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virgin.) So despotic did the tyranny become in the West, that in the time of Charlemagne it was necessary to restrain abbots by legal enactments from rnutilating their monks, and putting out their eyes; while the rule of St Columba ordained 100 lashes as the punishment for very slight offences. An abbot also had the power of excommunicating refractory nuns, which he might use if desired by their abbess.

The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and reverence by the brethren of his house. When he appeared either in church or chapter all present rose and bowed. His letters were received kneeling, like those of the Pope and the king. If he gave a. command, the monk receiving it was also to kneel. N o monk might sit in his presence, or leave it without his permission. The highest place was naturally assigned to him, both in church and at table. In the East he was commanded to eat with the other monks. In the West the rule of St Benedict appointed him a separate table, at which he might entertain guests and strangers. This permission opening the door to luxurious living, the Council of Aix, A.D. 817, decreed that the abbot should dine in the refectory, and be content with the ordinary fare of the monks, unless he had to entertain a guest. These ordinances proved, however, generally ineffectual to secure strictness of diet, and contemporaneous literature abounds with satirical remarks and complaints concerning the inordinate extravagance of the tables of the abbots. When the abbot condcsccnded to dine in the refectory, his chaplains waited upon him with the dishes, a servant, if necessary, assisting them. At St Alban’s the abbot took the lords seat, in the centre of the high table, and was served on silver plate, and sumptuously entertained noblemen, ambassadors, and strangers of quality. When abbots dined in their own private hall, the rule of St Benedict charged them to invite their monks to their table, provided there was room, on which occasions the guests were to abstain from quarrels, slanderous talk, and idle gossipping. The complaint, however, was sometimes made (as by Matt. Paris of Wulsig, the third abbot of St Alban’s), that they invited ladies of rank to dine with them instead of their monks. The ordinary attire of the abbot was according to rule to be the same as that of the monks. But by the 10th century the rule was commonly set aside, and we find frequent complaints of abbots dressing in silk, and adopting great sumptuousness of attire. Nay, they sometimes laid aside the monastic habit altogether, and assumed a secular dress.1 This wasa necessary consequence of their following the chase, which was quite usual, and indeed at that time only natural. With the increase of wealth and power, abbots had lost much of their special religious character, and become great lords, chiefly distinguished from lay lords by celibacy. Thus we hear of abbots going out to sport, with their men carrying bows and arrows ; keeping horses, dogs, and huntsmen ; and special mention is made of an abbot of Leicester, cir. 1360, who was the most skilled of all the nobility in hare-hunting. In magnificence of equipage and retinue the abbots vied with the first nobles of the realm. They rode on mules with gilded bridles, rich saddles and housings, carrying hawks on their wrist, attended by an immense train of attendants. The bells of the churches were rung as they passed. They associated on equal terms with laymen of the highest distinction, and shared all their pleasures and pursuits. This rank and power was, however, often used most beneficially. For instance, we read of Whiting, the last Abbot of Glastonbury, judicially murdered by Henry V 111., that his house was a kind of wellordered court, where as many as 300 sons of noblemen and

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1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, circa 980. is charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.

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gentlemen, who had been sent to him for virtuous education, had been brought up, besides others of a mcaner rank, whom he fitted for the universities. His table, attendance, and officers were an honour to the nation. He would entertain as many as 500 persons of rank at one time, besides relieving the poor of the vicinity twice a-wcek. He had his country houses and fisheries, and. when he travelled to attend Parliament his retinue amounted to upwards of 100 persons. The abbots of Clugny and Vendome were, by virtue of their ofiice, cardinals of the Romish Church.

In process of time the title abbot was improperly transferred to clerics who had no connection with the monastic system, as to the principal of a body of parochial clergy; and under the Carlovingians to the chief chaplain of the king, Abbas Curia', or military chaplain of the cmperor, Abbas Castrensia. It even came to be adopted by purely secular ofiicials. Thus the chief magistrate of the republic at Genoa was called Abbas Populi.~ Ducange, in his Glossary, also gives us Abbas Campanilia, Cloclren'i, Palatz'i, Sc/wlaris, d'c.

Lay abbots, so called, had their origin in the system of commendation, in the 8th century. By this, to meet any great necessity of the state, such as an inroad of the Saracens, the revenues of monasteries were temporarily commended, i.e., handed over to some layman, a noble, or even the king himself, who for the time became titular abbot. Enough was reserved to maintain the monastic brotherhood, and when the occasion passed away the revenues were to be restored to their rightful owners. The estates, however, had a habit of lingering in lay hands, so that in the 9th and 10th centuries most of the sovereigns and nobles among the Franks and Burgundians were titular abbots of some great monastery, the revenues of which they applied to their own purposes. These lay-abbots were styled Abbacomites or Abbatcs Illilites. Hugh Capet, before his elevation to the throne, as an Abbacomcs held the abbeys of St Denis and St Germain in commendam. Bishop Hatto, of Mentz, A.D. 891-912, is said to have held 12 abbeys in commendam at once. In England, as we see from the Acts of the Council of Cloveshoe, in the 8th century, monasteries were often invaded and occupied by laymen. This occurred sometimes from the monastery having voluntarily placed itself under the protection of a powerful layman, who, from its protector, became its oppressor. Sometimes there were two lines of abbots, one of laymen enjoying the lion’s share of the revenues, another of clerics fulfilling the proper duties of an abbot on a small fraction of the income. The gross abuse of lay commendation which had sprung up during the corruption of the monastic system passed away with its reformation in the 10th century, either voluntarily or by compulsion. The like abuse prevailed in the East at a later period. John, Patriarch of Antioch, at the beginning of the 12th century, informs us that in his time most monasteries had been handed over to laymen, bcneficiafii, for life, or for part of their lives, by the emperors.

In conventual cathedrals, where the bishop occupied the place of the abbot, the functions usually devolving on the superior of the monastery were performed by a prior. In other convents the prior was the second officer next to tho abbot, representing him in his absence, and fulfilling his duties. The superiors of the cells, or small monastic establishments dependent on the larger monasteries, were also called priors. They were appointed by the abbots, and held oflice at their pleasure.

AutIwrilies:—Bingham, Origincs; Ducangc, Glossary ,Hcrzog, Rcalwo'rlerbuch ; Robertson, Ch. Hist. ,- Martene, Dc Antiq. Monael. Rilibus, Montalcmbcrt, Monks of [he ""68! (a v_)

A/fiAUT

ABBOT, CHARLES, speaker of the House of Comma? from 1802 to 1817, afterwards created Lord (Joleheste Sec COLCHESTER.

ABBOT, GEORGE, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born

29' .sellce being unwelcome at court, he lived :60”). . "1 retirement, leaving Land and his party 111 u gig/11;” l'1$cendency. He died. at Croydon on the 5 £11 4,, a “7””

and was buried at Guildford, his native place; 1.1153525?

October 19, 1562, at Guildford in Surrey, where his father’ was a cloth-worker. He studied at Balliol College, Oxford, and was chosen Master of University College in 1597. He was three times appointed to the oflice of Vice-Chancellor of the University. When in 1604 the version of the Bible now in use was ordered to be prepared, Dr Abbot’s name stood second on the list of the eight Oxford divincs to whom was intrusted the translation of the New Testament, excepting the Epistles. In 1608 he went to Scotland with the Earl of Dunbar to arrange for a union between the Churches of England and Scotland, and his conduct in that negotiation laid the foundation of his preferment, by attracting to him the notice and favour of the king. Without having held any parochial charge, he was appointed Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1609, was translated to the see of London a month afterwards, and in less than a year was made Archbishop of Canterbury. This rapid preferment was due as much perhaps to his flattering his royal master as to his legitimate merits. After his elevation he showed on several occasions firmness and courage in resisting the king. In the scandalous divorce suit of the Lady Frances Howard against the Earl of Essex, the archbishop persistently opposed the dissolution of the marriage, though the influence of the king and court was strongly and successfully exerted in the opposite direction. In 1618, when a declaration was published by the king, and ordered to be read in all the churches, permitting sports and pastimes on the Sabbath, Abbot had the courage to forbid its being read at Croydon, where he happened to be at the time. As may be inferred from the incident just mentioned, Abbot was of the Protestant or Puritan party in the Church. He was naturally, therefore, a promoter of the match between the Elector Palatine and the Princess Elizabeth, and a firm opponent of the projected marriage of the Prince of Wales with the Infanta of Spain. This policy brought upon him the hatred of Land and the court. The king, indeed, never forsook him; but Buckingham was his avowed enemy, and he was regarded with dislike by the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles I. In 1622 a sad misfortune befell the archbishop while hunting in Lord Zouch’s park at Bramzill. A bolt from his cross-brow aimed at a deer happened to strike one of the keepers, who died within an hour, and Abbot was so greatly distressed by the event that he fell into a state of settled melancholy. His enemies maintained that the fatal issue of this accident disqualified him for his office, and argued that, though the homicide was involuntary, the sport of hunting which had led to it was one in which no clerical person could lawfully indulge. The king had to refer the matter to a. commission of ten, though he said that “ an angel might have miscarried after this sort." A decision was given in the archbishop's favour; but to prevent disputes, it was recommended that the king should formally absolve him, and confer his office upon him anew. After this the archbishop seldom appeared at the council, chiefly on account of his infirmities. He attended the king constantly, however, in his last illness, and performed the ceremony of the coronation of Charles I. A pretext was soon found by his enemies for depriving him of all his functions as primate, which were put in commission by the king. This high-handed procedure was the result of Abbot’s refusal to license a sermon preached by Dr Sibthorp, in which the king’s prerogative was stretched beyond constitutional limits. The archbishop had his powers restored to him shortly afterwards, however, when the king found it absolutely necessary to summon a Parliament. His pre

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endowed an hospital with lands to the value of $300,’; year, Abbot wrote a large number of works ; but, with the exception of his Exposition on the Prophet Jonah. (1600), which was reprinted in 1845, they are now little known. His Geography, or a Brief Description of the Whole World, passed through numerous editions.

ABBOT, Gsonon, known as “The Puritan,” has been oddly and persistently mistaken for others. He has been described as a clergyman, which he never was, and as son of Sir Morris Abbot, and his writings accordingly entered in the bibliogral'ihical authorities as by the nephew of the Archbishop of Canterbury. One of the sons of Sir Morris Abbot was, indeed, named George, and he was a man of mark, but the more famous George Abbot was of a different family altogether. He was son or grandson (it is not clear which) of Sir Thomas Abbot, knight of Easington, East Yorkshire, having been born there in 1603—4, his mother (or grandmother) being of the ancient house of Pickering. He married a daughter of Colonel Purefoy of Caldccote, Warwickshire, and as his monument, which may still be seen in the church there, tells, he bravely held it against Prince Rupert and Maurice during the civil war. He was a member of the Long Parliament for Tamworth. As a layman, and nevertheless a theologian and scholar of rare ripeness and critical ability, he holds an almost unique place in the literature of the period. His Whole Booke of Job Paraphrased, or made easy for any to understand (1640, 4to), is in striking contrast, in its concinnity and terseness, with the prolixity of too many of the Puritan expositors and commentators. llis Vindiciw Sabbathi(l 641, 8vo) had a profound and lasting influence in the lon Sabbatic controversy. His Briefivotes upon the Whole Book of Psalm (1651, 4to), as its date shows, was posthumous. He died February 2, 1648. (MS. collections at Abbeyville for history of all of the name of Abbot, by J. T. Abbot, Esq., F.S.A., Darlington ; Dugdale’s Antiquities of Warwickshire, 1656, p. 791; Wood’s Athena (Bliss), s. v. ; Cox’s Literature of the Sabbath; Dr James Gilfillan on The Sabbath; Lou'ndes, Bodleian, B. Museum Catal. s. v.) (A. s. o.)

ABBOT, ROBERT. Noted as this Puritan divine was in his own time, and representative in various ways, he has hitherto been confounded with others, as Robert Abbot, Bishop of Salisbury, and his personality distributed over a Robert Abbot of Cranbrook; another of Southwick, Hants; a third of St Austin’s, London ; while these successive places were only the successive livings of the one Robert Abbot. He is also described as of the Archbishop's or Guildford Abbots, whereas he was in no way related, albeit he acknowledges very gratefully, in the first of his epistles-dedicatory of A Hand of Fellowship to Ilelpe Keeps ovt Sinne and Antichrist (1623, 4to), that it was from the archbishop he had “received all” his “ worldly maintenance,” as well as “best earthly countenance” and “fatherly incouragements.” The worldly maintenance was the presentation to the vicarage of Cranbrook in Kent, of which the archbishop was patron. This was in 1616. He had received his education at Cambridge, where he proceeded M.A., and was afterwards incorporated at Oxford. In 1639, in the epistlc the reader of his most noticeable book 1113\‘Q6@\Y, his Tnall of our Church-Forsaken, he tells a\ ‘save lived new, by God's gratious dis— pcnsatioX ‘wove hit‘; years, andnin the place of my allogmex\ ‘ ‘so and tinny in“. The former data carries \ \kdbck \o \oee ~56, or perhaps {SST-Sf—tho

‘h

“ Armada" year—as his birth-time; the latter to 1616-17 at supra). In his Bee Thankfull London and her Sisters £1626), he describes himself as formerly “assistant to a reverend divine . . . . now with God,” and the name on the margin is “ Master Haiward of Wool Church." This was doubtless previous to his going to Cranbrook. Very remarkable and effective was Abbot’s ministry at Cranbrook, where the father of Phineas and Giles Fletcher was the first “ Reformation” pastor, and which, relatively small asit is, is transfigured by being the birthplace of the poet of the “ Locustze” and “ The Purple Island.” His parishioners were as his own “ sons and daughters" to him, and by day and night he thought and felt, wept and prayed, for them and with them. He is a noble specimen of the rural clergyman of his age. Puritan though he was in his deepest convictions, he was a thorough Churchman as toward N onconformists, e._¢]., the Brownists, with whom he waged stern warfare. He remained until 1643 at Cranbrook, and then chose the very inferior living of Southwick, Hants, as between the one and the other, the Parliament deciding against .pluralities of ecclesiastical ofiices. Succeeding the “ extruded” Udall of St Austine’s, Abbot continued there until a. good old age. In 1657, in the Warningwiece, he is described as still “ pastor of Austine’s in London.” He disappears silently between 1657-8 and 1662. Robert Abbot’s books are distinguished from many of the Puritans by their terseness and variety. (Brook’s Puritans, iii. 182, 3; Walker’s Sufi'erings; Wood’s Athena (Bliss); Catalogus Imprcssorum Librorum in Bibliotheca Bodleiana, s.v.; Palmer's Noncmtf. ]l[em., ii. 218.) r (A. B. G.) ABBOTSFORD, the celebrated residence of Sir Walter Scott, situated on the south bank of the river Tweed, about three miles above Melrosc. The nucleus of the property was a small farm of 100 acres, with the “inharmonious designation” of Olarty Hole, acquired by Scott on the lapse of his lease (1811) of the neighbouring house of Ashestiel. It was gradually increased by various acquisitions, the last and principal being that of Toftfield (afterwards named Huntlyburn), purchased in 1817. The present new house was then commenced, and was completed in 1824. The general ground-plan is a parallelogram, with irregular outlines— one side overlooking the Tweed, and the other facing a courtyard; and the general style of the building is the Scottish baronial. Scott had only enjoyed his new resideuce one year when (1825) he met with that reverse of fortune (connected with the failure of Ballantyne and Constable), which involved the estate in debt. In 1830, the library1 and museum were presented as a free gift by the creditors; and after Scott's death, which took place at Abbotsford in September 1832, a committee of friends subscribed a further sum of about £8000 towards the same object. The property was wholly disencumbered in 1847, by Mr Cadell, the publisher, accepting the remaining claims of the family over Sir \Valter Scott’s writings in requital of his obligation to obliterate the heritable bond on the property. The result of this transaction was, that not only was the estate redeemed by the fruit of Scott’s brain, but a handsome residue fell to the publisher. Scott’s only son Walter (Lieutenant-Colonel 15th Hussars) did not live to enjoy the property, having died on his way from India in 1847. Its subsequent possessors have been Scott’s son-in-law, J. G. Lockhart, and the latter’s son-in-law, J. R. Hope Scott, Q.C., whose daughter (Seott’s greatgranddaughter) is the present proprietor. Mr Lockhart died at Abbotsford in 1854.——See Life of Scott, by J. G. Lockhart; Abbotsford and Newstead Abbey, by Washington Irving; Abbotsford Nota-nda in Gentleman’s allay"

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April and May 1869; The Lands of Scott, by James F. Hunnewell, cr. 8vo, 1871; Scott Loan Exhibition Catalog'ue, 4to, 1871.

ABBOTSFORD CLUB, one of the principal printing clubs, was founded in 1834 by Mr W. B. D. D. Turnbull, and named in honour of Sir Walter Scott. Taking a wider range than its predecessors, the Bannatyne and Maitland Clubs, it did not confine its printing (as remarked by Mr Lockhart) to works connected with Scotland, but admitted all materials that threw light on the ancient history of literature of any country, anywhere described or discussed by the Author of Waverley. The club, now dissolved, con< sisted of fifty members; and the publications extend to 34 vols. quarto, issued during the years 1835-1864.

ABBREVIATION, a letter or group of letters, taken from a word or words, and employed to represent them for the sake of brevity. Abbreviations, both of single words and of phrases, having a meaning more or less fixed and recognised, are common in ancient writings and inscriptions, and very many are in use at the present time. A distinction is to be observed between abbreviations and the contractions that are frequently to be met with in old manuscripts, and even in early printed books, whereby letters are dropped out here and there, or particular collocations of letters represented bysomewhat arbitrary symbols. The commonest form of abbreviation is the substitution for a word of its initial letter; but, with a view to prevent ambiguity, one or more of the other letters are frequently added. Letters are often doubled to indicate a plural or a superlative.

I. CLASSICAL ABBREVIATIONS.-—The following list contains a selection from the abbreviations that occur in the writings and inscriptions of the Romans:—

A. A. Absolvo, IEdilis, Es, Agar, Ago, Aio, Amicns, Annus, Antique, Auctor, Auditor, Augustus, Aulus, Aurum, Aut.

A. A. 1E3 alienum, Antc audita, Apud agrum, Aurum argentum. AA. Augusti. AAA. Au ti tres.

A. A.A.F. F. Auro argento acre ando feriundo.1

A.A. V. Alter arnbove.

A.C. Acta causa, Alius civis.

A.D. Ante diem ; e.g., A.D.V. Ante diem quintum.
A.D. A. Ad dandos agros.

ED. IEdes, Edilis, )Edilitas.

EM. and AIM. Emilius, (Emilia.

ER. IErnrium. 1E“. P. Ere publico.

A. F. Actum fidc, Auli filius.

AG. Ager, Ago, Agrippa.

A. G. Animo grate, Aulus Gellius.

A. L. E. and A. L. E. Arbitriurn 1itis zestimandzr.

A.M. and AJIILL. Ad milliarium.

AN. Aniensis, Annus, Ante.

ANN. Annales, Anni, Annona.

ANT. Ante, Antonius.

A.O. Alii omnes, Amico optimo.

AP. A pins, Apud.

A. P. Ag pedes, Edilitia potestate.

A. P. F. Auro (or argento) publico feriundo.

A. P. M. Amico posuit monumentum, Annornm plus minus.
A. P. R.C. Anno post Romain conditam.

ARG. Ar cntum.

AR. V. V. D. . Ararn votamvolens dedicavit. Anna votiva done dedit. A T. A tergo. Also A TE. and A TER.

A.T.M.D.O. Aio te mihi dare opcrtere.

AV. Augur, Augustus, Aurelius.

A.V Annos vixit.

A. V. C. Ab urbe condita.

AVG. Augur, Augustus.

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1 The Catalogue of the Library at Abbotsford forms vol. lxi. of the Bannstyne Club publications.

AVGG. Augusti (generally of two). AVGGG. Augusti tree.
AVT.PR. R. Auctoritas provincia: Romauorum.

B. '
B. Balbius, Balbus, Beatus, Bene, Beneficiarius, Benefieiurn,
Bonus, Brutus, Bustum.
B. for V. Borna,Bivus, Bixit.
B.A. Bixit annos, Bonis auguriis, Bonus amabilis.

1 Describing the function of the tn‘umrn'n' mommies.

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Caesar, Caius, Caput, Causa, Censor,'Civis, Cohors, Colonia, Comitialis (dies), Condemno, Consul, Cum, Curo, Custos.

Cain, Ceuturia, Cum, the prefix Con.

Civisbgonus, Commune bonum, Conjugi benemercnti, Cui

- no.

Calumnira oausa, Causa cognita, Conjugi carissimm, Consilium cepit, Curiae consulto.

Calumnire cavendae causfi.

Caesar (or Caius) curavit faciendum, Cains Cnii filius.

. Clarissimi

Cresaris deereto, Caius Decius, Cornitinlibus diebus.

Censor, Censores. CESS. Consores

Causa fiduciae, Conjugi fecit, Curavit fnciendum.

Custos heredum, Custos hortorum.

Caius Julius, Consul jussit, Curavit judex.

Clorissimus, Claudius, Clodius, Colonia.

Clarissimns vir, Clypeum vovit.

Caius Marius, Causa mortis.

Cnzeus.

Cohercs, Cohors.

Collcga, Collcgium, Colonin, Columns.

Collegn, Coloni, Colonize.

Comes, Comitium, Compare-tum.

Conjux, Consensus, Consiliarius, Consul, Consularis.

Cornelia. (tribus), Cornelius, Corona, Corpus.

Consiliarius, Consul, Consularcs. COSS. Consules.

Carissirnus or Clarissimus puer, Civis publicus, Curavit

nendum.

.0

I l

poooocgocpoopocoooop 9 go sgcogo 0? Frrbhwbgbo o w’ “Fr-"Fm go "*"'.' '

QR. Cains Rufus, Civis Romanus, Curavit reficiendum. CS. Caesar, Communis, Consul.

C. V. Clarissimus or consularis vir.

CVR. Cura, Curator, Cumvit, Curia.

D. D. Dat, Dedit, kc, De, Deeimus, Deeius, Decretum, Deeurio, Deus, Dicit, km, Dies, Divus, Dominus, Domus, Donum.

D.C. i. Deeurio colonies, Diebus eomitinlibus, Divus Cznsar.

D.D. Dca Dia, Doeurionum decreto, Dcdicuvit, Deo dedit, Dono dcdit.

D. D. D. Datum decrcto deeurionum, Dono dodit dedieavit.

D.E.R. Do ea re.

DES. Designatus.

D. I. Dedit imperator, Diis immortnlibus, Diis inferis.

D.I.M. Dco invicto Mithraa, Diis infcris Manibus.

D. M. Deo Magno, Dig-nus memoria, Diis Mnnibus, Dolo mnlo.

D. O. M. Deo Optimo Maximo.

D.P.S. Dedit proprio sumptu, Dco perpetuo sacrum, De pecunia sua.

_ E.

E. Ejus, Eques, Erexit, Ergo, Est, Et, Etiam, Ex.

EG. lEger, Egit, Egrcgius.

E. M. Egrogim mcmorire, Ejusmodi, Erexit monumentum.

EQM. Equitum mngisbcr.

ER. A. Eu res agitur. F

P‘. Fabius, Facero, Fecit, 8.10., Familia, Fashis (dies), Felix,

Femiua, Fides, Filius, F lumen, F ortuna, F rater, Fuit,
Funetus.

Facienclum curavit, Fidei commissum, Fiducim cans.

Fidem dedit, Flomcn Dialis, F raudo donavit.

Ferro flamma fame, Fortior fortuna fabo.

Filius, Flames, Flaminius, Flavius.

Favcto linguis, Feoit libons, Felix liber.

Forum, Fronte, Frumentarius.

Forum Romnnum.

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N.
N. Natio, Natus, Nefastus (dies), No 5, Neptunus, Nero,
Nomen, Non,‘ Nonzc, Nestor, ovus, Lumen, Nume-
rius, Numerus, Nummus.

NEP. Nepos, Neptunus.
N. F. C. Nostrw fidoi commissum.
N.L. Non lieet, Non liquet, Non longe.
N. M. V. Nobilis mcmorim vir.
NN. Nostri. NN., NNO., and NNR. Nosirorum.
NOB. Nobilis. NOB., NOBR., and NOV. Novembris.
N.P. Nofastus primo (i.6., prioro parts dici), Non potest.

O.
O. Ob, Ofl‘icium, Omnis, Oportet, Optimus, Opus, Ossa.
0B. Obiit, Obiter, Orbis.
O. C. S. Ob cives servatns.
0. II. F. Omnibus honoribus functus.
O.II.S.S. Ossa hie sita sunt.
OR. Ho Oroo, Ornnmentum.
0.1‘. B. Q. 0&8“ um. \aeuo quieseant.

P. P. P s,YMM, Yam-onus, Yax, Po tuus, Pes, Pin a\,Yf€;Yonuo,Yonu_lus, Posi~ Your}: Presses, Pronto: Q\ _ fiw, Yro, Yrovmeu, Publicus, Publius, Puer.

no. P Y0 ammo“, Yum conscripfi, Pecuuis eonstitul‘n,

\099 exkumuwnkfl’ est. eonsulatum, I‘otcsmto censorinD

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RF‘. Pia fidclis, Pius fclix, Promissa fidcs, Publii filius.

P. M. Pite memorize, Plus minus, I’ontifex maximus.

P. P. Pater patratus, Pater patrize, l‘ecunia publica, Przepositus, Primipilus, Pro rzetor.

PR. Prmses, Proctor, Pri ic, Prince s.

P. R. Permissu rcipublicze, Populus tomanus.

P.R.C. Post Romain conditam.

PILPR. Przefcctus przetorii, Proprietor.

P. S. Pccunia. sua, Plcbiscitum, Proprio sumptu, Publicze saluti.

RV Pia victrix, Prtel'ectus urbi, Przcstantissimus vir.

Q.

Q. Quoestor, Quando, Quantus, Que, Qui, Quinquennalis, Quintus, Quiritcs.

Q. D. R. Qua. de re.

Q.l.S.S. Qua: infra scripta sunt; so Q. S. S. S. Qua: supra, 82c.

QQ. Quzecunque, Quinquennalis, Quoque.

QJt. Quacstor reipublicze. R

R. Rccte, Res, Respublica, Retro, Rex, Ripa, Roma, Romanus, Rufus, Rursus.

RC. Romano civitas. Romanus uivis.

RESP. and RP. Itcspublica.

RET. P. and RP. Retro pcdes.

S.

8. Sacrnm, Scriptus, Semis, Scnatus, Se ultus, Servius, Servus, Sextus, Sibi, Sine, Situs, So us, Solvit, Sub, Suns

SAC. Sacerdos, Sacrificium, Sacrum.

S. C. Scnatus consultum.

S.D. Sacrumddiis, Salutem dicit, Scnatus decreto, Sententiam dc it.

S.D.M. Sacrum diis Manibus, Sine dolo male.

SER. Scrvius, Servus.

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which they occur. There is no occasion to explain here the common abbreviations used for Christian names, books of Scripture, months of the year, points of the compass, grammatical and mathematical terms, or familiar titles, like “ Mr,” &c.

The ordinary abbreviations, now or recently in use, may be conveniently classified under the following headings :—

1. Ammnvm'rsn Trrmas nxn Dnsrenn'rroxs.

Associate of Arts.
Able-bodied scamnn.
(Artium Magistcr), Master of Arts.
2 . .A. Associate of the Royal Academy.
.S.A. Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.
Bachelor of Arts.
.L. Bachelor of Civil Law.
Bachelor of Divinity.
L. Bachelor of Laws.
Bachelor of Science.
Chairman.

Chartered Accountant.

(‘om nion of the Bath.

Civi Engineer.

Uhirurgiw Illagistcr), Master in Surgery.

mpanion of St Michael and St George. Companion of the Star of India. .L. Doctor of Civil Law. Doctor of Divinity. . 't. Doctor of Literature. Doctor of Medicine [Oxford]. Doctor of Science. (Eboracevwis), of York.1 Fellow of the Chemical Society. (Fidci Dcfcmor), Defender of the Faith. .8. Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians At Surgeons [Glasgow] Fellow of the Geological Society. .C.P.I. F ellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland.

Fellow of the Linnaean Society.

Field Marshal.

Fellow of the Philological Society.
S. Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
P. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
P. E. F alloy; of the Royal College of Physicians of Edin-

bur 1.

S. Fellow ogf the Royal College of Sur cons.
S.
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Fellow of the Royal Geographical cicty.

Fellow of the Royal Society.
‘ Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.

F cllow of the Society of Antiqusries.

Fellow of the Statistical Society.

Fellow of the Zoological Society.

Knight Grand Cross of the Bath.

Knight Grand Cross of Hanover. . .G. Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George. . .1. Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India. . His (01' Her) Royal Highness.

Justice of the Peace.

(Juris utn'usque Doctor), Doctor of Civil and Canon Law. . Knight Commander of the Star of lndia. Knight Commander of the Bath. Knight of the Garter. Knight of St Patrick. Knight of the Thistle. Licentiate of the Apothccaries' HalL Lord Chief Justice. éLegum Bacoalaureus), Bachelor of Laws. Lcgum Doctor), Doctor of Laws. . . (Lcg'um Alag'istcr), Master of Laws. I

.P. Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians.

.8. Licentiate of the Royal Colle e of Surgeons. . Licentiate of the Apothecaries Society. .A. Master of Arts. . B. (Mcdic'imc Baccalam'cus), Bachelor of Medicine. .0. Member of Congress. (Medwinw Doctor), Doctor of Medicine. .R.

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1 An archbishop or bishop, in writing his signature, substitutes for

his surname the name of his see ; thus the prelates of Canterbury, York, '

Oxford, London, the, subscribe themselves A. C. Cuntuan, \V. Ebola, J. F. Oxon., J. London, he.

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