de Martyr. Fratr. minor. (Ingolst. 1583); Pitts, De more remarkable for her knowledge, which extended beyond illustr. Angl. Scrip.; Tanner's Bibliotheca Hibernico-Britan- Latin, it is said, to Greek and Hebrew, she awoke a feelnica, p. i.; Zurich, Original Letters relative to the English ing of love in the breast of Abelard; and with intent to Reformation (Parker Society, pt. ii. pp. 209-211, 1846); win her, he sought and gained a footing in Fulbert's house Foxe's Acts and Monuments (Cattley's, vol. v. pp. 438–440); as a regular inmate. Becoming also tutor to the maiden, Burnet, Soames, Biog. Brit.; Wood's Athence (Bliss), s. V.; he used the unlimited power which he thus obtained over Stow, Chron. p. 581.

(A. B. G.) her for the purpose of seduction, though not without ABELARD, PETER, born at Pallet (Palais), not far cherishing a real affection which she returned in unparalleled from Nantes, in 1079, was the eldest son of a noble Breton devotion. Their relation interfering with his public work, house. The name Abælardus (also written Abailardus, and being, moreover, ostentatiously sung by himself, soon Abaielardus, and in many other ways) is said to be a cor became known to all the world except the too-confiding ruption of Habelardus, substituted by himself for a nick Fulbert; and, when at last it could not escape even his name Bajolardus given to him when a student. As a vision, they were separated only to meet in secret. Thereboy, he showed an extraordinary quickness of apprehen- upon Heloise found herself pregnant, and was carried off sion, and, choosing a learned life instead of the active by her lover to Brittany, where she gave birth to a son. career natural to a youth of his birth, early became an To appease her furious uncle, Abelard now proposed a adept in the art of dialectic, under which name philosophy, marriage, under the condition that it should be kept meaning at that time chiefly the logic of Aristotle trans- secret, in order not to mar his prospects of advancement in mitted through Latin channels, was the great subject of the church; but of marriage, whether public or secret, liberal study in the episcopal schools. Roscellin, the Heloise would hear nothing. She appealed to him not to famous canon of Compiègne, is mentioned by himself as sacrifice for her the independence of his life, nor did she his teacher; but whether he heard this champion of finally yield to the arrangement without the darkest foreextreme Nominalism in early youth, when he wandered bodings, only too soon to be realised. The secret of the about from school to school for instruction and exercise, marriage was not kept by Fulbert; and when Heloise, true or some years later, after he had already begun to teach to her singular purpose, boldly then denied it, life was for himself, remains uncertain. His wanderings finally made so unsupportable to her that she sought refuge in the brought him to Paris, still under the age of twenty. There, convent of Argenteuil. Immediately Fulbert, believing in the great cathedral school of Notre-Dame, he sat for a that her husband, who aided in the flight, designed to be while under the teaching of William of Champeaux, the rid of her, conceived a dire revenge. He and some others disciple of St Anselm and most advanced of Realists, but, broke into Abelard's chamber by night, and, taking him presently stepping forward, he overcame the master in defenceless, perpetrated on him the most brutal mutilation. discussion, and thus began a long duel that issued in Thus cast down from his pinnacle of greatness into an the downfall of the philosophic theory of Realism, till then abyss of shame and misery, there was left to the brilliant dominant in the early Middle Age. First, in the teeth of master only the life of a monk. Heloise, not yet twenty, opposition from the metropolitan teacher, he proceeded to consummated her work of self-sacrifice at the call of his set up a school of his own at Melun, whence, for more jealous love, and took the veil. direct competition, he removed to Corbeil, nearer Paris. It was in the Abbey of St Denis that Abelard, now The success of his teaching was signal, though for a time aged forty, sought to bury himself with his woes out of he had to quit the field, the strain proving too great for sight. Finding, however, in the cloister neither calm nor his physical strength. On his return, after 1108, he found solitude, and having gradually turned again to study, he William lecturing no longer at Notre-Dame, but in a yielded after a year to urgent entreaties from without and monastic retreat outside the city, and there battle was within, and went forth to reopen his school at the Priory again joined between them. Forcing upon the Realist a of Maisoncelle (1120). His lectures, now framed in a material change of doctrine, he was once more victorious, devotional spirit, were heard again by crowds of students, and thenceforth he stood supreme. His discomfited rival and all his old influence seemed to have returned; but old still had power to keep him from lecturing in Paris, but enmities were revived also, against which he was no longer soon failed in this last effort also. From Melun, where he able as before to make head. No sooner had he put in had resumed teaching, Abelard passed to the capital, and writing his theological lectures (apparently the Introductio set up his school on the heights of St Geneviève, looking ad Theologiam that has come down to us), than his adverover Notre-Dame. When he had increased his distinc- saries fell foul of his rationalistic interpretation of the tion still further by winning reputation in the theological Trinitarian dogma. Charging him with the heresy of school of Anselm of Laon, no other conquest remained for Sabellius in a provincial synod held at Soissons in 1121, him. He stepped into the chair at Notre-Dame, being also they procured by irregular practices a condemnation of his nominated canon, about the year 1115.

teaching, whereby he was made to throw his book into the Few teachers ever held such sway as Abelard now flames, and then was shut up in the convent of St Médard. did for a time. Distinguished in figure and manners, he After the other, it was the bitterest possible experience was seen surrounded by crowds—it is said thousands—of that could befall him, nor, in the state of mental desolastudents, drawn from all countries by the fame of his tion into which it plunged him, could he find any comfort teaching, in which acuteness of thought was relieved by from being soon again set free. The life in his own simplicity and grace of exposition. Enriched by the offer- monastery proving no more congenial than formerly, he ings of his pupils, and feasted with universal admiration, filed from it in secret, and only waited for permission to he came, as he says, to think himself the only philosopher live away from St Denis before he chose the one lot that standing in the world. But a change in his fortunes suited his present mood. In a desert place near Nogentwas at hand. In his devotion to science, he had hitherto sur-Seine, he built himself a cabin of stubble and reeds, lived a very regular life, varied only by the excitement of and turned hermit. But there fortune came back to him conflict: now, at the height of his fame, other passions with a new surprise. His retreat becoming known, students began to stir within him. There lived at that time, flocked from Paris, and covered the wilderness around him within the precincts of Notre-Dame, under the care of her with their tents and huts. When he began to teach again, uncle, the canon Fulbert, a young girl named Heloise, of he found consolation, and in gratitude he consecrated the poble extraction and born about 1101. Fair, but still new oratory they built for him by the name of the Paraclete

Upon the return of new dangers, or at least of fears, philosophical performance could be judged at first hand: Abelard left the Paraclete to make trial of another refuge, of his strictly philosophical works only one, the ethical accepting an invitation to preside over the Abbey of St treatise Scito te ipsum, having been published earlier, Gildas-de-Rhuys, on the far-off shore of Lower Brittany. namely, in 1721. Cousin's collection, besides giving exIt proved a wretched exchange. The region was inhospit-tracts from the theological work Sic et Non (an assemblage able, the domain a prey to lawless exaction, the house itself of opposite opinions on doctrinal points, culled from the savage and disorderly. Yet for nearly ten years he con Fathers as a basis for discussion), includes the Dialectica, tinued to struggle with fate before he fled from his charge, commentaries on logical works of Aristotle, Porphyry, and yielding in the end only under peril of violent death. The Boëthius, and a fragment, De Generibus et Speciebus. The misery of those years was not, however, unrelieved; for he last-named work, and also the psychological treatise De had been able, on the breaking-up of Heloise's convent at Intellectibus, published apart by Cousin (in Fragmens Argenteuil, to establish her as head of a new religious Philosophiques, vol. ii.), are now considered upon internal house at the deserted Paraclete, and in the capacity of evidence not to be by Abelard himself, but only to have spiritual director he often was called to revisit the spot sprung out of his school. A genuine work, the Glossulce thus made doubly dear to him. All this time Heloise had super Porphyrium, from which M. de Rémusat, in his lived amid universal esteem for her knowledge and character, classical monograph Abélard (1845), has given extracts, uttering no word under the doom that had fallen upon her remains in manuscript. youth; but now, at last, the occasion came for expressing all The general importance of Abelard lies in his having the pent-up emotions of her soul. Living on for some time fixed more decisively than any one before him the in Brittany after his flight from St Gildas, Abelard wrote, scholastic manner of philosophising, with its object of among other things, his famous Historia Calamitatum, giving a formally rational expression to the received and thus moved her to pen her first Letter, which remains ecclesiastical doctrine. However his own particular interan unsurpassed utterance of human passion and womanly pretations may have been condemned, they were conceived devotion; the first being followed by the two other Letters, in in essentially the same spirit as the general scheme of which she finally accepted the part of resignation which, thought afterwards elaborated in the 13th century with now as a brother to a sister, Abelard commended to her. approval from the heads of the church. Through him He not long after was seen once more upon the field of was prepared in the Middle Age the ascendency of the his early triumphs, lecturing on Mount St Geneviève in philosophical authority of Aristotle, which became firmly 1136 (when he was heard by John of Salisbury), but it established in the half-century after his death, when first was only for a brief space : no new triumph, but a last the completed Organon, and gradually all the other works great trial, awaited him in the few years to come of his of the Greek thinker, came to be known in the schools : chequered life. As far back as the Paraclete days, he before his time it was rather upon the authority of Plato had counted as chief among his foes Bernard of Clairvaux, that the prevailing Realism sought to lean. As regards in whom was incarnated the principle of fervent and the central question of Universals, without having suffiunhesitating faith, from which rational inquiry like his cient knowledge of Aristotle's views, Abelard yet, in was sheer revolt, and now this uncompromising spirit was taking middle ground between the extravagant Realism of moving, at the instance of others, to crush the growing evil his master, William of Champeaux, or of St Anselm, and in the person of the boldest offender. After preliminary | the not less extravagant Nominalism (as we have it negotiations, in which Bernard was roused by Abelard's reported) of his other master, Roscellin, touched at more steadfastness to put forth all his strength, a council met than one point the Aristotelian position. Along with at Sens, before which Abelard, formally arraigned upon a Aristotle, also with Nominalists generally, he ascribed full number of heretical charges, was prepared to plead his reality only to the particular concretes; while, in opposicause. When, however, Bernard, not without foregone tion to the “insana sententiaof Roscellin, he declared terror in the prospect of meeting the redoubtable dialec- the Universal to be no mere word (vox), but to consist, or tician, had opened the case, suddenly Abelard appealed (perhaps we may say) emerge, in the fact of predication to Rome. The stroke availed him nothing; for Bernard, (sermo). Lying in the middle between Realism and who had power, notwithstanding, to get a condemnation extreme) Nominalism, this doctrine has often been spoken passed at the council, did not rest a moment till a second of as1 Conceptualism, but ignorantly so.

Abelard, precondemnation was procured at Rome in the following year. eminently a logician, did not concern himself with the Meanwhile, on his way thither to urge his plea in person, psychological question which the Conceptualist aims at Abelard had broken down at the Abbey of Cluni, and there, deciding as to the mental subsistence of the Universal. an utterly fallen man, with spirit of the humblest, and Outside of his dialectic, it was in ethics that Abelard only not bereft of his intellectual force, he lingered but a showed greatest activity of philosophical thought ; laying few months before the approach of death. Removed by very particular stress upon the subjective intention as friendly hands, for the relief of his sufferings, to the determining, if not the moral character, at least the moral Priory of St Marcel, he died on the 21st of April 1142. value, of human action. His thought in this direction, First buried at St Marcel, his remains soon after were wherein he anticipated something of modern speculation, carried off in secrecy to the Paraclete, and given over to is the more remarkable because his scholastic successors the loving care of Heloise, who in time came herself to accomplished least in the field of morals, hardly venturing to rest beside them. The bones of the pair were shifted bring the principles and rules of conduct under pure philomore than once afterwards, but they were marvellously sophical discussion, even after the great ethical inquries of preserved even through the vicissitudes of the French Aristotle became fully known to them. (G. C. R.) Revolution, and now they lie united in the well-known ABENCERRAGES, a family or faction that is said to tomb at Père-Lachaise.

have held a prominent position in the Moorish kingdom Great as was the influence exerted by Abelard on the of Granada in the 15th century. The name appears to have minds of his contemporaries and the course of mediæval been derived from the Yussuf ben-Serragh, the head of thought, he has been little known in modern times but the tribe in the time of Mahommed VII., who did that for his, connection with Heloise. Indeed, it was not till sovereign good service in his struggles to retain the the present century, when Cousin in 1836 issued the crown of which he was three times deprived. Nothing collection entitled 'Ouvrages inédits d'Abélard, that his is known of the family with certainty; but the name is

familiar from the interesting romance of Gines Perez de crombie early began the laudable practice of preserving Hita, Guerras civiles de Granada, which celebrates the accurate notes of the cases that fell under his care; and at feuds of the Abencerrages and the rival family of the a period when pathological anatomy was far too little Zegris, and the cruel treatment to which the former were regarded by practitioners in this country, he had the subjected. Florian's Gonsalvo of Cordova, and Chateau- merit of sedulously pursuing it, and collecting a mass of briand's Last of the Abencerrages, are imitations of Perez most important information regarding the changes prode Hita's work. The hall of the Abencerrages in the duced by disease on different organs; so that, before the Alhambra takes its name from being the reputed scene of year 1824, he had more extended experience, and more the massacre of the family.

correct views in this interesting field, than most of his ABENEZRA, or IBN Ezra, is the name ordinarily given contemporaries engaged in extensive practice. From 1816 to ABRAHAM BEN MEIR BEN EZRA (called also Abenare or he occasionally enriched the pages of the Edinburgh Evenare), one of the most eminent of the Jewish literati Medical and Surgical Journal with essays, that display of the Middle Ages. He was born at Toledo about 1090; left originality and industry, particularly those on the diseases Spain for Rome about 1140; resided afterwards at Mantua of the spinal cord and brain," and "on diseases of the (1145), at Lucca (1154), at Rhodes (1155 and 1166), and intestinal canal, of the pancreas, and spleen.” The first in England (1159); and died probably in 1168. He was of these formed the basis of his great and very original distinguished as a philosopher, astronomer, physician, and work, Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases poet, but especially as a grammarian and commentator. of the Brain and Spinal Cord, which appeared at EdinThe works by which he is best known form a series of Com- burgh in 1828. In the same year he published also mentaries on the books of the Old Testament, which have another very valuable work, his Researches on the Diseases nearly all been printed in the great Rabbinic Bibles of of the Intestinal Canal, Liver, and other Viscera of the Bomberg (1525-6), Buxtorf (1618-9), and Frankfurter Abdomen. Though his professional practice was very (1724-7). Abenezra’s commentaries are acknowledged to extensive and lucrative, he found time for other speculabe of very great value; he was the first who raised biblical tions and occupations. In 1830 he published his Inquiries exegesis to the rank of a science, interpreting the text concerning the Intellectual Powers of Man and the Investiaccording to its literal sense, and illustrating it from cognate gation of Truth, a work which, though less original and languages. His style is elegant, but is so concise as to be profound than his medical speculations, contains a popular sometimes obscure; and he occasionally indulges in epigram. view of an interesting subject, expressed in simple language. In addition to the commentaries, he wrote several treatises It was followed in 1833 by a sequel, The Philosophy of on astronomy or astrology, and a number of grammatical the Moral Feelings, the object of which, as stated in the works.

preface, was “to divest the subject of all improbable ABENSBERG, a small town of Bavaria, 18 miles S.W. speculations,” and to show “the important relation which of Regensburg, containing 1300 inhabitants. Here Napo- subsists between the science of mind and the doctrines of leon gained an important victory over the Austrians on revealed religion.” Both works have been very extensively the 20th of April 1809. The town is the Abusina of the read, reaching the 18th and 14th editions respectively in Romans, and ancient ruins exist in its neighbourhood. 1869. Soon after the publication of Moral Feelings, the

ABERAVON, a parliamentary and municipal borough University of Oxford conferred on the author the honorary of Wales, in the county of Glamorgan, beautifully situated degree of Doctor of Medicine, and in 1835 he was elected on the Avon, near its mouth, 8 miles east of Swansea. Lord Rector of Marischal College, Aberdeen. Dr AberThe town and adjacent villages have increased rapidly crombie was much beloved by his numerous friends for in recent years, from the extension of the mines of coal and the suavity and kindness of his manners, and was uniiron in the vicinity, and the establishment of extensive versally esteemed for his benevolence and unaffected piety. works for the smelting of tin, copper, and zinc. The He died on the 14th of November 1844 of a very uncomharbour, Port Talbot, has been much improved, and has mon disease, the bursting (from softening of the muscular good docks; and there is regular steam communication substance) of the coronary vessels of the heart. with Bristol. Ores for the smelting furnaces are imported ABERCROMBY, DAVID, M.D. This Scottish physifrom Cornwall, and copper, tin, and coal are exported. cian was sufficiently noteworthy half a century after his Aberavon unites with Swansea, Kenfigg, Loughor, and (probable) decease to have his Nova Medicince Praxis Neath, in returning a member to Parliament. In 1871 the reprinted at Paris in 1740; while during his lifetime his population of the parish was 3396, of the parliamentary Tuta ac efficax luis venereæ sæpe absque mercurio ac semper borough, 11,906.

absque salivatione mercuriali curando methodus (1684, 8vo) ABERCONWAY. See CONWAY.

was translated into German and published at Dresden in ABERCROMBIE, John, an eminent physician of Edin- 1702 (8vo). In 1685 were published De Pulsus Variaburgh, was the son of the Rev. George Abercrombie of tione (London; Paris, 1688, 12mo), and Ars explorandi Aberdeen, in which city he was born in 1781. After medicas facultates plantarum ex solo sap. (London). His attending the Grammar School and Marischal College, Opuscula were collected in 1687. These professional Aberdeen, he commenced his medical studies at Edinburgh writings gave him a place and memorial in Haller's Biblia in 1800, and obtained his degree of M.D. there in 1803. theca Medicince Pract. (4 vols. 8vo, 1779, tom. iii. p. 619); Soon afterwards he went to London, and for about a year but he claims passing remembrance rather as a metagave diligent attention to the medical practice and lectures physician by his remarkable controversial books in theo in St George's Hospital. In 1804 he returned to Edin-logy and philosophy. Formerly a Roman Catholic and burgh, became a Fellow of the College of Surgeons, and Jesuit, he abjured Popery, and published Protestancy commenced as general practitioner in that city; where, in proved Safer than Popery (London, 1686). But by far dispensary and private practice, he laid the foundation of the most noticeable of his productions is A Discourse that character for sagacity as an observer of disease, and of Wit (London, 1685). This treatise somehow has fallen judgment in its treatment, that eventually elevated him to out of sight—much as old coined gold gets hidden away the head of his profession. In 1823, be became a Licen --so that bibliographers do not seem to have met with tiate of the College of Physicians; in 1824, a Fellow of it, and assign it at hap-hazard to Patrick Abercromby, that body; and from the death of Dr Gregory in 1822, M.D. Notwithstanding, the most cursory examination he was considered the first physician in Scotland. Aber- of it proves that in this Discourse of Wit are contained

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some of the most characteristic and most definitely-put | important part he took in originating and supporting the metaphysical opinions of the Scottish philosophy of com United Industrial School in Edinburgh for ragged children, mon sense. Of this early metaphysician nothing biographi- irrespective of their religious belief, deserves to be gratecally has come down save that he was a Scotchman fully acknowledged and remembered, even by those who ("Scotus”)—born at Seaton. He was living early in the took the opposite side in the controversy which arose with 18th century. (Haller, as supra; Lawrence Charteris's regard to it. M.S., s. v.) So recently as 1833 was printed A Short ABERCROMBY, PATRICK, M.D., was the third son of Account of Scots Divines by him, edited by James Maidment, Alexander Abercromby of Fetterneir in Aberdeenshire, and Edinburgh.

(A. B. G.) brother of Francis Abercromby, who was created by James ABERCROMBY, JAMES, LORD DUNFERMLINE, third son II. Lord Glasford. He was born at Forfar in 1656. As of the celebrated Sir Ralph Abercromby, was born on the throughout Scotland, he could have had there the benefits of 7th Nov. 1776. Educated for the profession of the law, a good parish school; but it would seem from after events he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1801, but he that his family was Roman Catholic, and hence, in all prowas prevented from engaging to any considerable extent in bability, his education was private. This, and not the ungeneral practice by accepting appointments, first as commis- proved charge of perversion from Protestantism in subsersioner in bankruptcy, and subsequently, as steward of the viency to James II., explains his Roman Catholicism and estates of the Duke of Devonshire. He commenced his adhesion to the fortunes of that king.

that king. But, intending to political career in 1807, when he was elected member of become a doctor of medicine, he entered the University of Parliament for the borough of Midhurst. His sympathies St Andrews, where he took his degree of M.D. in 1685. with the small and struggling Opposition had already been From a statement in one of his preface-epistles to his magdeclared, and he at once attached himself to the Whig num opus, the Martial Achievements of the Scots Nation, party, with which he consistently acted throughout life. he must have spent most of his youthful years abroad. În 1812 he was returned for Calne, which he continued to It has been stated that he attended the University of represent until his elevation to the Scotch bench in 1830. Paris. The Discourse of Wit (1685), assigned to him, During this lengthened period he rendered conspicuous and belongs to Dr David Abercromby, a contemporary. On his valuable services to his party and the country. In Scotch return to Scotland, he is found practising as a physician in affairs he took, as was natural, a deep interest; and, by Edinburgh, where, besides his professional duties, he gave introducing, on two separate occasions, a motion for the himself with characteristic zeal to the study of antiquities, redress of a special glaring abuse, he undoubtedly gave a a study to which he owes it that his name still lives, for strong impulse to the growing desire for a general reform. he finds no place in either Haller or Hutchison's Medical In 1824, and again in 1826, he presented a petition from Biographies. He was out-and-out a Scot of the old patriotic the inhabitants of Edinburgh, and followed it up by a type, and, living as he did during the agitations for the inotion " for leave to bring in a Bill for the more effectual union of England and Scotland, he took part in the war representation of the city of Edinburgh in the Commons of pamphlets inaugurated and sustained by prominent House of Parliament." The motion was twice rejected, men on both sides of the Border. He crossed swords but by such narrow majorities as showed that the monopoly with no less redoubtable a foe than Daniel Defoe in his of the self-elected Council of thirty-three was doomed. In Advantages of the Act of Security, compared with those of 1827, on the accession of the Whigs to power under Mr the intended Union (Edinburgh, 1707), and A Vindication Canning, Abercromby received the appointment of Judge of the Same against Mr De Foe (ibid.) The logic and Advocate-General and Privy Counsellor. In 1830 he was reason were with Defoe, but there was a sentiment in the raised to the judicial bench as Chief Baron of the Excho advocates of independence which was not sufficiently quer in Scotland. The office was abolished in 1832; and allowed for in the clamour of debate; and, besides, the almost ccntemporaneously, Edinburgh, newly enfranchised, disadvantages of union were near, hard, and actual, the was called to return two members to the first reformed advantages remote, and contingent on many things and Parliament. As the election marked the commencement persons. Union wore the look to men like Abercromby of a new political era, the honour to be conferred possessed and Lord Belhaven of absorption, if not extinction. Abera peculiar value, and the choice of the citizens fell most cromby was appointed physician to James II., but the Reappropriately on Francis Jeffrey and James Abercromby, volution deprived him of the post. Crawford (in his Peertwo of the foremost of those to whom they were indebted age, 1716) ascribes the title of Lord Glasford to an intended for their hard-won privileges. In 1834 Mr Abercromby recognition of ancestral loyalty; its bestowment in 1685 obtained a seat in the cabinet of Lord Grey as Master of corresponding with the younger brother's graduation as the Mint. On the assembling of the new Parliament in M.D., may perhaps explain his appointment. A minor 1835, the election of a speaker gave occasion for the first literary work of Abercromby's was a translation of M. trial of strength between the Reform party and the followers Beague's partizan History (so called) of the War carried on of Sir Robert Peel. After a memorable division, in which by the Popish Government of Cardinal Beaton, aided by the more members voted than had ever before been known, French, against the English under the Protector Somerset, Abercromby was elected by 316 votes, to 310 recorded for which appeared in 1707. The work with which AberSlanners-Sutton. The choice was amply justified, not only cromby's name is permanently associated is his already by the urbanity, impartiality, and firmness with which noticed Martial Achievements of the Scots Nation, issued in Abercromby discharged the public duties of the chair, but two noble folios, vol. i. 1711, vol. ii. 1716. In the titlealso by the important reforms he introduced in regard to page and preface to vol. i. he disclaims the ambition of the conduct of private business. In 1839 he resigned the being an historian, but in vol. ii., in title-page and preface office, and received the customary honour of a peerage, with alike, he is no longer a simple biographer, but an historian. the title of Lord Dunfermline. The evening of his life was That Dr Abercromby did not use the word "genuine history" passed in retirement at Colinton, near Edinburgh, where he in his title-page without warrant is clear on every page of died on the 17th April 1858. The courage and sagacity his large work. Granted that, read in the light of after which marked his entire conduct as a Liberal were never researches, much of the first volume must necessarily be more conspicuous than when, towards the close of his life, relegated to the region of the mythical, none the less vius he availed himself of an opportunity of practically asserting the historian a laborious and accomplished reader and inveshis cherished doctrine of absolute religious equality. The tigator of all available authorities, as well manuscript as

printed; while the roll of names of those who aided him and beneficent statesman. When he was appointed to the includes every man of note in Scotland at the time, from command in Ireland, an invasion of that country by the Sir Thomas Craig and Sir George Mackenzie to Mr Alex- French was confidently anticipated by the English ander Nisbet and Mr Thomas Ruddiman. The Martial Government. He used his utmost efforts to restore the Achievements has not been reprinted, though practically discipline of an army that was utterly disorganised; and, the first example of Scottish typography in any way as a first step, he anxiously endeavoured to protect the noticeable, vol. ii. having been printed under the scholarly people, by re-establishing the supremacy of the civil power, supervision of Thomas Ruddiman. The date of his death and not allowing the military to be called out, except when is uncertain. It has been variously assigned to 1715, it was indispensably necessary for the enforcement of the 1716, 1720, and 1726, and it is usually added that he left law and the maintenance of order. Finding that he received a widow in great poverty. That he was living in 1716 is no adequate support from the head of the Irish Governcertain, as Crawford speaks of him (in his Peerage, 1716) ment, and that all his efforts were opposed and thwarted 9s “my worthy friend.” Probably he died about 1716. by those who presided in the councils of Ireland, he resigned Memoirs of the Abercrombys, commonly given to him, does the command. His departure from Ireland was deeply not appear to have been published. (Chambers's Eminent lamented by the reflecting portion of the people, and was Scotsmen, s. v.; Anderson's Scottish Nation, s. v.; Chalmers's speedily followed by those disastrous results which he had Biog. Dict., s. V.; Chalmers's Life of Ruddiman; Haller's anticipated, and which he so ardently desired and had so Bibliotheca Medicinæ Pract., 4 vols. 4to, 1779; Hutchin- wisely endeavoured to prevent. After holding for a short son's Biog. Medical, 2 vols. 8vo, 1799; Lee's Defoe, 3 vols. period the office of Commander-in-Chief in Scotland, Sir 8vo.)

(A. B. G.) Ralph, when the enterprise against Holland was resolved ABERCROMBY, SIR RALPH, K.B., Lieutenant-General upon in 1799, was again called to command under the in the British army, was the eldest son of George Aber- Duke of York. The difficulties of the ground, the inclecromby of Tullibody, Clackmannanshire, and was born in mency of the season, unavoidable delays, the disorderly October 1734. After passing some time at an excellent movements of the Russians, and the timid duplicity of the school at Alloa, he went to Rugby, and in 1752-53 he Dutch, defeated the objects of that expedition. But it attended classes in Edinburgh University. In 1754 he was was confessed by the Dutch, the French, and the British sent to Leipsic to study civil law, with a view to his pro- alike, that even victory the most decisive could not ceding to the Scotch bar, of which it is worthy of notice have more conspicuously proved the talents of this distinthat both his grandfather and his father lived to be the guished officer. His country applauded the choice, when, oldest members. On returning from the Continent he in 1801, he was sent with an army to dispossess the expressed a strong preference for the military profession, French of Egypt. His experience in Holland and the and a cornet's commission was accordingly obtained for West Indies particularly fitted him for this new command, him (March 1756) in the 3d Dragoon Guards. He rose as was proved by his carrying his army in health, in spirits, through the intermediate gradations to the rank of lieu- and with the requisite supplies, in spite of very great diffitenant-colonel of the regiment (1773), and in 1781 he culties, to the destined scene of action. The debarkation became colonel of the 103d infantry. When that regiment of the troops at Aboukir, in the face of an opposing force, was disbanded in 1783 he retired upon half-pay. That is justly ranked among the most daring and brilliant up to this time he had scarcely been engaged in active exploits of the English army. A battle in the neighbourservice, was owing mainly to his disapproval of the policy hood of Alexandria (March 21, 1801) was the sequel of of the Government, and especially to his sympathies with this successful landing, and it was Sir R. Abercromby's the American colonists in their struggles for independence; fate to fall in the moment of victory. He was struck by and his retirement is no doubt to be ascribed to similar a spent ball, which could not be extracted, and died seven feelings. But on France declaring war against England days after the battle. The Duke of York paid a just in 1793, he hastened to resume his professional duties; tribute to the great soldier's memory in the general order and, being esteemed one of the ablest and most intrepid issued on the occasion of his death :-“His steady observofficers in the whole British forces, he was appointed to ance of discipline, his ever-watchful attention to the the command of a brigade under the Duke of York, for health and wants of his troops, the persevering and unservice in Holland. He commanded the advanced guard conquerable spirit which marked his military career, the in the action on the heights of Cateau, and was wounded splendour of his actions in the field, and the heroism of at Nimeguen. The duty fell to him of protecting the his death, are worthy the imitation of all who desire, like British army in its disastrous retreat out of Holland, in him, a life of heroism and a death of glory.” By a vote the winter of 1794–5. In 1795 he received the honour of of the House of Commons, a monument was erected in knighthood, the Order of the Bath being conferred on him honour of Sir Ralph Abercromby in St Paul's Cathedral. in acknowledgment of his services. The same year he His widow was created a peeress, and a pension of £2000 was appointed to succeed Sir Charles Grey, as commander a year was settled on her and her two successors in the in-chief of the British forces in the West Indies. In 1796, title. It


be mentioned that Abercromby was returned, Grenada was suddenly attacked and taken by a detach- after a keen contest, as member of Parliament for his ment of the army under his orders. He afterwards native county of Clackmannanshire in 1773; but a parliaobtained possession of the settlements of Demerara and mentary life had no attractions for him, and he did not Essequibo, in South America, and of the islands of St | seek re-election. A memoir of the later years of his life Lucia, St Vincent, and Trinidad. He returned in 1797

He returned in 1797 (1793-1801), by his son, Lord Dunfermline, was published to Europe, and, in reward for his important services, was in 1861. appointed to the command of the regiment of Scots Greys, ABERDARE, a town of Wales, in the county of intrusted with the governments of the Isle of Wight, Fort Glamorgan, on the right bank of the river Cynon, four George, and Fort Augustus, and raised to the rank of lieu- miles S.W. of Merthyr Tydvil. The district around is tenant-general. He held, in 1797-8, the chief command rich in valuable mineral products, and coal and iron of the forces in Ireland. There he laboured to maintain mining are very extensively carried on in the neighbourthe discipline of the army, to suppress the rising rebellion, hood. Important tin-works, too, have been recently and to protect the people from military oppression, with a opened. Part of the coal is used at the iron-works, and care worthy alike of a great general and an enlightened large quantities are sent to Cardiff for exportation, Aber

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