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/ a sciences require alteration and enlargement; the articles thanselvcs musfi, 7 566 _ m of instances, be written afresh rather tllan Simply revised. The scientific 5:0 0410:?’ the work will thus be to a great extent new. In attempting to distribute tbs waif];

for the new edition, so as fairly to cover the ground occupied by modern $610308) [have been largely indebted to Professor Huxley and Professor Clerk Maxwell, whose valuable help in the matter I am glad to have an opportunity of acknowledging.

Passing from Natural and Physical Science to Literature, History, and Philosophy, it may be noted that many sections of knowledge connected with these departments display fresh tendencies, and are working towards new results, which, if faithfully reflected, will require a new style of treatment. Speaking generally, it may be said that human nature and human life are the great objects of inquiry in these departments. Man, in his individual powers, complex relationships, associated activities, and collective progress, is dealt with alike in Literature, History, and Philosophy. In this wider aspect, the rudest and most fragmentary records of savage and barbarous races, the earliest stories and traditions of every lettered people, no less than their developed literatures, mythologies, and religions, are found to have a meaning and value of their own. As yet the rich materials thus supplied for throwing light on the central problems of human life and history have only been very partially turned to account. It may be said, indeed, that their real significance is perceived and appreciated, almost for the first time, in our own day. But under the influence of the modern spirit, they are now being dealt with in a strictly scientific manner The available facts of human history, collected over the widest areas, are carefully co-ordinated and grouped together, in the hope of ultimately evolving the laws of progress, moral and material, which underlie them, and which, when evolved, will help to connect and interpret the whole onward movement of the race. Already the critical use of the comparative method has produced very striking results in this new and stimulating field of research. Illustrations of this are seen in the rise and rapid development of the comparatively modern science of Anthropology, and the successful cultivation of the assistant sciences, such as Archaeology, Ethnography, and Philology, which directly contribute materials for its use. The activity of geographical research in both hemispheres, and the large additions recently made to our knowledge of older and newer continents by the discoveries of eminent travellers and explorers, afford the anthropologist additional materials for his work. Many branches of mental philosophy, again, such as Ethics, Psychology, and Esthctics, while supplying important elements to the new science, are at the same time very largely interested in its results, and all may be regarded as subservient to the wider problems raised by the philosophy of history. In the new edition of the Encyqbpaedia full iustice will, it is hoped, be done to the progress made in these various directimm

. It may be well,‘ perhaps, to state at thg outset the pqg‘\t\o“wefllb‘l‘§:' Eggzclgiaziig Britannica in relation to the active eon etsies 0i thQ. , V$mm A ‘ h Philosophical. This is the more necessu ‘0 he Prefix \® give em scmnee ‘as naturallv stimulate/l s culatio - X a9 t a \Q“ @Qmxm “mag came“

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tures and hypotheses. The air is full of novel and extreme opinions, arising often from a hasty or one-sided interpretation of the newer aspects and results of modern inquiry. The higher problems of philosophy and religion, too, are being investigated afresh from opposite sides in a thoroughly earnest spirit, as well as with a. directness and intellectual power, which is certainly one of the most striking signs of the times. This fresh outbreak of the inevitable contest between the old and the new is a fruitful source of exaggerated hopes and fears, and of excited denunciation and appeal. In this conflict a work like the Encyclopaedia is not called upon to take any direct part. It has to do with knowledge rather than opinion, and to deal with all subjects from a critical and historical, rather than a dogmatic, point of view. It cannot be the organ of any sect or party in Science, Religion, or Philosophy. Its main duty is to give an accurate account of the facts and an impartial

summary of results in every department of inquiry and research. This duty will, I hope, he faithfully performed.

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ENCYGLOPEHHA

BRITANNICA.

A

A THE first symbol of every Indo-European alphabet, , denotes also the primary vowel sound. This coincidence is probably only accidental The alphabets of Europe, and perhaps of India also, were of Semitic origin, and in all the Semitic alphabets except one, this same symbol (in modified forms) holds the first place; but it represents a peculiar breathing, not the vowel a,—the vowels in the Semitic languages occupying a subordinate place, and having originally no special symbols. When the Greeks, with whom the vowel sounds were much more important, borrowed the alphabet of Phoenicia, they required symbols to express those vowels, and used for this purpose the signs of breathings which were strange to them, and therefore needed not to be preserved; thus the Phoenician equivalent of the Hebrew aleph bmame alpha; it denoted, however, no more a guttural breathing, but the purest vowel sound. Still, it would be too much to assume that the Greeks of that day were so skilled in phonetics that they assigned the first symbol of their borrowed alphabet to the a-sound, because they knew that sound to be the most essential vowel. _

This primary vowel-sound (the sound of a in father) is produced by keeping the passage through which the air is vocalised between the glottis and the lips in the most open position possible. In sounding all other vowels, the airchannel is narrowed by the action either of the tongue or the lips. But here neither the back of the tongue is raised (as it is in sounding o and other vowels), so that a free space is left between the tongue and the uvula, nor is the front of the tongue raised (as in sounding e), so that the space is clear between the tongue and the paling Again, no other vowel is pronounced with a wider ope ‘

of the lips; whereas the aperture is sensibly reduceslug

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of the speech-organs, in which the breath escapes without any stoppage, friction, or sibilation arising from the contact of those organs, whereas consonants are heard when the organs open after such contact more or less complete. Now, all vowels except a are pronounced with a certain contraction of the organs; thus, in sounding the i (the English e-sound), the tongue is raised so as almost to touch the palate, the passage left being so close, that if the tongue were suffered for a second to rest on the palate, there would be heard not i but 3/,- and a similar relation exists between a and w. This is commonly expressed by calling 3/ and w semi-vowels. We might more exactly call 1' and u consonantal-vowels; and as an historic fact, i does constantly pass into 3/, and u into 10, and vice versa. But no consonant has this relation to the a-sound ; it has absolutely no afiinity to any consonant ; it is, as we have called it, the one primary essential vowel.

The importance of this sound may be shown by histori_ cal as well as by physiological evidence. We find by tracing the process of phonetic change in different languages, that when one vowel passes into another, it is the pure a-sound which thus assiunes other forms, whereas other vowels do not pass into the a-sound, though somc~ times the new sound may have this symbol. Roughly speaking, we might express the general character of vowel change by drawing two lines from a common point, at which a is placed. One of these lines marks the pro ess of an original a (ah-sound) through c (ti-sound), till it sinks finally to i, ggound)‘, the other

marks a similar (1e tie“, “mmsh
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each side when we sound 0, and still more when we 3 a “ minor in - - “5, *1“ ‘s in“ .

u (that is, goo). The whole channel, therefore, guild lazy) some Q ‘P0 $ ‘\ _ Rimstgiz‘ggrii 0932:: the glottis, where the breath first issues forth to be ‘Qxp 3 ‘agents ta‘\‘\ \ew‘tw saw mi m‘ 3mm “a m ; fied in the oral cavity, to the lips, where it, finany tel) “gg Q\\3 ‘\‘\ a v0‘ wimpwewn“ m A“ mm. is thoroughly open. Hence arises the great importsi‘fi chi)hm q \ \s e} ‘grease em passed ‘mm the sound, by reason of its thoroughly £0“ a“ (We ‘my, ‘fix \ \% Q‘b‘l g5 gyms morass ‘\s exoes‘iwdy character. All vowels may be defined “on 3Q \ ' 65$ \. — \

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rare. Consequently, the farther we trace back the history of language, the more instances of this vowel do we find; the more nearly, if not entirely, does it become the one starting point from which all vowel-sound is derived.

It is principally to the effort required to keep this sound pure that we must attribute the great corruption of it in all languages, and in none more than our own. Indeed, in English, the short a-sound is never heard pure ; it is heard in Scotland, e.g., in man, which is quite different from the same word on English lips. We have it, however, long in father, &c., though it is not common. It has passed into a great many other sounds, all of which are denoted in a most confusing way by the original symbol, and some by other symbols as well. Thus a denotes—(1.) The English vowel-sound in man, perhaps the most common of all the substitutes, dating from the 17th century. It appears in want; for this sound 0 is also employed, as in on. (3.) A more open sound is heard in all (also denoted by an in auk, and aw in awl). Very commonly it represents the contincntal e, as in ale (here also we have the symbol ai in ail). It is found in dare and many similar words, where the sound is really the e of den, prolonged in the utterance ; here also ai is sometimes an equivalent, as in air. Then (6) there is a sound which is not that of a either in man or in father, but something between the two. It is heard in such words as ask, pass, grant, &c. All these may be, and often are, pronounced with the sound either of man or of father; still, we do often hear in them a clearly distinguishable intermediate sound, which ought to have a special symbol. Lastly (7), there is the dull sound heard in final unaccentuated syllables, e.g., in the word final itself. It is that to which all unaccentuatcd syllables tend; but it is also often heard even in monosyllablcs, where it is represented by every other vowelsymbol in the language, e.g., in her, sir, son, sun. This Proteau sound is commonly called the neutral vowel; it occurs in all languages, but perhaps in none so frequently as in English. This great variety of sounds, which are all denoted among us by one symbol, clearly shows the insuificiency of our written alphabet.

As in English, so in Sanskrit, the short alt-sound was lost, and was replaced regularly by the neutral sound. This was regarded by the grammarians as inherent in every consonant, and therefore was only written at the beginning of a word; in fact, it is the smallest amount of vowelsound requisite to float a consonant. Long a, however, kept its sound pure, and does so still in the vernaculars of India. In Latin the sound was probably pure, both short and long, and it has been preserved so in the Romance languages down to the present day. In Greek there was considerable variation, proved in one case at least by a variation of symbol; in Ionic a. commonly passed into 1], a symbol which probably denoted the modern Italian open e; but possibly the close e, that is, the English a in ale. On the other hand, it is probable that the Doric a approximated to an 0, being sounded as a in our word want; and it is likely that this variation was the n-Amsuwp.69 which the gmmmarians attribute to the Dorians. This is commonly supposed to have been the retention of a. where the Ionic had 1]; but that was not peculiar to the Dorians, being common to all the Greeks except the Ionians. In the north of Europe we find a similar tendency to give to a an o-sound; thus in Norse, aa is sounded as an open 0. By a further extension in the north of England, at least in such parts as have been specially exposed to Norwegian influence, au has the sound of o ,' e.g., law is pronounced lo.

A is frequently used as a prefix in lieu of some fuller form in old English. Thus it stands for the preposition on (OE. an) in away, again, afoot, asleep; for of in adown (OE. (If-d H716’) ; and seems to be intensive in at/rirst (O.E.

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qf-thirst). Sometimes, especially with verbs, it represents the old English (1, which in old High German appears as ur or er, and in modern German as er, which signifies the completion of an action, as in erwacken, to which awake corresponds. Frequently no special force seems to be added by the prefix, as in abide, arise, 61c. Sometimes a appears as the representative of the prefix commonly used in past participles, which has the form ge in German, and ge and g in old English, e.g., in ago or agone; compare aware (O.E. gewaere), among (O.E. ge'mang), dzc. A also stood for the preposition an (on) in such expressions (now obsolete) as a-doing, a-malca'ng, where doing and making are verbal nouns. Lastly, it represents the Prepositions on or of in the phrases now-a-dags, Jack-a-lantem, and others.

The place that A occupies in the alphabet accounts for its being much employed as a mark or symbol. It is used, for instance, to name the sixth note of the gamut in music; in some systems of notation it is a numeral (see Am'rnME'I‘IC); and in Logic it denotes a. universal afiirmativo proposition (see Locrc). In algebra, a and the first letters of the alphabet are employed to represent known quantities. A1 marks the best class of vessels in Lloyd’s Register of British and Foreign Shipping. In the old poets, “A per se” is found, meaning the highest degree of excellence; as when Chaucer calls Creseide “ the fioure and A per se of Troye and Grece.”

A was the first of the eight literce nundinalcs at Rome, and on this analogy it stands as the first of the seven Dominical letters.

It is often used as an abbreviation, as in AD. for anno domini, A.M. for ante nwr'idiem, A.B. and A.M. for arti-um baccaZa-ureas and artium magister. In commerce A stands for accepted. (J. P-)

AA, the name of about forty small European rivers. The word is derived from the old German aka, cognate to the Latin aqua, water. The following are the more important streams of this name :—a river of Holland, in North Brabant, which joins the Dommel at Bois-lc-Duc ; two rivers in the west of Russia, both falling into the Gulf of Livonia, near Riga, which is situated between them; a river in the north of France, falling into the sea at Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer; and a river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Lucerne and Aargau, which carries the waters of Lakes Baldeker and Hallwyler into the Aar.

AACIIEN. See AIX~LA-CHAPELLE.

AALBORG, a city and seaport of Denmark, is situated on the Liimfiord, about 15 miles from its junction with the Cattegat. It is the capital of the district of the same name, one of the subdivisions of the province of J iitland. The city is a place of considerable commercial importance, and contains a cathedral and a school of navigation. Soap, tobacco, and leather are manufactured; there are several distilleries; and the herring fishery is extensively prosecuted. Grain and herring are largely exported, as are also to a smaller extent wool, cattle, skins, tallow, salt provisions, and spirits. The harbour, which is good and’ safe, though difficult of access, is entered by about 800 vessels annually, and there is direct steam communication with Copenhagen. The district is celebrated for its breed of horses. Population (1870), 11,953.

AALEN, a walled town of Wiirtemberg, pleasantly situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Alps, about 50 miles E. of Stuttgart. Woollen and linen goods are manufactured, and there are ribbon looms and tanneries in the town, and large iron works in the neighbourhood. Aalen was a free imperial city from 1360 till 1802, when it was annexed to Wiirtemberg. Population (1871), 5552.

AAR, or AARE, the most considerable river in Switzerland, after the Rhine and Rhone. It rises in the glaciels canton of Bern ; and at the Handeck in the valley 0 eight forms a magnificent water-fall of above 150 feet in 11 lm ' It then falls successively into the lakes Brienz and T H)

A ¢ZIM\AAR /

of the Finster-aarhorn, Schreckhorn, and Grimsell 11:78]; are many vineyards, and much frat" %¢6$

and, emerging from the latter, flows through the cantons of river.

Bern, Soleure, and Aargau, emptying itself into the Rhme, opposite Waldshut, after a course of about 170 miles. Its principal tributary streams are the Kander, Saane, and Thiele on the left, and the Emmen, Surin, Aa, Reuss, and Limmat, on the right. On its banks are situated Unterseen, Thun, Bern, Soleure or Solothurn, Aarburg, and Aarau. The Aar is a beautiful silvery river, abounding in fish, and is navigable from the Rhine as far as the Lake of Thun. Several small rivers in Germany have the same name.

AABAU, the chief town of the canton of Aargau in Switzerland, is situated at the foot of the J ura mountains, on the right bank of the river Aar, 41 miles N.E. of Bern. It is well built, and contains a town-hall, barracks, several small museums, and a library rich in histories of Switzerland. There is a cannon foundry at Aarau, and among the principal manufactures are silk, cotton, and leather; also cutlery and mathematical instruments, which are held in great repute. The slopes of the neighbouring mountains are partially covered with vines, and the vicinity of the town is attractive. About ten miles distant along the right bank of the Aar are the famous baths of Schinznach. Population, 5449.

AARD-VARK (earth-pig), an animal very common in South Africa, measuring upwards of three feet in length, and having a general resemblance to a short-legged pig. It feeds on ants, and is of nocturnal habits, and very timid and harmless. Its flesh is used as food, and when suitably preserved is considered a delicacy. The animal is the only known species of its genus (Org/dcropus), and belongs to the order Erlentata of the mammalia. The same prefix Aard appears in the name of the AABD-WOLF (Prolelcs Lalandz'i), a rare animal found in Cafl‘raria, which is said to partake of the characters of the dog and civet. See Mamrsma.

AARGAU (French, Anoovrs), one of the cantons of Switzerland, derives its name from the river which flows through it, Aar-gau being the province or district of the Aar. It is bounded on the north by the Rhine, which divides it from the duchy of Baden, on the east by Zurich and Zug, on the south by Lucerne, and on the west by Bern, Soleure or Solothurn, and Basel. It has an area of 502% square miles. By the census of 1870, the number of inhabitants was 198,873, showing an increase during the preceding ten years of 4665. Aargau stands sixth among the Swiss cantons in density of population, having 395 inhabitants to the square mile. The statistics of 1870 show that of the inhabitants 107,703 were Protestants, 89,180 Catholics, and 1541 Jews. German is the language almost universally spoken.

Asrgau is the least mountainous canton of Switzerland. It forms part of a great table-land to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura, having a general elevation of from 1200 to 1500 feet. The hills do not rise to any

ter height than 1800 feet above this table-land, or 3000 feet above the level of the sea. The surface of the country is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills alternating with fertile valleys watered by the Aar and its numerous tributaries, and by the r‘ww lets which flow northward into the Rhine. Althq, h moist and variable, the climate is milder than in g, parts of Switzerland. “03

The minerals of Aargau are unimportant, but rem palseontological remains are found in its rocks_ The k the left of the Aar is a still‘ clay, but to the right it .Q\\ and productive. Agriculture is in an ad‘? cad s 1

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In the villages and towns ‘£110 afar manufactures of cotton goods, silk, and be9 exports are cattle, hides, cheese, timbel’z 1:; cotton cloths, silk, machinery, and WOOQQD 3”“? ya’? the imports include wheat, wine, salt, leather 2203132 The most important towns are Aarau, Baden, Zokugen, and‘ Laufenburg, and there are mineral springs at Baden, Sdn'ul. nach, Leerau, and Niederweil. The Swiss Junction Railway crosses the Rhine near Waldshut, and runs south through the canton to Turgi, whence one line proceeds SE. to Zurich, and another SW. to Aarau and Olben.

Until 1798, Aargau formed part of the canton of Bern, but when the Helvetic Republic was proclaimed, it was erected into a separate canton. In 1803 it received a considerable accession of territory, in virtue of the arrangement under which the French evacuated Switzerland. According to the law whereby the cantons are represented in the National Council by one member for every 20,000~ inhabitants, Aargau returns ten representatives to that assembly. The internal government is vested in a legislative council elected by the body of the people, while a smaller council of seven members is chosen by the larger body for the general administration of affairs. The resources of Aargau are stated to amount to about a million sterling; its revenue in 1867 was nearly £82,000, and the expenditure slightly greater. There is a public debt of about £40,000. The canton is divided into eleven districts, and these again are subdivided into forty-eight circles. There is a court of law for each district, and a superior court for the whole canton, to which cases involving sums above 160 francs can be appealed. Education is compulsory ,' but in the Roman Catholic districts the law is not strictly enforced. By improved schools and other appliances great progress has been made in education within the last thirty or forty years.

AARHUUS, a city and seaport of Denmark, situated on the Cattegat, in lat. 56° 9’ N., long. 10° 12' E. It is the chief town of a fertile district of the same name, one of the subdivisions of Jutland. The cathedral of Aarhuus is a Gothic structure, and the largest church in Denmark. The town also contains a lyceum, museum, and library. Aarhuus is a place of extensive trade. It has a good and safe harbour, has regular steam communication with Copenhagen, and is connected by rail with Viborg and the interior of the country. Agricultural produce, spirits, leather, and gloves are exported, and there are sugar refineries, and manufactures of wool, cotton, and tobacco. Population (1870), 15,020.

AARON, the first high-priest of the Jews, eldest son of Amram and J ochebed, of the tribe of Levi, and brother of Moses and Miriam. When Moses was commissioned to conduct the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan, Aaron was appointed to assist him, principally, it would appear, on account of his possessing, in a high degree, persuasive readiness of speech. On the occasion of Moses’ absence in Mount Sinai (m which he had gone up to receive the tables of the law , the Israelites, regarding Aaron as their leader, clamor-dug demanded that he should provide them with a visible a boy, imagp ofatheirdGoddfor zvoréshilp.

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