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ect, or &c. (Et coctera), And the rest; and so foi t 11.

Pope's bulls, briefs, and consistorial decrees.

29 Mus. D. Doctor of Music.

%. (Exempli gratia), For example. N.P. Notary Public. P.C. Privy Councillor.

Example Ph.D. (Philosophice Doctor), Doctor of Philosophy,

or Fahr. Fahrenheit's Thermometer. P.P. Parish Priest.

Fec. (Fecil), He made (or did) it. P.R.A. President of the Royal Academy.

fl. Flourished. Q.C. Queen's Counsel.

Fo. or Fol. Folio. R. (Rex, Regina), King, Queen.

f.o.b. Free on board. R.A. Royal Academician. Royal Artillery.

G.P.O. General Post Office, R.A.M. Royal Academy of Music.

H.M.S. Her Majesty's Ship. R.E. Royal Engineers.

Ib. or Ibid. (Ibidem), In the sano place, Reg. Prof. Regius Professor.

Id. (Idem), The same. R.M. Royal Marines.

i.e. (Id est), That is. R.N. Royal Navy.

I.H.S. (Jesus Hominum Salvator), Jesus tho Sariour of mun, S. or St. Saint.


(Infra), Below. S.S.C. Solicitor before the Supreme Courts (of Scotland).

inst. Instant, the present month. S.T.P. (Sacrosanctæ Thcologiæ Professor), Profescor of Sacred 1.0.U. I owe you. Theology.

i.q. (Idem quod), The same as. V.C. Vice-Chancellor. Victoria Cross.

*.7.1. (xad på horá), Et cætera, and the rest, V.G. Vicar-General.

L. or Lib. (Liber), Book. V.S. Veterinary Surgeon.

Lat. Latitude. W.S. Writer to the Signet [in Scotland). Equivalent to Attorney.


(Loco citato), In the place cited.


L.S. (Locus sigilli), The place of the seal.

Mem. (Memento), Remember, Memorandum.
L.,' £,” or l. (libra), pound MS. Manuscript. MSS. Manuscripts.
bar. barrel.


N.B. (Nota bene), Mark well ; take notice. bus. bushel.

lb. or Ib. (libra), pound (weight). N.B. North Britain (i.e., Scotland).
m. or mi. mile; minute.

N.D. No date. c. (or cub.) ft. &c. cubic foot, m. minim.

nem. con. (Nemine contrcdicente), No one contradicting.

No. (Numero), Number. cut. hundredweight.


N.S. New Style. d. (denarius), penny.

N.T. New Testament. deg. degree.


ob. (Obiit), Died. dr. drachm on dram ro. pole.

Obs. Obsolete. dwt. pennyweighii.


0.H.M.S. On Her Majesty's Service. f. franc.

9. (quadrans), farthing O.S. Old Style. fi. florin. qr. quarter.

O.T. Old Testament. ft. foot. qt. quart.

Page. Pp. Pages. fur. furlong.


(Per), For; e.g., y lb., For one pound. gal. gallon.


Pinx. (Pinxit), He painted it.
8. or / (solidus), shilling.

P.M. (Post meridiem), Afternoon.
h. or hr. hour.
S. or sec. second.

P.O. Post Office. P.0.0. Post Office Order, bhd. hogshead. sc. or scr. scruple.

P.P.C. (Pour prendre congé), To take leave. in. inch.

sq. ft. &c. square foot, &c. P.R. Prize-ring: kilo. kilometre. st. stone.

prox. (Proximo (mense]), Next month. yd.

P.S. Postscript.


p.t. or pro. tem. (Pro tempore), For the time. A. Accepted.

P.T.O. Please turn over. A.C. (Ante Christum), Before Christ.

Q., Qu., or Qy. Query ; Question. acc., a/c., or acct. Account.

9.d. (Quasi dicat), As if he should say.; as much as to say. A.D. (Anno Domini), In the year of our Lord.

Q. E..D. (Quod erat demonstrandum), which was to be demonstrated, A.E.I.O.U. Austriæ est imperare orbi universo, 3 or Alles Erdreich Q.E.F. (Quod erat faciendum), which was to be done. Ist Oesterreich Unterthan.

q.s. or quant. sufl. (Quantum sufficit), As much as is sufficient. Æt. or Ætat. (Ætatis (anno]), In the year of his age.

9.v. (Quod vide), Which see. A.H. (Anno Hegiræ), In the year of the Hegira (the Mohammedan R. or B. (Recipe), Take. era).

(= r. for radix), the sign of the square root. A.M. (Anno Mundi), In the year of the world.

R.I.P. (Requiescat in pace/), May he rest in peace ! A.M. (Ante meridicm), Forenoon.

(Scilicet), Namely; that is to say. Anon. Anonymous.

Sc. or Sculp. (Sculpsit), He engraved it. A.U.C. (Anno urbis conditæ), In the year from the building of the S.D.U.K. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. city (i.e., Rome.)

seq. or sq., seqq, or sqq; (Sequens, sequentia), The following. B.C. Before Christ.

S.P. (Sine prole), Without offspring. C. or Cap. (Caput), Chapter.

S.P.G. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. C. Centigrade (or Celsius's) Thermometer.

Sup. (Supra), Above. cent." (Centum), A hundred, frequently £100.

Sub voce), Under the word (or heading). Cf. (Confer), Compare.

T.C.D. Trinity College, Dublin. Ch. or Chap. Chapter.

ult. (Ultimo (mense]), Last month. Co. Company. "County.

U.S. United States. Cr. Creditor.

(Versus), Against. curt. Current, the present month.

v. or vid. (Vide), See. D.G. (Dei gratia), By the grace of God.

viz. (Videlicet), Namely Do. Ditto, the same.

V. R. (Victoria Regina), Victoria the Queen.
D.O.M. (Dco Optimo Maximo), To God the Best and Greatest. Xmas. Christmas (This X is a Greck letter, corresponding to Ch).
Dr. Debtor.
D.V. (Deo rolente), God willing.

(See Grævius's Thesaurus Antiquitatum, 1694, 899.;

Nicolai's Tractatus de Siglis Veterum ; Mommsen's Corpus Characters, not properly abbreviations, are used in the same way; Inscription um Latinarum, 1863, 899.; Natalis de Wailly's for’" ounces, drachms, scruples." Z is probably to be traced to the Paléographie, Paris, 1838; Alph. Chassant's Paléographie, written form of the x in “oz."

1854, and ? These forms (as well as 8, the symbol for the American dollar) are

manual of placed before their amounts. 3 It is given to Austria to rule the whole earth. The device of


a body of writers in the Papal Austria, first adopted by Frederick III.


business is to sketch out and prepare in *“Per cent." is often signified by %, a corm traceable to “100." due form








Dictionnaire des Abréviations, 3d ed., 1866. A che abbronisti ons onderarment use is a desideratum,



They are first mentioned in a bull of Benedict XII., early | most determined resistance, surrendered himself to the in the 14th century. Their number is fixed at seventy- Duc d'Aumale, on the 220 December 1847. The promise, two, of whom twelve, distinguished as de parco majori, hold that he would be allowed to retire to Alexandria or St prelatic rank; twenty-two, de parco minori, are clergymen of Jean d'Acre, upon the faith of which Abd-el-Kader had lower rank; and the remainder, examinatores, may be laymen. given himself up, was broken by the French government.

ABDALLATIF, or ABD-UL-LATIF, a celebrated physician He was taken to France, and was imprisoned first in the and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of castle of Pau, and afterwards in that of Amboise. In 1852 the East, was born at Baghdad in 1162. An interesting Louis Napoleon gave him his liberty on condition of his not memoir of Abdallatif, written by himself, has been pre- returning to Algeria. Since then he resided successively at served with additions by Ibn-Abu-Osaiba, a contemporary." Broussa, Constantinople, and Damascus. He is reported From that work we learn that the higher education of the to have died at Mecca in October 1873. See ALGERIA. youth of Baghdad consisted principally in a minute and ABDERA (1.), in Ancient Geography, a maritime town of careful study of the rules and principles of grammar, and Thrace, eastward from the mouth of the river Nestus. in their committing to memory the whole of the Koran, a Mythology assigns the founding of the town to Heroules ; treatise or two on philology and jurisprudence, and the but Herodotus states that it was first colonised by Timesias choicest Arabian poetry. After attaining to great pro- of Clazomenæ, whom the Thracians in a short time expelled. ficiency in that kind of learning, Abdallatif applied him- Rather more than a century later (B.c. 541), the people of self to natural philosophy and medicine. To enjoy the Seos recolonised Abdera. The town soon became one of society of the learned, he went first to Mosul (1189), and considerable importance, and in B.C. 408, when it was reafterwards to Damascus, the great resort of the eminent duced by Thrasybulus the Athenian, it is described as in a men of that age. The chemical fooleries that engrossed very flourishing condition. Its prosperity was greatly imthe attention of some of these had no attraction for him, paired by its disastrous war with the Triballi (circa B.C. but he entered with eagerness into speculative discussions. 376), and very little is heard of it thereafter. The With letters of recommendation from Saladin's vizier, he Abderitæ, or Abderitani, were proverbial for their want of visited Egypt, where the wish he had long cherished to wit and judgment; yet their city gave birth to several converse with Maimonides, “the Eagle of the Doctors,”: eminent persons, as Protagoras, Democritus, and Anaxarchus was gratified. He afterwards formed one of the circle of the philosophers, Hecatæus the historian, Nicænetus the learned men whom Saladin gathered around him at Jeru- poet, and others. salem, and shared in the great sultan's favours. He taught ABDERA (2.), a town in Hispania Bætica, founded by medicine and philosophy at Cairo and at Damascus for a the Carthaginians, on the south coast, between Malaça and number of years, and afterwards, for a shorter period, at Prom. Charidemi. It is probably represented by the Aleppo. His love of travel led him in his old age to visit modern Adra. different parts of Armenia and Asia Minor, and he was ABDICATION, the act whereby a person in office setting out on a pilgrimage to Mecca when he died at renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the Baghdad in 1231. Abdallatif was undoubtedly a man of time for which it is held. The word is seldom used except great knowledge and of an inquisitive and penetrating in the sense of surrendering the supreme power in a state. mind, but is said to have been somewhat vain of his attain- Despotic sovereigns are at liberty to divest themselves of ments. Of the numerous works—most of them on medi- their powers at any time, but it is otherwise with a limited cine-which Osaiba ascribes to him, one only, the Account monarchy. The throne of Great Britain cannot be lawfully of Egypt, appears to be known in Europe. The manuscript abdicated unless with the consent of the two Houses of Parof this work, which was discovered by Pococke the Orien- liament. When James II., after throwing the Great Seal talist, is preserved in the Bodleian Library. It was trans- into the Thames, fled to France in 1688, he did not formally lated into Latin by Professor White of Oxford in 1800, and resign the crown, and the question was discussed in Parliainto French, with very valuable notes, by De Sacy in 1810. ment whether he had forfeited the throne or had abdicated. It consists of two parts: the first gives a general view of The latter designation was agreed on, for in a full assembly Egypt; the second treats of the Nile, and contains a vivid of the Lords and Commons, met in convention, it was redescription of a famine caused, during the author's residence solved, in spite of James's protest," that King James II. in Egypt, by the river failing to overflow its banks. The having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of the kingwork gives an authentic detailed account of the state of dom, by breaking the original contract between king and Egypt during the middle ages.

people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, ABD-EL-KADER, celebrated for his brave resistance to having violated the fundamental laws, and having withthe advance of the French in Algeria, was born near drawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the Mascara, in the early part of the year 1807. His father government, and that the throne is thereby vacant.” The was a man of great influence among his countrymen from Scotch Parliament pronounced a decree of forfeiture and his high rank and learning, and Abd-el-Kader himself at deposition. Among the most memorable abdications of an early age acquired a wide reputation for wisdom and antiquity may be mentioned that of Sulla the dictator, B.C. piety, as well as for skill in horsemanship and other manly 79, and that of the Emperor Diocletian, A.D. 305. The followexercises. In 1831 he was chosen Emir of Mascara, and ing is a list of the more important abdications of latertimes:leader of the combined tribes in their attempt to check the growing power of the French in Africa. His efforts were

1048 Benedict IX., Pope,

1131 at first successful, and in 1834 he concluded a treaty with Stephen H. of Hungary,

Albert (the Bear) of Brandenburg,

1169 the French general, which was very favourable to his cause. Ladislaus III., Duke of Poland,

1207 This treaty was broken in the succeeding year; but as the John Balliol of Scotland, war that followed was mainly in favour of the Arabs, peace John XXIII., Pope,

John Cantacuzene, Emperor of the East,

1415 was renewed in 1837. War again broke out in 1839, Eric VII. of Denmark and xiii. of Sweden, and for more than a year was carried on in a very Amurath II., Ottoman Emperor,

1444 and 1445 desultory manner. In 1841, however, Marshal Bugeaud Charles V., Emperor,. assumed the chief command of the French force, which Christina of Sweden,

John Casimir of Poland,

1668 numbered nearly 100,000 men.

The war
James II. of England,

1688 carried on with great vigour, and Abd-el-Kader, after a Frederick Augustus of Poland,



1296 1355


1556 1654



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A.D. 1724

express instructions, Abdul Medjid set at once about carryPhilip V. of Spain, Victor Amadeus II. of Sardinia,

1730 ing out the extensive reforms to which Mahmoud had so Achmet III., Ottoman Emperor,

1730 energetically devoted himself. In November 1839 was Charles of Naples (on accession to throne of Spain), 1759 proclained an edict, known as the Hatti-sherif of Gulhané, Stanislaus II. of Poland,

1795 consolidating and enforcing these reforms, which was Charles Emanuel IV. of Sardinia,

June 4, 1802 Charles IV. of Spain,

Mar. 19, 1808 supplemented, at the close of the Crimean war, by a Joseph Bonaparte of Naples,

June 6, 1808 similar statute, issued in February 1856. By these enactGustavus IV. of Sweden,

Mar. 29, 1809 ments it was provided that all classes of the sultan's subLouis Bonaparte of Holland,

July 2, 1810 jects should have security for their lives and property ; Napoleon of France,

April 4, 1814, and June 22, 1815 that taxes should be fairly imposed and justice impartially Victor Emanuel of Sardinia,

Mar. 13, 1821 Charles X. of France,

Aug. 2, 1830 administered ; and that all should have full religious Pedro of Brazil,

April 7, 1831 liberty and equal civil rights. The scheme was regarded Don Miguel of Portugal, i

May 26, 1834

as so revolutionary by the aristocracy and the educated William I. of Holland,


Z 1840 classes (the Ulema) that it met with keen opposition, and Louis Philippe of France,

Feb. 24, 1848 Louis Charles of Bavaria,

Mar. 21, 1848

was in consequence but partially put in force, especially in Ferdinand of Austria,

Dec. 2, 1848 the remoter parts of the empire; and more than one conCharles Albert of Sardinia,

Mar. 23, 1849 spiracy was formed against the sultan's life on account of Leopold II. of Tuscany,

July 21, 1859

it. Of the other measures of reform promoted by Abdul Isabella II. of Spain,

June 25, 1870 Amadeus I. of Spain,

Feb. 11, 1873 Medjid the more important were—the reorganisation of the

army (1843-4), the institution of a council of public inABDOMEN, in Anatomy, the lower part of the trunk of struction (1846), the abolition of an odious and unfairly the body, situated between the thorax and the pelvis. See imposed capitation tax, the repression of slave trading, and ANATOMY.

various provisions for the better administration of the public ABDOMINALES, or ABDOMINAL FISHES, a sub-division service and for the advancement of commerce. The public of the Malacopterygious Order, whose ventral fins are placed history of his times—the disturbances and insurrections in behind the pectorals, under the abdomen. The typical different parts of his dominions throughout his reign, and abdominals are carp, salmon, herring, silures, and pike. the great war successfully carried on against Russia by

ABDUCTION, a law term denoting the forcible or Turkey, and by England, France, and Sardinia, in the fraudulent removal of a person, limited by custom to the interest of Turkey (1853–56)—can be merely alluded to case where a woman is the victim. In the case of men or in this personal notice. When Kossuth and others sought children, it has been usual to substitute the term KID- refuge in Turkey, after the failure of the Hungarian rising NAPPING (q.v.) The old severe laws against abduction, in 1849, the sultan was called on by Austria and Russia to generally contemplating its object as the possession of an surrender them, but boldly and determinedly refused. It heiress and her fortune, have been repealed by 24 and 25 is to his credit, too, that he would not allow the conVict. c. 100, s. 53, which makes it felony for any one from spirators against his own life to be put to death. He bore motives of lucre to take away or detain against her will, the character of being a kind and honourable man. with intent to marry or carnally know her, &c., any woman Against this, however, must be set down his excessive of any age who has any interest in any real or personal extravagance, especially towards the end of his life. He estate, or is an heiress presumptive, or co-heiress, or pre- died on the 25th of June 1861, and was succeeded, not by sumptive next of kin to any one having such an interest; one of his sons, but by his brother, Abdul Aziz, the present or for any one to cause such a woman to be married or sultan, as the oldest survivor of the family of Othman. carnally known by any other person; or for any one with À BECKET, THOMAS, Archbishop of Canterbury and such intent to allure, take away, or detain any such woman Chancellor of England in the 12th century, was born in under the age of twenty-one, out of the possession and against London on the 21st of December 1118. His father, the will of her parents or guardians. By s. 54, forcible taking Gilbert Becket, and his mother Roesa or Matilda, were away or detention against her will of any woman of any age both, there can be little doubt, of Norman extraction, if with like intent is felony. Even without such intent, abduc- indeed they themselves were not immigrants from Normandy tion of any unmarried girl under the age of sixteen is a to England. Gilbert Becket, a merchant, and at one time misdemeanour. In Scotland, where there is no statutory Sheriff of London, a man of generous impulses and someadjustment, abduction is similarly dealt with by practice. what lavish hospitality, provided for his only child Thomas

ABDUL MEDJID, Sultan of Turkey, the thirty-first all the attainable advantages of influential society and a sovereign of the house of Othman, was born April 23, good education. At ten years of age Thomas was placed 1823, and succeeded his father Mahmoud II. on the 2d under the tuition of the canons regular of Merton on the of July 1839. Mahmoud appears to have been unable Wandle in Surrey. From Merton he proceeded to study in to effect the reforms he desired in the mode of educating the London schools, then in high repute. At Pevensey his children, so that his son received no better education Castle, the seat of his father's friend Richer de l'Aigle, one than that given, according to use and wont, to Turkish of the great barons of England, he subsequently became a princes in the harem. When Abdul Medjid succeeded to proficient in all the feats and graces of chivalry. From the throne, the affairs of Turkey were in an extremely Pevensey he betook himself to the study of theology in the critical state. At the very time his father died, the news University of Paris. He never became a scholar, much was on its way to Constantinople that the Turkish army less a theologian, like Wolsey, or even like some of the had been signally defeated at Nisib by that of the rebel learned ecclesiastics of his own day; but his intellect was Egyptian viceroy, Mehemet Ali; and the Turkish fleet was vigorous and original, and his manners captivating to his at the same time on its way to Egypt, to be surrendered associates and popular with the multitude. His father's perfidiously by its commander to the same enemy. But failure in business recalled him to London, and for three through the intervention of the great European powers, years he acted as a clerk in a lawyer's office. But a man Mchomet Ali was obliged to come to terms, and the Otto so variously accomplished could not fail to stumble on man empire was saved. In compliance with his father's preferment sooner or later. Accordingly, about 1142, 1 Pedro bad succeeded to the throne of Portugal in 1826, but abdi

Archdeacon Baldwin, a learned civilian, a friend of the cated it at once in favour of his daughter,

elder Becket, introduced him to Thcobald, Archbishop of

Canterbury, who at once appointed him to an office in the civil tribunals, put ecclesiastical dignities at the royal dis Archiepiscopal Court. His talents speedily raised him to posal, prevented all appeals to Rome, and made Henry the the archdeacoury of the see. À Becket's tact in assisting virtual“ head of the church.” For his guilty compliance to thwart an attempt to interest the Pope in favour of the with these anti-papal constitutions he received the special coronation of Stephen's son Eustace, paved the way to the pardon and absolution of his holiness, and proceeded to archdeacon's elevation to the Chancellorship of England anathematise them with the energy of a genuine remorse. under Henry II., a dignity to which he was raised in 1155. The king resolved on his ruin. He was summoned before As he had served Theobald the archbishop, so he served a great council at Northampton, and in defiance of justice Henry the king faithfully and well. It was his nature to was called on to account for the sum of 44,000 marks be loyal. Enthusiastic partisanship is, in fact, the key to declared to have been misappropriated by him during his much that is otherwise inexplicable in his suhsequent con-chancellorship. "For what happened before my consecraduct towards Henry. When at a later period À Becket was tion," said À Becket, “I ought not to answer, nor will I. raised to the primacy of England, a dignity not of his own Know, moreover, that ye are my children in God; neither seeking, he must needs quarrel with Henry in the interest law nor reason allows you to judge your father. I refer my of the Pope and" for the honour of God.” As Chancellor of quarrel to the decision of the Pope. To him I appeal, and England he appeared in the war of Toulouse at the head of shall now, under the protection of the Catholic Church and the chivalry of England, and “who can recount," says his the Apostolic See, depart." He effected his escape to France, attendant and panegyrist Grim, “the carnage, the desolation and took refuge in the Cistercian monastery of Pontigny, he made at the head of a strong body of soldiers ? He whence he repeatedly anathematised his enemies in attacked castles, and razed towns and cities to the ground; England, and hesitated not to speak of Henry as a "malihe burned down houses and farms, and never showed the cious tyrant.” Pope Alexander III., though at heart a slightest touch of pity to any one who rose in insurrection warm supporter of Becket, was gniarded in his conduct against his master. In single comba: he vanquished and towards Henry, who had shown a disposition to support the made prisoner the valiant Knight Engelram de Trie. Nor anti-pope Pascal III., and it was not till the Archbishop of did À Becket the chancellor seek to quell Henry's secular foes York, in defiance of a papal bull, had usurped the functions alone. He was the able mouthpiece of the Crown in its of the exiled primate by officiating at the coronation of contention with the Bishop of Chichester, who had alleged Henry's son, that Alexander became really formidable. À that the permission of the Pope was necessary to the con Becket was now resolute for martyrdom or victory. Henry ferring or taking away of ecclesiastical benefices; and he began to tremble, and an interview between him and Becket rigorously exacted scutage, a military tax in lieu of personal was arranged to take place at Fereitville in 1170. It was service in the field, from the clergy, who accused him of agreed that À Becket should return to his see, and that the "plunging a sword into the bosom of his mother the king should discharge his debts and defray the expenses of church.” His pomp and munificence as chancellor were his journey. À Becket proceeded to the coast, but the king, beyond precedent. In 1159 he undertook, at Henry's who had promised to meet him, broke his engagement in request, an embassy to the French Court for the purpose every particular. À Becket, in retaliation, excommunicated of affiancing the king's eldest son to the daughter of the the Archbishop of York and the Bishops of London and king of France. His progress through the country was Salisbury for officiating at the coronation of the king's son. like a triumphal procession. “How wonderful must be The terrified prelates took refuge in Normandy with Henry, the king of England himself whose chancellor travels in who, on hearing their tale, accompanied by an account of such state !” was on every one's lips. In 1162 he was À Becket's splendid reception at Canterbury, exclaimed in elected Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Foliot, Bishop ungovernable fury, “Of the cowards who eat my bread, is of Herford, alone dissenting, and remarking sarcastically, there not one who will free me from this turbulent priest ?" at the termination of the ceremony, that “the king had Four knights, Fitzurse, Tracy, Morville, and Brito, resolveb worked a miracle in having that day turned a layman into to avenge their sovereign, who it appears was ignorant of an archbishop and a soldier into à saint.” Hitherto À their intention. They arrived in Canterbury, and finding Becket had only been in deacon's orders, and had made no the archbishop, threatened him with death if he would not profession of sanctity of life. At the same time, there is absolve the excommunicated bishops. “In vain,” replied nothing to show that his character was stained by the gross À Becket, “ you threaten me. If all the swords in England licentiousness of the times. Now, however, he devoted were brandishing over my head, your terrors could not move himself body and soul to the service of the church. The Foot to foot you will find me fighting the battle of the fastidious courtier was at once transformed into the squalid Lord.” He was barbarously murdered in the great cathedral, penitent, who wore hair-cloth next his skin, fed on roots, at the foot of the altar of St Benedict, on the 29th Decem. drank nauseous water, and daily washed the feet of thirteen ber 1170. Two years thereafter he was canonised by the beggars. Henry, who had expected to see the archbishop Pope; and down to the Reformation innumerable pilgrimcompletely sunk in the chancellor, was amazed to receive ages were made to the shrine of St Thomas of Canterbury the following laconic message from À Becket:-“I desire by devotees from every corner of Christendom. So numerous that you will provide yourself with another chancellor, as were the miracles wrought at his tomb, that Gervase of I find myself hardly sufficient for the duties of one office, Canterbury tells us two large volumes kept in the cathedral much less of two." From that moment there was strife were filled with accounts of them. Every fiftieth year a between À Becket and Henry, À Becket straining every jubilee was celebrated in his honour, which lasted fifteen nerve to extend the authority of the Pope, and Henry days ; plenary indulgences were then granted to all who doing his utmost to subject the church to his own will. visited his tomb; and as many as 100,000 pilgrims were Throughout the bitter struggle for supremacy which ensued registered at a time in Canterbury. The worship of St between À Becket and the king, À Becket was backed by Thomas superseded the adoration of God, and even that of the sympathy of the Saxon populace, Henry by the support the Virgin. In one year there was offered at God's altar of the Norman barons and by the greater dignitaries of the nothing; at that of the Virgin £4, ls. 8d.; while St church. At the outset À Becket was worsted.

Thomas received for his share £954, 6s. 3d. -an enormous constrained to take an oath, “ with good faith and without suin, if the purchasing power of money in those times be fraud or reserve, to observe the Constitutions of Claren considered. Henry VIII., with a just if somewhat ludidon," which subjected clerks guilty of crime to the ordinary | crous appreciation of the issue which À Becket had raised


He was


with his royal predecessor Henry II., not only pillaged the In patristic theology the striking contrast between the rich shrine dedicated to St Thomas, but caused the saint brothers was mystically explained and typically applied in himself to be cited to appear in court, and to be tried and various ways. Augustine, for example, regards Abel as condemned as a traitor, at the same time ordering his name the representative of the regenerate or spiritual man, and to be struck out of the calendar, and his bones to be burned Cain as the representative of the natural or corrupt man. and the ashes thrown in the air. À Becket's character and Augustine in his treatise De Hæresibus, c. 86, mentions a aims have been the subject of the keenest ecclesiastical and sect of Abelitae or Abelians, who seem to have lived in historic controversy down to the present time, but it is im- North Africa, and chiefly in the neighbourhood of Hippopossible to doubt the fundamental sincerity of the one or Regius. According to their tradition, Abel, though married, the disinterestedness of the other, however inconsistent his lived in continence, and they followed his practice in this actions may sometimes appear. If the fruit of the Spirit respect, so as to avoid the guilt of bringing sinful creatures be “ love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, into the world. faith, meekness, and temperance," A Becket was assuredly ABEL, KARL FRIEDRICH (1726–1787), a celebrated Gernot a saint, for he indulged to the last in the bitterest man musician. His adagio compositions have been highly invectives against his foes; but that he fought with praised, but he attained greater distinction as a performer admirable courage and devotion the “battle of the Lord,” than as a composer, his instrument being the Viola di gamba, according to the warlike ideas of an age with which he was which from his time has given place to the violoncello. in intense sympathy, is beyond dispute. He was the He studied under Sebastian Bach, played for ten years leading Ultramontane of his day, hesitating not to reprove (1748-58) in the band formed at Dresden by the Elector the Pope himself for lukewarmness in the cause of the of Saxony, under Hasse, and then, proceeding to England, "church's liberty." He was the last of the great ecclesiastics became (1759) chamber-musician to the queen of George III. of the type of Lanfranc and Anselm, who struggled for His life was shortened by habits of intemperance. supremacy with the civil power in England on almost equal ABEL, NIELS HENRIK, one of the ablest and acutest terms. In his day the secular stream was running very mathematicians of modern times, was born at Findöe in strong, and he might as chancellor have floated down the Norway in 1802, and died near Arendal in 1829. Concurrent pleasantly enough, governing England in Henry's sidering the shortness of his life, the extent and thoroughname. He nevertheless perished in a chivalrous effort to ness of his mathematical investigations and analyses are stem the torrent. The tendency of his principles was marvellous. His great powers of generalisation were disto supersede a civil by a spiritual despotism ; " but, in played in a remarkable degree in his development of the point of fact,” says Hook, in his valuable Life," he was theory of elliptic functions. Legendre's eulogy of Abel, a high-principled, high-spirited demagogue, who taught “Quelle tête celle du jeune Norvegien !" is the more forcible, the people to struggle for their liberties,” a struggle that the French mathematician had occupied himself with soon to commence, and of which he was by no means those functions for most of his lifetime. Abel's works, an impotent if an unconscious precursor.—See Dr Giles's edited by M. Holmboe, the professor under whom he studied Vita et Epistolæ S. Thomæ Cantuariensis ; Canon Morris's at Christiania, were published by the Swedish government Life of St Thomas Becket ; Canon Robertson’s Life of | in 1839. Becket; Canon Stanley's Historical Memorials of Canter ABEL, THOMAS, a Roman Catholic divine during the bury; J. G. Nichol's Pilgrimages of Walsingham and reign of Henry VIII., was an Englishman, but when or Canterbury; Hook's Lives of the Archbishops of Canter- where born does not appear. He was educated at Oxford, bury; and Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors of where he passed B.A. on 4th July 1513, M.A. on 27th England.

June 1516, and proceeded D.D. On 23d June 1530 he A'BECKETT, GILBERT ABBOTT, a successful cultivator was presented by Queen Catherine to the rectory of Bradof light literature, was born in London in 1811, and educated well in Essex, on the sea-coast. He had been introduced at Westminster School. He wrote burlesque dramas with to the court through the report of his learning in classical success from his boyhood, took an active share in the and living languages, and accomplishments in music; and establishment of different comic periodicals, particularly he was appointed domestic chaplain to Queen Catherine. Figaro in London and Punch, and was a constant contributor It speaks well both for the chaplain and his royal mistress, to the columns of the latter from its commencement till the that to the last he defended the outraged queen against time of his death. His principal publications, all over- "bluff King Hal.” The Defence, Invicta Veritas," was flowing with kindly humour, and rich in quaint fancies, printed at Luneberge in 1532. This pungent little book are his parodies of living dramatists (himself included), was replied to, but never answered, and remains the reprinted from Punch (1844); The Small Debts Act, with defence on Queen Catherine's part. Abel was ensnared, as Annotations and Explanations (1845); The Quizziology of greater men were, in the prophetic delusions and ravings of the British Drama and The Comic Blackstone (1846); A Elizabeth Barton, called the “ Holy Maid of Kent.” As Comic History of England (1847); and A Comic History of belonging to the Church of Rome, he inevitably opposed Rome (1852). He contributed occasionally, too, to the Henry VIII.'s assumption of supremacy in the church. Times and other metropolitan papers.

A'Beckett was Ultimately he was tried and condemned for “misprision called to the bar in 1841, and from 1849 discharged with of treason," and perished in the usual cruel and ignoble great efficiency the duties of a metropolitan police magis- way. The execution, as described, took place at Smithtrate. He died at Boulogne on the 30th of August field on July 30, 1540. If we may not concede the vene1856.

rable and holy name of martyr to Abel—and John Foxe ABEL (m, breath, vanity, transitoriness), the second is passionate in his refusal of it-yet we must hold that son of Adam, slain by Cain his elder brother (Gen. iv. he at least fell a victim to his unsparing defence of his 1-16). The narrative in Genesis, which tells us that "the queen and friend, the "misprision of treason" having Lord'had respect unto Abel and to his offering, but unto been a foregone conclusion. In stat. 25, Henry VIII., c. Cain and to his offering he had not respect," is supplemented 12, he is described as having “caused to be printed by the statement of the New Testament, that “ by faith and set forth in this realme diverse books against the Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain,” | divorce and separation.” Neither the Tractatus nor the (Heb. xi. 4), and that Cain slew Abel“ because his own “diverse books” are known. — Dodd, Church History, works were evil and his brother's righteous” (1 John iii. 12), Brussels, 1737, folio, vol. i. p. 208; Bourchier, Hist. Ecch

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