptions on the 48,000 sittings. There are 10 Established churches; 20 shields of the crafts. Free, 6 Episcopalian, 6 United Presbyterian, 5 Congre Among the charitable institutions is Gordon's Hospital, Charities. gational, 2 Baptist, 2 Methodist, 2 Evangelical Union, i founded in 1729 by a miser, Robert Gordon, a Dantzic Unitarian, 1 of Roman Catholic, 1 of Friends, and 1 of Origi- merchant, of the Straloch family, and farther endowed nal Seceders. There are also several mission chapels. În by Alexander Simpson of Collyhill in 1816. It is 1843 all the Established ministers seceded, with 10,000 lay managed by the Town Council and four of the Established nembers. The Established and Free Church denomina- ministers of Aberdeen, incorporated by royal charters of tions have each about 11,000 members in communion. 1772 and 1792. The central part of the house was built The Established West and East churches, in the centre of in 1739, and the wings in 1830–1834, the whole costing the city, within St Nicholas churchyard, form a continuous i £17,300, and being within a garden of above four acres. building 220 feet long, including an intervening aisle, over It now (1873) maintains and educates (in English, writing, which is a tower and spire 140 feet high. The West was arithmetic, physics, mathematics, drawing, music, French, built in 1775 in the Italian style, and the East in 1834 in &c.) 180 boys of the age 9 to 15, the sons and grandsons the Gothic, each costing about £5000. They occupy the of decayed burgesses of guild and trade of the city; and site of the original cruciform church of St Nicholas, erected next those of decayed inhabitants (not paupers). Expendiin the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries. One of the nine ture for year to 31st October 1872, .£4353 for 164 boys. bells in the tower bears the date of 1352, and is 4 feet | It has a head-master, three regular, and several visiting

Churches and Schools.

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masters. The Boys and Girls' Hospital, lately built for some polished Peterhead granite pillars, the rest being £10,000, maintains and educates 50 boys and 50 girls. built of concrete.

The Female Orphan Asylum, founded by Mrs Elmslie, In Castle Street, the City Place and Old Market Stance, Market in 1840, and managed by trustees, maintains and educates, is the Market Cross, a beautiful, open-arched, hexagonal Cross, chiefly as domestic servants, 46 girls between the ages of structure of freestone, 21 feet diameter, and 18 feet high. 4 and 16, at the yearly cost for each of about £23, 13s. It has Ionic columns and pilasters, and an entablature of Those admitted must be legitimate orphan daughters of twelve panels. On ten of the panels are medallions, respectable parents, who have lived three years imme- cut in stone, in high relief, of the Scottish sovereigns from diately before death in Aberdeen or in the adjoining James I. to James VII. From the centre rises a comparishes of Old Machar and Nigg. The Hospital for posite column 12 feet high, with a Corinthian capital, on Orphan and Female Destitute Children, endowed by John which is the royal unicorn rampant. This cross was planned Carnegie and the trustees of the Murtle Fund, maintains and erected about 1682 by John Montgomery, a native and educates 50 girls, chiefly for domestic service. The architect, for £100 sterling.

The architect, for £100 sterling. On the north side of the Asylum for the Blind, established in 1843, on a foundation same street, adjoining the municipal buildings, is the by Miss Cruickshank, maintains and educates about 10 North of Scotland Bank, a Grecian building in granite, blind children, and gives industrial employment to blind with a portico of Corinthian columns, having most elaboadults. There is a boys' and girls' school for 150 boys rately carved capitals. On an eminence east of Castle and 150 girls on Dr Bell's foundation. The Industrial Street are the military barracks for 600 men, built in 1796 Schools, begun by Sheriff Watson in 1841, and the Re- for £16,000. formatory Schools, begun in 1857, having some 600 pupils The principal statues in the city are those of the last on the roll, have greatly diminished juvenile crime in the Duke of Gordon—died 1836—in grey granite, 10 feet high; district. The Murtle or John Gordon's Charitable Fund, Queen Victoria, in white Sicilian marble, 81 feet high; founded in 1815, has an annual revenue from land of about Prince Albert, bronze, natural-size, sitting posture; and a £2400, applicable to all kinds of charity, in sums from curious rough stone figure, of unknown date, supposed to £5 to £300. The Midbeltie Fund, founded by a bequest be Sir William Wallace. of £20,000, in 1848, by James Allan of Midbeltie, gives The Dee to the south of the city is crossed by three yearly pensions ranging from £5 to £15 to respectable bridges, the old bridge of Dee, an iron suspension bridge, decayed widows in the parishes of St Nicholas and Old and the Caledonian Railway bridge. The first, till 1832 Machar.

the only access to the city from the south, consists of The two parishes in which Aberdeen is situated, viz., seven semicircular ribbed arches, is about 30 feet high, St Nicholas and Old Machar, have each a large poor-house. and was built early in the 16th century by Bishops ElphinThe poor of both parishes cost about £20,000 a year. stone and Dunbar. It was nearly all rebuilt 1718–1723,

The Royal Infirmary, instituted in 1740, was rebuilt and from being 141 feet wide, it was in 1842 made 26 1833–1840, in the Grecian style, at the cost of £17,000. feet wide. From Castle Street, King Street leads in the It is a well-situated, large, commodious, and imposing direction of the new bridge of Don (a little east of the old building. It has three stories, the front being 166 feet "Brig o' Balgownie”), of five granite arches, each 75 feet long and 50 feet high, with a dome. A detached fever-span, built for nearly £13,000 in 1827-1832. house was built in 1872 for about £2500. The managers A defective harbour, and a shallow sand and gravel bar at

Harbour, were incorporated by royal charter in 1773, and much its entrance, long retarded the trade of Aberdeen, but, under &c. increased in number in 1852. The institution is sup various Acts since 1773, they have been greatly deepened. ported by land rents, feu-duties, legacies, donations, sub The north pier, built partly by Smeaton, 1775–1787, and scriptions, church collections, &c. Each bed has on an partly by Telford, 1810-1815, extends 2000 feet into the average 1200 cubic feet of space. There are on the average German Ocean. It is 30 feet broad, and, with the parapet, 130 resident patients, costing each on the average a shilling rises 15 feet above high water. It consists of large granite daily, and the number of patients treated may be stated at blocks. It has increased the depth of water on the bar 1700 annually, besides outdoor patients receiving advice and from a few feet to 22 or 24 feet at spring tides, and to 17 medicine. The recent annual expenditure has been about

or 18 feet at neap. The wet dock, of 29 acres, and with £4300. There is a staff of a dozen medical officers. 6000 feet of quay, was completed in 1848, and called

The Royal Lunatic Asylum, opened in 1800, consists of Victoria Dock, in honour of Her Majesty's visit to the two separate houses, valued in 1870 at £40,000, in an city in that year. These and other improvements of the enclosure of 40 acres. It is under the same management harbour and its entrance cost £325,000 down to 1848. as the Infirmary. The recent daily average of patients has By the Harbour Act of 1868, the Dee near the harbour been about 420, at an annual cost of £13,000. The annual has been diverted to the south, ac the cost of £80,000, tate for each pauper is £25, 10s. The General Dispensary, and 90 acres of new ground (in addition to 25 acres Vaccine, and Lying-in Institution, founded in 1823, has formerly made up) for harbour works are being made up on had as many as 6781 cases in one year. The Hospital for the city or north side of the river; £80,000 has been Incurables has a daily average of 26 patients, and the Oph- laid out in forming in the sea, at the south side of the thalmic and Auric Institution has had 671 cases in a year. river, a new breakwater of concrete, 1050 feet long, against

The Music Hall, built in 1821 and 1859 at the cost south and south-east storms. The navigation channel is of £16,500, has a front 90 feet long, with a portico of 6 being widened and deepened, and the old pier or breakIonic pillars 30 feet high; large, highly-decorated lobbies water on the north side of the river mouth is to be and 10oms; and a hall 150 feet long, 68 broad, and 50 lengthened at least 500 feet seaward. A body of 31 comhigh, with a flat ceiling, and galleries. The hall holds 2000 missioners manage the harbour affairs. persons seated, and has a fine organ and an orchestra for Aberdeen Bay affords safe anchorage with off-shore winds, 300. Here H.R.H. Prince Albert opened the British but not with those from the N.E., E., and S.E. On the Association, as president, 14th September 1859. A new Girdleness, the south point of the bay, a lighthouse was

Theatre and Opera House was built in 1872, in the mixed built in 1833, in lat. 57° 8' N., and long. 2° 3' W., with tie. Gothic style, for £8400, with the stage 52 feet by 29, and two fixed lights, one vertically belo the other, and re

the auditorium for 1700 to 1800 persons. The front wall spectively 115 and 185 feet above mean tide. There are us of bluish granite and red and yellow freestone, with | also fixed leading lights to direct ships entering the harbour

Water.

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at night. In fogs, a steam whistle near the lighthouse is Very durable grey granite has been quarried near Aber- Granite.
sounded ten seconds every minute. Near the harbour deen for 300 years, and blocked and dressed paving, kerb,
mouth are three batteries mounting nineteen guns. and building granite stones have long been exported from

The water supplied to the city contains only 3; grains the district. In 1764, Aberdeen granite pavement was first
solid matter in a gallon, with a hardness of about 2 degrees. used in London. About the year 1795, large granite blocks
It is brought by gravitation, in a close brick culvert, were sent for the Portsmouth docks. The chief stones of
from the Dee, 21 miles W.S.W. of the city, to a reservoir, the New Thames Embankment, London, are from Kemnay
which supplies nine-tenths of the city. The other tenth, granite quarries, 16 miles north-west of the city. Aber-
or higher part of the city, is supplied by a separate reser- deen is almost entirely built of granite, and large quantities
voir, to which part of the water from the culvert is forced of the stone are exported to build bridges, wharfs, docks,
up by a hydraulic engine. Nearly 40 gallons water per lighthouses, &c., elsewhere. Aberdeen is famed for its
head of the population are consumed daily for all purposes. polishing-works of granite, especially grey and red. They
The new water works cost £160,000, and were opened by employ about 1500 hands in polishing vases, tables,
Her Majesty, 16th October 1866.

chimney-pieces, fountains, monuments, columns, &c., for The gas is made of cannel coal, and is sent through 71 British and foreign demand. Mr Alexander Macdonald, miles of main pipes, which extend 5 miles from the works. in 1818, was the first to begin the granite polishing trade,

The manufactures, arts, and trade of Aberdeen and and the works of the same firm, the only ones of the kind vicinity are large and flourishing. Woollens were made as till about 1850, are still the largest in the kingdom. early as 1703, and knitting of stockings was a great industry In 1820, 15 vessels from Aberdeen were engaged in the Fishings, in the 18th century. There are two large firms in the northern whale and seal fishing; in 1860, one vessel, but woollen trade, with 1550 hands, at £1000 weekly wages, none since. The white fishing at Aberdeen employs some and making above 1560 tons wool in the year into yarns, 40 boats, each with a crew of 5 men. Of the 900 tons carpets, hand-knit hosiery, cloths, and tweeds. The linen wet fish estimated to be brought to market yearly, above a trade, much carried on since 1749, is now confined to one third are sent fresh by rail to England. The salmon firm, with 2600 hands, at £1200 wages weekly, who spin, caught in the Dee, Don, and sea are nearly all sent to weave, and bleach 50 tons flax and 60 tons tow weekly, London fresh in ice. The herring fishing has been proand produce yarns, floorcloths, sheetings, dowlas, ducks, secuted since 1836, and from 200 to 350 boats are towels, sail-canvas, &c. The cotton manufacture, introduced engaged in it. in 1779, employs only one firm, with 550 hands, at £220 Aberdeen has been famed for shipbuilding, especially Shipbuildweekly wages, who spin 5000 bales of cotton a-year into for its fast clippers. Since 1855 nearly a score of vessels ing.

The wincey trade, begun in 1839, employs have been built of above 1000 tons each. The largest 400 hands, at £200 weekly wages, who make 2,100,000 vessel (a sailing one) ever built here was one in 1855, of 2400 yards cloth, 27 to 36 inches broad, in the year. Paper, tons. In 1872 there were built 11 iron vessels of 9450 first made here in 1696, is now manufactured by three tons, and 6 wooden of 2980 tons, consuming 5900 tons firms in the vicinity. The largest has 2000 hands, at iron, and costing £252,700, including £70,700 for engines £1250 weekly wages, and makes weekly 75 to 80 tons of and other machinery. 1400 hands were employed in writing paper, and 64 millions of envelopes, besides much shipbuilding in that year, at the weekly wages of about cardboard and stamped paper; another firm makes weekly £1230. 77 tons coarse and card paper; and a third, 20 tons print In 1872, there belonged to the port of Aberdeen 236 Shipping. ing and other paper. The comb works of Messrs Stewart vessels, of 101,188 tons, twenty-four of the vessels, of 7483 & Co., begun in 1827, are the largest in the world, em tons, being steamers. They trade with most British and ploying 900 hands, at £500 weekly wages, who yearly Irish ports, the Baltic and Mediterranean ports, and many convert 1100 tons horns, hoofs, india-rubber, and tortoise more distant regions. In 1872, 434,108 tons shipping shells into 11 millions of combs, besides spoons, cups, arrived at the port, and the custom duties were £112,414. scoops, paper-knives, &c. Seven iron foundries and The export trade, exclusive of coasting, is insignificant. many engineering works employ 1000 men, at £925 The shore or harbour dues were £126 in 1765, and £1300 weekly wages, and convert 6000 tons of iron a-year into in 1800. In the year ending 30th September 1872, they marine and land steam engines and boilers, corn mills, were £25,520; while the ordinary harbour revenue was wood-preparing machinery, machinery to grind and pre- £37,765, expenditure £28,598, and debt £324,614. The pare artificial manures, besides sugar mills and frames and introduction of steamers in 1821 greatly promoted incoffee machinery for the colonies.

dustry and traffic, and especially the cattle trade of The Sandilands Chemical Works, begun in 1848, cover Aberdeenshire with London. These benefits have been five acres, and employ over 100 men and boys, at £90 to much increased by the extension of railways. Commodious £100 weekly wages. Here are prepared naphtha, benzole, steamers ply regularly between Aberdeen and London, creosote oil, pitch, asphalt, sulphate of ammonia, sulphuric Hull, Newcastle, Leith, Wick, Kirkwall, and Lerwick. acid, and artificial manures. Paraffin wax and ozokerite The joint railway station for the Caledonian, Great Railway are refined. An Artesian well within the works, 421 feet North of Scotland, and Deeside lines, was opened 1867, Station. deep, gives a constant supply of good water, always at and is a very handsome erection, costing about £26,000. 51° Fahr. Of several provision-curing works, the largest It is 500 feet long, and 102 feet broad, with the side walls employs 300 hands, chiefly females, in preserving meats, 32 feet high. The arched roof of curved lattice-iron ribs, soups, sauces, jams, jellies, pickles, &c., and has in con covered with slate, zinc, and glass, is all in one span, rising nection with it, near the city, above 230 acres of fruit, vege- 72 feet high, and is very light and airy. table, and farm ground, and a large piggery. The products The Medico-Chirurgical Society of Aberdeen was founded

Societies, of the breweries and distilleries are mostly comsumed at in 1789. The hall was built in 1820 at a cost of £4000,

A large agricultural implement work employs 70 and is adorned with an Ionic portico of four granite columns, or 80 men and boys. Nearly 200 acres of ground, within 27 feet high. It has 42 members, and a library of 5000 three miles of the city, are laid out in rearing shrub and volumes. The legal practitioners of Aberdeen have been forest-tree seedlings. In 1872 about 145 acres of straw styled advocates since 1633, and received royal charters berries were reared within three miles of Aberdeen, and in 1774, 1779, and 1862. They form a society, called 80 tons of this fruit are said to have been exported. the Society of Advocates, of 127 members in 1873, with a

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hall built in 1871 for £5075, a library of nearly 6000 The chief structure in Old Aberdeen is the stately fabric King's
volumes, and a fund to support decayed and indigent of King's College near the middle of the town. It forms College.
members, and their nearest relatives. The revenue in a quadrangle, with interior court 108 feet square, two
1872 was £2880.

sides of which have been rebuilt, and a projecting wing for Press. Aberdeen has one daily and three weekly newspapers. a library added since 1860. The oldest parts, the Crown

The Aberdeen Journal, established in 1748, is the oldest Tower and Chapel, date from about 1500. The former newspaper north of the Forth.

is 30 feet square and 60 feet high, and is surmounted Public

The places of out-door recreation and amusement are by a structure about 40 feet high, consisting of a six-sided Parks.

chiefly the following :—The Links, a grassy, benty, and lantern and a royal crown, both sculptured, and resting on sandy tract, 2 miles long and 1 to š mile broad, along the intersections of two arched ornamented slips rising from the shore between the mouths of the Dee and the Don. the four corners of the top of the tower. The chapel, 120 It is mostly only a few feet above the sea, but the Broad feet long, 28 feet broad, and 37 feet high, still retains in Hill rises to 94 feet. Cattle shows, reviews, &c., are held the choir the original oak canopied stalls, miserere seat, and on the Links. To the north-west of the town, a Public lofty open screen. These fittings are 300 years old, in Recreation Park of 13 acres was laid out in 1872, at the the French flamboyant style, and are unsurpassed, in taste

cost of £3000, with walks, grass, trees, shrubs, and flowers. ful design and delicate execution, by the oak carving of Climate. Daily observations from 1857 to 1872 show the mean any other old church in Europe. This carved woodwork

temperature of Aberdeen for the year to be 45°:8 Fahr., owes its preservation to the Principal of Reformation for the three summer months 56° Fahr., and for the three times, who armed his people, and protected it from the winter months 37°:3. The average yearly rainfall is 30:57 fury of the barons of the Mearns after they had robbed inches. Aberdeen is the healthiest of the large Scottish the cathedral of its bells and lead. The chapel is still used towns. East winds prevail in spring.

for public worship during the University session. Since 1867 £50,000 has been spent in constructing Connected with Old Aberdeen is a brewery in the town, main sewers throughout the city. A few acres of farm and a brick and coarse pottery work in the vicinity. There land have been irrigated by part of the sewage.

are also a Free church, two secondary schools, and two Munici.

The city is governed by a corporation, the magistrates primary schools. Old Aberdeen has its own municipal pality.

and town council, consisting of twenty-five councillors, officers, consisting of a provost, 4 bailies, and 13 councillors. including a provost, six bailies, a dean of guild, a trea- The town is drained, lighted, supplied with water, and is surer, &c. The corporation revenue in the year 1871-72 within the Parliamentary boundary of New Aberdeen. was £11,498. The police, water, and gas are managed by There are several charitable institutions. Population in the council. The municipal and police burgh has an area 1871, 1857; inhabited houses, 233.

(A. C.) of nearly three square miles, with 12,514 municipal electors, ABERDEENSHIRE, a maritime county in the northand with assessable property valued at £230,000 in 1873. east of Scotland, between 56° 52' and 57° 42' N. lat. and The Parliamentary burgh has an area of nine square miles, between 1° 49' and 3° 48' long. W. of Greenwich. It is including Old Aberdeen and Woodside, with 14,253 Par- bounded on the north and east by the German Ocean ; on liamentary electors, and real property to the value of the south by the counties of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth ; £309,328 in 1873. It returns one member to Parliament and on the west by those of Inverness and Banff. Its The population of Aberdeen in 1396 was about 3000; in greatest length is 102 miles, and breadth 50 miles. Its 1643, 8750; in 1708, 5556; in 1801, 26,992; in 1841, circuit with sinuosities is about 300 miles, 60 being sea63,262; and in 1871, 88,125; with 6718 inhabited coast. It is the fifth of Scotch counties in size, and is onehouses, 292 uninhabited, and 77 building.

sixteenth of the extent of Scotland. Its area is 1970 ola

ABERDEEN, OLD, is a small, quiet, ancient town, a square miles, or 1,260,625 acres, of which, in 1872, 36.6 Aberdeen. burgh of barony and regality, a mile north of Aberdeen, per cent., or 585,299 acres, were cultivated, 93,339 in woods

and as far south-west of the mouth of the Don. It mostly (mostly Scotch fir and larch), and 6400 in lakes. It con-
forms one long street, 45 to 80 feet above the sea. The tains 85 civil parishes and parts of 6 others, or 101 parishes,
Don, to the north of the town, runs through a narrow, including civil and quoad sacra. The county is generally
wooded, rocky ravine, and is spanned by a single Gothic hilly, and mountainous in the south-west, whence, near the
arch, the “Brig o' Balgownie” of Lord Byron. The bridge centre of Scotland, the Grampians send out various branches,
rests on gneiss, and is 67 feet wide and 34} feet high above mostly to the north-east, through the county. The run of
the surface of the river, which at ebb tide is here 19 feet the rivers and the general slope of the county is to the
deep. The bridge is the oldest in the north of Scotland, north-east and east. It is popularly divided into five
and is said to have been built about 1305. The funds districts : First, Mar, mostly between the Dee and Don, Districts
belonging to the bridge amount to £24,000.

and forming nearly the south half of the county. It is The town was formerly the see of a bishop, and had a mountainous, especially Braemar, its west and Highland large cathedral dedicated to St Machar. In 1137 David I. part, which contains the greatest mass of elevated land in translated to Old Aberdeen the bishopric, founded at the British Isles. Here the Dee rises amid the grandeur Mortlach in Banffshire in 1004 by Malcolm II. in memory and wildness of lofty mountains, much visited by tourists, of his signal victory there over the Danes. In 1153 and composed chiefly of granite and gneiss, forming many Malcolm IV. gave the bishop a new charter.

high precipices, and showing patches of snow throughout Cathedral. The cathedral of St Machar, begun about 1357, occupied every summer. Here rises Ben Muichdhui, the second highest

nearly 170 years in building, and did not remain entire mountain in Scotland and in the British Isles, 4296 fect; fifty years. What is still left is the oldest part, viz., the Braeriach, 4225; Cairntoul, 4245; Cairngorm (famed for nave and side aisles, 126 feet long and 621 feet broad, “Cairngorm stones," a peculiar kind of rock crystal), 4090; now used as the parish church. It is chiefly built of Ben-a-Buird, 3860; Ben Avon, 3826; and Byron's "dark outlayer granite stones, and while the plainest Scottish Lochnagar," 3786. The soil on the Dee is sandy, and cathedral, is the only one of granite in the kingdom. On on the Don loamy. The city of Aberdeen is in Mar. the flat pannelled ceiling of the nave are 48 heraldic shields Second, Formartin, between the lower Don and Ythan, of the princes, nobles, and bishops who aided in its erection with a sandy coast, succeeded by a clayey, fertile, tilled It has been lately repaired, and some painted windows tract, and then by low hills, moors, mosses, and tilled land, inserted, at the cost of £4280.

Third, Bachan, north of the Ythan, and next in size to

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