their exploration of Damara Land. On the eastern side , bable fate of the great traveller, from whom no news had Wakefield Messrs Wakefield and New, the successors of Krapf and come out of Africa for more than two years, became a matand New Rehmann in the Mombas Mission, made numerous short ter of the greatest anxiety among all classes in Europe and

journeys in the Galla country, and the former collected America. This led to a special mission for Dr Livingstone's
very valuable native information respecting the countries aid, generously fitted out at the cost of the proprietor of an

lying between this coast-land and the great lakes of the American newspaper. Stanley, the leader of this expedi- Stanley. Living Nile basin. In this year also Dr Livingstone had again tion, made a bold march from Zanzibar to Ujiji, on Lake stone.

entered the Rovuma river, beginning that greatest of all Tanganyika, and was fortunate in meeting the great travel-
his journeys from which he has not yet (1873) returned, ler there, returning from Manyuema, broken down by the
and the outline of which we shall notice further on. severity of the task which he had accomplished, and in

Still farther south, in 1866–67, the discovery of gold in need of everything. A boat voyage round the northern

the mountains between the Zambeze and Limpopo rivers, end of Tanganyika, undertaken in the latter part of 1871 Jauch. by the pioneer Mauch, gave great impetus to exploration by Livingstone and Stanley together, proved that this great

in this part of the continent. The years 1867–68 brought lake has no apparent outlet in a northerly direction, and Abyssinian the memorable Abyssinian campaign, and the accurate re leaves the question of its drainage in considerable doubt. expedi

cords kept of the line of march on the high land from Recruited in health, and supplied with stores and foltion.

Massowah to Magdala formed a most valuable contribution lowers, Livingstone is believed to have started afresh from
to African geography.

Unyanyembe, a point midway in the route from Zanzibar to
Most important in the following years (1869-71) were Ujiji, where he parted with Stanley, in autumn of 1872, to
Schwein the researches of the botanist, Dr Schweinfurth, in the carry out a projected journey, in which he will clear up

region of the complicated network of tributaries received all doubts respecting the ultimate direction of the great
by the White Nile west of Gondokoro, during which he Lualaba river.
passed the water-parting of the Nile basin in this direction, Of the expeditions which have been progressing in Africa
and came into a new area of drainage, possibly belonging contemporaneously with these later journeys of Dr Living-

to the system of Lake Chad; and the outsetting of a great stone, that of Sir Samuel Baker is perhaps the most imBaker's Egyptian military expedition (1869) by Sir Samuel Baker, portant, though its story has until now been one of almost Egyptian for the purpose of exploration of the Upper Nile and of the continuous hardship and disaster. Up to the middle of the expedi

extermination of slave traffic on the river, and to plant year 1870, at which time the expedition, consisting of uption. Egyptian military posts in the regions visited.

wards of 1500 men, with numerous vessels, had safely Baker. The letters received from time to time in this country reached a point on the Nile in 9° 26' N. lat., all appears to Living from Dr Livingstone enable us to trace roughly his move have gone well; but beyond this the passages of the river stope.

ments from 1866 to the present time as follows :- Arriving had become choked with overgrowth of vegetation, and
from Bombay, on the East African coast, near the mouth each yard of advance had to be cut through this living bar-
of the Rovuma, he passed up the course of this river to the rier; disease broke out among the troops, and the expedi-
confluence of its main tributary branches, one coming from tion was reduced to the greatest straits. In the end, how-
the north-west, the other from south-west. Following the ever, it appears to have been completely successful, and
latter arm, th

traveller appears to have gone round the before Sir Samuel Bake return to Egypt in 1873, the
southern end of the Lake Nyassa, and, marching then in a whole country, as far south as the equator, had been taken
north-westerly direction, he crossed the head waters of possession of in the name of Egypt, and several garrisons
the Aruangoa tributary of the Zambeze, near the track had been planted to maintain the hold.
of Lacerda, in the previous century ; ascending a high Knowledge of the rich country between the Transvaal
land, he came upon a portion of the Chambeze river, Republic and the Zambeze has extended with wonderful

belonging to a different basin, and continuing in a north- rapidity, through the exertions of the pioneers Mauch, Mohr, Recent (Lake westerly direction, discovered Lake Liemba, a southern Baines, Elton, and St Vincent Erskine, so that this region South Liemba). extension of Lake Tanganyika, in April 1867. Thence he has now almost passed out of the category of lands in which African

turned to the Cazembe's town, and in journeys northward geographical discoveries can be made. A point of great

"and southward from this point, made known the two great interest in the progress of the exploration of this country
(Lakes lakes, Moero (Sept. 1867), and Bangweolo or Bemba (July was the discovery by Mauch, in 1871, of the ruins of an
Moero and
Bangweolo). 1868), which form part of a new system, connected by the ancient city or fortress, named Zimbaoe, certainly not of

Chambeze (also named the Luapula and Lualaba) river in a African construction, about 200 miles due west from
basin south and west of that of the Tanganyika. In 1869 Sofala, in lat. 20° 15' S., long. 30° 45' E., through which it
Livingstone had made his way to Ujiji, Burton's halting has been sought to identify this region with the Ophir of
place, on the eastern shore of the Tanganyika. Hence, Scripture. The finding, in 1869, of rich diamond fields in

crossing the lake, he penetrated the dense tropical forests the upper valley of the Orange river, and in that of its (Hanyue- and swamps of Manyuema country, in the heart of the tributary the Vaal, caused a rush of emigration to these ma).

southern portion of the continent, and during 1870-71 districts, and tended still further to develop this portion of
traced the vast river (Lualaba) flowing out of the Lake Africa.
Moero, in its north and westerly course, to a second, and North African exploration is also vigorously progressing.
then a third great expansion-Lake Kamalondo the one, In the west, during 1869, Winwood Reade made a journey Winwood
and the other a still unvisited body of water lying in about from Sierra Leone to the head of the Niger, and from 1867 Reade.
3° S. lat., and 25° or 26° E. long; also learning, by native onwards M. Munzinger, consul at Massowa, has greatly Munzinger.

report, that the Lualaba (which is in all probability the extended our knowledge of Northern Abyssinia. A notable Lualaba). upper course of the mighty Congo river) received a great journey of exploration in the Sahara remains to be men

tributary from south-westward. This south-western arm tioned. In 1869 Dr Nachtigal was appointed to carry Dr Nach-
also expands into a vast lake, which Livingstone has named, presents from the King of Prussia to the Sultan of Bornu, tigal.
in anticipation, Lake Lincoln.

on Lake Chad, in acknowledgment of that potentate's aid
Though the untruth of a report of Livingstone's death, to former travellers. Besides accomplishing this mission,
near the Nyassa, had been proved by an expedition sent this explorer has added very considerably to our knowledge of
out on his track by the Geographical Society of London in the Eastern Sahara by investigating the central mountainous
1867, yet, at the time of his Manyuema journey, the pro- country of Tibesti, hitherto only known by report; and in



more recent journeys, still being continued, he has proved | Carthage was of Tyre. So that the Phænicians of old,
the existence of an outflowing river from Lake Chad, which at home, may have spoken of their Afrygah, just as we
has hitherto been believed to be a terminal lake, the fresh-speak of our colonies. Be that as it may, the Arabs of
ness of its waters having on this account appeared an the present day still give the name of Afrygah or Afrikiyah
anomaly in physical geography.

to the territory of Tunis. It may also be remarked, that
With the double purpose of affording support to Dr the name seems not to have been used by the Romans

Livingstone, and of adding to the geography of Equatorial till after the time of the first Punic war, when they became
The Royal Africa, two expeditions were fitted out by the Royal Geo- first acquainted with what they afterwards called Africa
Geographi- graphical Society in 1872. One of these, led by Lieut. Propria.

Cameron, was planned to follow the footsteps of Living Africa lies between the latitudes of 38° N. and 35° S., Position Society's expedition

stone in his present journey from the eastern side, entering and is of all the continents the most truly tropical. It is, and extent. of 1872. the country by the ordinary trade route from Zanzibar to- strictly speaking, an enormous peninsula attached to Asia

wards the Tanganyika. This expedition started from Zan- by the isthmus of Suez. The most northern point is the
zibar early in 1873, under the auspices of Sir Bartle Frere's Cape, situated a little to the west of Cabo Blanco, and
mission, and has now made considerable progress towards opposite Sicily, which lies in lat. 37° 20' 40" N., long. 9°
the interior. The other, named the “Livingstone Congo 41' E. Its southernmost point is Cabo d'Agulhas, in 34°
Expedition,” under Lieuts. Grandy, is to pass from the 49' 15" S.; the distance between these two points being
west coast to the interior, by following the river Congo, 4330 geographical, or about 5000 English miles. The
which is almost without doubt the lower course of the great westernmost point is Cabo Verde, in long. 17° 33' W., its
Lualaba river, about to be further explored by Dr Living-easternmost Cape Jerdaffun, in long. 51° 21' E., lat. 10° 25'
stone coming to it from the eastern side. The latest N., the distance between the two points being about the
accounts from this expedition are also in the highest same as its length. The western coasts are washed by the
degree favourable, and an advance of upwards of 150 miles Atlantic, the northern by the Mediterranean, and the
has already been made from Loanda. A new expedition, eastern by the Indian Ocean.
under the leadership of the indefatigable traveller Rohlfs, is The form has been likened to a triangle, or to an oval, Form
now in preparation, and is destined to explore the unknown but such a comparison is scarcely warranted, it being of an
portions of the Libyan desert.

irregular shape, the northern half rounding off, the southern
Thus the exploration of the great continent is slowly one contracting and terminating in a point.
advancing year by year, but with earnest and unceasing The superficial extent of Africa has never been accurately Superficial
progress. As yet the only portions of Africa of which we determined, but may be taken at 9,858,000 geographical extent.
possess any approach to an accurate topographical know-square miles, exclusive of the islands. It is larger than
ledge are, the Cape Colony and Natal under British rule either Europe or Australia, but smaller than Asia and the
in the south, the French colony of Algeria, the Portuguese New World.
possession of Angola, and Egypt and Tunis, dependent on The coast line of Africa is very regular and unbroken, Coast line
the Turkish Empire, in the north.

presenting few bays and peninsulas. The chief indentation and indenThroughout the rest of the continent, a network of routes is formed by the Gulf of Guinea, with its two secondary accomplished by travellers gives in most parts the great out- divisions, the Bight of Benin and the Bight of Biafra. On line of its features; where these lines interlace more closely, the northern coast, the Gulf of Sidra and the Gulf of Kabes as in the South African Republics, and in Abyssinia, the must be mentioned, and on the eastern coast the Gulf of general aspect of the land is now so well known as to pre- Arabia. clude the possibility of any important geographical dis The physical configuration may be considered under two Physical covery there; elsewhere, however, the gaps between the heads, the great lower-lands and plains of Northern Africa, configuratracks are wider. In the vast inhospitable region of the and the great table-lands, with their mountain ranges and tion. Sahara there are great areas still unknown to civilised man, groups, of Central and Southern Africa. The great northern and the equatorial region of dense forests in Central Africa lower-land comprises the Sahara, the Lake Chad region,

is still one of the greatest terræ incognitæ of the globe. and the valley of the Lower Nile. The Sahara is by no Origin of The origin and meaning of the name of this great con means a plain throughout, but for the greater part it rises the name tinent has been a fertile subject for conjecture among into table-lands, interspersed with mountain groups of of Africa. philologists and antiquaries. By the Greeks it was called 6000 feet elevation, and probably more, and the term

Libya, Außún, and by the Romans Africa. Varro believed lower-lands can only be applied to it in a general way, to
he had found the etymology of the former in Libs, the distinguish it from the more elevated region to the south.
Greek name of the south wind; and Servius, the scholiast The Sahara has often been pictured as a monotonous
on Virgil, proposed to derive the other from the Latin word and immense expanse of sand; but nothing could be more
aprica (sunny), or the Greek word a-phriké (without cold). erroneous, as the greatest variety exists in the physical
It is more probable that the name Libya was derived by configuration of its surface, as well as in its geological
the Greeks from the name of the people whom they found features. Our knowledge is as yet too scanty to enable us
in possession of the country to the westward of Egypt, and to trace its features in every part. On the north, this great The
who are believed to have been those that are called in the desert is fringed with extensive table-lands, which in

northern Hebrew Scriptures Lehabim or Lubim. With respect to places rise abruptly from the Mediterranean, as the great


of Africa. the word Africa, Suidas tells us that it was the proper plateau of Barbary, extending through Marocco, Algeria, name of that great city which the Romans called Carthago, and Tunis, and the table-land of Barca, elevated 1500 feet, and the Greeks, Karchedon. It is certain, at least, that it and gradually descending towards the Delta of the Nile, was applied originally to the country in the immediate This elevated ground is succeeded to the south by a neighbourhood of Carthage, that part of the continent first depressed region, which extends from the Great Syrtis or known to the Romans, and that it was subsequently ex Gulf of Sidra, in a general direction as far as Middle tended with their increasing knowledge, till it came at last Egypt, and comprises the oases of Augila and Siwah. So to include the whole continent. Of the meaning of the greatly depressed is this region, that the level of the oasis name, the language of Carthage itself supplies a simple of Siwah is 100 feet, and in one place (Bahrein) even 167 and natural explanation ; the word Afrygah, signifying a feet below the level of the sea. The western portions of this separate establishment, or in other words a colony, as country, between the cases of Augila and Siwah, explored in



1. – 32

1869 by the traveller Rohlfs, were found to be everywhere | land, comprising the most extensive table-lands, as well as
from 100 to 150 feet beneath the level of the Mediterranean; high mountain groups and chains.
and M. de Lesseps, in conducting a survey from the The great mass of the African plateau land is to south-
Egyptian side, found the eastern part to be much beneath ward of the 10th parallel of n. latitude, but it is pro-
the level of the Nile. Here then must be one of the longed on the eastern side almost to the north coast
greatest areas of depression in the land of the globe, com of the continent by the wedge-shaped table-land of Abys-
parable with that which surrounds the Caspian Sea. This sinia, the highest surface in Africa, and by the moun-
depressed region is again followed by a table-land of con tains which extend from it between the lower course of the
siderable extent and width, extending from the Gulf of Nile and the Red Sea. The terminal point of the high
Kabes in a southerly direction, along the Tripoline shores, land in this direction may be said to be Jebel Attaka,
and probably traversing, in the same direction, the Libyan which rises immediately west of Suez to a height of 2640
Desert, and reaching as far as the Nile, near the first feet. From this point to the southern extremity of the Eastern
cataract. Its north-western part, as far as Sokna, consists continent the eastern, and generally higher edge, of the edge of the
of the Hamadah, a stony, dreary, and extensive table-land, great plateau runs in an almost unbroken line. Passing plateau.
of from 1500 to 2000 feet high, “which seems to be like i southwards along its margin, the most prominent heights
a broad belt intercepting the progress of commerce, civili- before the table-land of Abyssinia is reached are Mounts
sation, and conquest, from the shores of the Mediterranean Elba, 6900, and Soturba, 6000 feet in elevation, near the
to Central Africa.” Near Sokna this plateau breaks up middle of the African coast of the Red Sea. There may,
and forms what are called the Jebel-es-Soda, or Black however, be greater heights in the little known region of
Mountains, a most picturesque group of cliffs ; and again, Nubia, which lies between these mountains and the Nile.
on the route from Murzuk to Egypt, it also, breaks into The eastern slope of the Abyssinian plateau begins im-
huge cliffs, and bears the name of El-Harouj. The whole mediately south of the port of Massowah, and is a uni-
of the central portion of the Northern Sahara, as far south form line of steep descent, unbroken by any river, falling
as the plateau of Air or Asben, is occupied by similar bare abruptly from an average height of 7000 feet' to the
table-lands, with lower areas of sand dunes between. depressed plain which here skirts the coast of the Red
Numerous wadys, the only inhabited parts of the country, Sea. This edge, which extends southward for at least
intersect the slopes of these plateaux. The country of 800 miles, forms the water-parting of the rivers which have
Ahaggar, between 23° and 29 N. lat., and 5° E. long., furrowed deeply into the opposite slopes of the plateau,
appears to form the central elevation from which the greater and appears to be higher than the general surface of the
of these dry water-courses radiate; from it a series of long country; yet several lofty groups of mountains rising from
wadys-one of them, the wady Rharis or Igharghar, being the level of the high land attain a much greater elevation,
about 600 miles in length-run northward towards a and Mount Abba Jared, the highest known point, is esti-
depressed country which lies inland from the Gulf of mated at 15,000 feet above the sea. Between the most
Cabes, and contains several salt lagoons, covered with a southern part of Abyssinia which is known and the
few feet of water in winter, but dried up in summer, and equator, where the edge of the plateau has again been
lying considerably below the Mediterranean level. Other partly explored, a long space of unknown country inter-
wadys radiate west and south-west from Ahaggar to the venes; but there is every reason to believe that the slope
unknown region of the Sahara, which lies between this and is continuous. Mount Kenia, 18,000 feet, and Kilima-
the northern bend of the Niger. The most truly desert njaro, 18,715 feet, the highest points in all Africa, mark
region of the Sahara is an irregular belt of shifting sand the eastern edge under the equator; further south on the
dunes, the “ Erg” or “ Areg," which stretches from the inland route from Zanzibar to the Tanganyika, the edge is
lagoons above referred to near the Mediterranean coast known as the Rubeho Mountains, with a height of 5700
south-westward to near the river Senegal and the Atlantic, feet at the pass by which they are crossed on the caravan
in an unbroken chain for upwards of 2000 miles, and hav- | route. Still further, the edge is again known where it
ing an average width of perhaps 200 miles. In this sand forms a rampart, called the Njesa, walling in the Nyassa Lake.
belt the wadys of the inward slope of the plateau of Barbary From this point Mount Zomba, 7000 feet high, near Lake
terminate, excepting the Wady Saura, which crosses the Shirwa, Mount Milanje, 8000 feet, and Mount Clarendon,
Erg to the important oasis of Tuat, near the centre of its 6000 feet, carry it south to where the Zambeze river makes
southern border, and the Wady Draa, which turns to the the first break in its uniform line. The narrows and rapids
Atlantic coast. From Wady Draa a great plain extends of Lupata, below the town of Tete, mark the point at which
along the western shore as far as the river Senegal, and the river breaks through the plateau land to the coast slope
probably continues as such to the east towards Timbuktu, beneath it. Passing the river, the eastern edge is again
and thence to Lake Chad. Thus it appears that the followed in the Mashona and Matoppo Mountains (7200
western half of the Sahara-is surrounded by a broad belt feet) of Mosilikatse's kingdom, from which heights the
of plains and depressions, the central parts being formed chief tributaries of the Limpopo river flow. At the head-
by extensive table-lands, with occasional mountain knots, waters of that river the plateau edge forms the Hooge Veldt
such as that which forms the fertile kingdom of Air and of the Transvaal Republic which joins with the Kathlamba
Asben, the culminating points of which are from 4000 to or Drakenberg. The portion of the edge which bears this
5000 feet high.

name is specially prominent: it runs southward in a huge
The eastern portion of the Sahara appears to have nearly wall of rocky crags which support the table-land behind
the same general elevation as the western half, and near for 500 miles, almost parallel with the coast, and at a dis-
its centre several fertile mountain regions, comparable with tance of 150 miles from it, having Zulu Land, Natal, and
that of Asben, are known. Such is the mountainous country Caffraria on the slopes of the spurs which it throws down
of Borgu, north-east of the kingdoms which surround Lake to the coast. In the Transvaal Republic, where the
Chad, and Tibesti, north of it, in the centre of the Tibbu Drakenberg joins the Hooge Veldt, the edge attains a

district, recently explored by Dr Nachtigal, who found rich height of 8725 feet in the summit named after the explorer The great

vegetation and abundant animal life in the valleys of this Mauch, but it is highest where it forms the interior limit

mountain group: South

of Natal, and where Cathkin Peak rises to 10,357 feet African To the south and east of the region just described above the sea. platea! Africa may be considered as one connected mass of elevated As in Abyssinia, so here, this part of the eastern plateau

edge is the great water-parting of the continent, and The northern edge of the great African plateau is almost Northern
the streams which form the Orange river flow down its unknown; but there are evidences that it runs eastward edge of the
inward slope. There is no break in the continuance of the between the 4th and 8th parallels of N. latitude, to a point plateau.
edge where it passes round from the Drakenberg to form at which it is well known, and where the Nile falls over its
the inmost and highest of the alternate ridges and terraces slope, forming the succession of rapids above Gondokoro.

of the Cape Colony. It is now named in successive parts The character of the upper Benue river is that of a mountainSouthern from east to west the Storm Berge, the Zuur Berg, Schnee born river; and Mounts Alantika, 10,000 feet high, and edge of the Berge, Nieuwe-veld, and Rogge-veld, the last-named por- Mindif, 6000 feet, which rise to southward of Lake Chad, plateau.

tion of the edge turning northward with the bend of the seem to be the outliers of the plateau edge in which the
western coast. Its greatest height within the Cape Benue has its sources. Beyond the Nile the margin of the
Colony is in Compass Berg, the summit of the Schnee plateau curves northward, to form the inner slope of the
Berge, 8500 feet above the sea.

Abyssinian table-land.
The outer terraces of the Cape Colony, in which two The general elevation of the surface of the great African
chief ridges may be traced, lie closer together, and much plateau, the limits of which have now been traced, may
nearer the coast; between these and the inmost or chief be taken at from 3000 to 4000 feet above the sea; but
edge is the dry elevated region known as the Great Karroo. its surface presents very great undulations, from the
Their elevation is also very considerable, though they are depressi

depressions which are occupied by some of the great lakes,
broken through by lines of drainage sloping from the chief to the high mountains which rise above its average level.
edge; the part of the middle ridge, which is named the Little The most prominent of these interior masses yet known Heights
Zwarte Berge, attains 7628 feet, and several points in both are the Blue Mountains, discovered by Baker, rising from in the in-

terior of the are upwards of 6000 feet above the sea. Table Mountain, the western shore of the Albert Lake to a height of pera well-known and flat-topped mass of granite overhanging haps 10,000 feet, and which are believed to extend south

plateau. Cape Town, 3550 feet high, is the nucleus of the peninsula ward to unite with the Balegga Mountains, made known which extends south to form the Cape of Good Hope, but is by Livingstone in his journey of 1871, north-west of Lake

altogether separated from the mountain ridges of the colony. Tanganyika; these again are believed to join with the Western The western edge of the great African plateau is generally mountains which rise midway between the Victoria, the dge of the lower than the eastern, since the whole slope of the continent Albert Nyanza, and the Tanganyika, dividing the drainage plateau.

is more or less from the great heights on its eastern side, to these vast lakes, and rising here in Mount M'fumbiro to
towards the west, but it is also clearly traceable, and of great upwards of 10,000 feet. Another great central line of
height throughout. Rounding the western side of the Cape heights which also had an important part in directing the
Colony, the three ridges above noticed run together, and water-shed of the interior of South Africa, runs from the
decrease somewhat in elevation as the mouth of the Orange north of the Nyassa Lake, where it is named the Lobisa
river is approached. Their elevation at the point of union plateau, through the Muchinga Mountains, which separate
in Little Namaqua Land is still very considerable; and here the drainage of the Lualaba and its lakes from that of the
Mount Welcome attains 5130 feet, and Vogelklip, to north Zambeze basin, westward to the heights in the far interior
of it, 4343 feet above the sea. Beyond the Orange river in of Angola, known as the Mossamba Mountains, and from
Namaqua and Damara Lands, the western edge continues in which rivers flow in all directions. ;
one or more terraces parallel to the coast. Mount Omatako, The plateau of Barbary, in the north of the continent, Plateau of
in the latter country, rises to 8800 feet. Northward, beyond the lower land of the Sahara, is a distinct and Barbary.
through Benguela and Angola, a more broken series of ridges separate high land, stretching from Cape Bon, on the Medi-
and terraces mark the descent from the interior plateau, and terranean coast opposite Sicily, in a south-westerly direction
the great Congo river breaks through to the coast-land at to the Atlantic coast, through Tunis, Algeria, and Marocco.
the place where it forms the cataracts of the narrow gorge The eastern portion of it in Algeria and Tunis rises in a
of Yellala. Sierra Complida is the name given by the broad plateau from 2000 to 3000 feet in general height,
Portuguese to that part of the western edge which runs with outer heights, enclosing an elevated steppe, at a
between the Congo and the rapids of the lower Ogowai distance of about 100 miles apart. On the west, where it
river on the equator. On the plateau edge at the southern enters Marocco, these outer ridges draw together and form
side of this river, Du Chaillu has made known a mountain the high ranges of the Atlas Mountains, rising to a much
of 12,000 feet in elevation; and the furthest point which greater elevation, and attaining 11,400 feet in the summit
has been reached on the Ogowai was in the vicinity of high named Mount Miltsin.
mountains. Passing the Ogowai, and following the coast The African continent, as far as it has yet been explored,
of the Bight of Biafra, the edge is now known as the Sierra seems to be the portion of the globe least disturbed by
do Crystal. The Camaroon mountains, at the head of the volcanic action. The known active volcanoes in the con-
gulf, form a high peninsula of volcanic mountains, rising tinent are those of the Camaroon Mountains, on the coast
to 13,700 feet; but are isolated from the plateau lands of the Gulf of Guinea in the west, and the Artali volcano
and belong rather to the remarkable line of volcanic heights in the depressed region of the salt desert which lies be-
which shows itself in the islands of Fernando Po, Prince's tween the Abyssinian plateau and the Red Sea. This
Island, St Thomas, and Annobon, stretching away into the latter volcano is probably a part of the system with which
ocean in the direction of St Helena. From the Sierra do the volcanic island of Jebel Tur, in the Red Sea, near the
Crystal the plateau edge inclines towards the lower course same latitude, is connected. One other active volcano only Greater
of the river Niger to a point above its delta, and below the is known by report,—the Njemsi volcano, in the country geological
confluence of the Benue, and then turns abruptly to the east. between Mount Kenia and the Victoria Lake. Shocks features.

The heights which skirt the northern coast-land of the of earthquake appear to be almost unknown in any part
Gulf of Guinea, and which stretch as far as the head-waters of the continent. It has been pointed out by the late
of the Senegal and Gambia, and in the inner slope of which Sir Roderick Murchison that the older rocks which are
the Niger also has its sources, may be considered as an known to circle round the continent, unquestionably in.
extension from the great plateau. But they are of smaller cluded an interior marshy or lacustrine country, and that
general elevation; and that best known part of the ridge, the present centre zone of waters, whether lakes, rivers,
which has the name of the Kong Mountains, is apparently or marshes, extending from Lake Chad to Lake Ngami,
dot higher than from 2000 to 3000 feet.

are but the great modern residual phenomena of those

of a mesozoic age. The surface of the South African of the giant trees falls across the road, it forms a wall
continent has not been diversified in recent times by the breast high to be climbed over, and the mass of tangled
outpouring of lava streams, or broken up by the efforts ropes brought down makes cutting a path round it a work
of subterranean heat to escape.

Nor has it been sub- of time which travellers never undertake.” Here there is
jected to those great oscillations by which the surfaces a double rainy season, and the rainfall is excessive. To
of many other countries have been so placed under the north and south of this central belt, where the rainfall
waters of the ocean as to have been strewed over with diminishes, and a dry and wet season divides the


the erratic blocks and marine exuviæ. The interior of South forests gradually open into a park-like country, and then Africa may therefore be viewed as a country of very merge into pastoral grass-lands. In North Africa this Northern ancient conservative terrestrial character. Knowledge of pastoral belt is occupied by the native states of the and the special geology of Africa is yet confined to the few Soudan, from Abyssinia westward, in the parallel of Lake Southern parts of the continent in which Europeans have perma- Chad, to the Gambia on the Atlantic coast; and corre- belts. nently settled. In this respect the southern region of the sponding to this in the south, are the grass-lands stretching Cape Colony and Natal have advanced furthest, and their across the continent from the Zambeze to southern Angola geological features have been mapped out with some and Benguela. The pastoral belts again gradually pass accuracy. Elsewhere in the continent, excepting in Algeria into the dry, almost rainless desert zones of the Sahara in Deserts. and Angola, light has only been thrown along the line the north, and the Kalahari desert in the south, which followed by the few explorers who have given attention to present many features of similarity. this subject.

The extremities of the continent, to which moisture is Minerals Among the minerals of Africa, salt is widely distributed, carried from the neighbouring oceans, again pass into a and metals. though in some districts wholly wanting. Thus in the second belt of pastoral or agricultural land, in the north

Abyssinian high land the salt, which is brought up in small ward slopes of the plateaus of Barbary, Marocco, Algeria,
blocks from the depressed salt plain on the Red Sea coast and Tunis, corresponding with the seaward terraces of
beneath, is so valued as to be used as a money currency; cultivated land in the Cape Colony in the south.
and in the native kingdoms of South Central Africa, the Taking a broad view of the hydrography of Africa, there Rivers
salt districts are royal possessions strictly guarded. Metals are two great areas of continental drainage, one in the
seem nowhere very abundant. Gold is perhaps the most north, the other in the south, from which no water escapes
generally distributed.

The gold-fields of the Transvaal directly to the ocean. These correspond almost exactly
Republic and of the country which extends thence to the with the two desert belts of the Sahara and the Kalahari
Zambeze, are numerous; but no yield has as yet been dis- above described. The whole of the remaining portions of
covered of sufficient quantity to overcome the difficulties the continent, its forests and pastoral districts, in which
of working, and of transport to the distant sea-ports, to the greater rainfall gives greater power to the rivers, are
which no navigable rivers lead from this region. Copper is drained by streams which find their way to the ocean on
known to exist in large quantities in the mountains of one side or other, generally forcing a passage through some
native kingdoms of the centre of South Africa ; and one of natural or waterworn gorge in the higher circle of mountains
the objects of Dr Livingstone's present journey is to visit | which run round the outer edges of the great plateau.
the famed copper country of Katanga south-west of the By far the larger portion of the oceanic drainage of the
Tanganyika Lake. The diamond-fields in the districts of continent is to the Atlantic and its branch the Mediter-
the Vaal and Orange rivers north of the Cape Colony are ranean, to which the Nile, Niger, Ogowai, Congo, and
now steadily worked, and give good returns.

Orange rivers flow. The great rivers which drain on General Africa is the only one of the continents of the globe the opposite side, to the Indian Ocean, are the Juba, nature of which lies equally to north and south of the equator, Zambeze, and Limpopo ; whilst the northern continental the surface and the portions of it which extend beyond the tropics do basin, by far more extensive than the southern, has only

not advance far into the temperate zones. From this it one great river, the Shari, which supplies Lake Chad. results that Africa, besides being the warmest of all the It must be noticed that the capabilities of the African continents, has also the most equal distribution of the rivers, as highways of approach to the interior of the consun's heat during the seasons over the parts which lie north tinent, are exceedingly small in comparison with those of and south of the central line. Winds and rain, depending on the other great continents of the globe, most of them being the distribution of heat, are also correspondingly developed either barred at their mouths, or by rapids at no great in these two great divisions of the continent, and the broad distance from the coast. It is owing to this physical cause landscape zones, passing from humid forest to arid sandy mainly that the African continent has remained for so desert, also agree exactly with one another north and south many centuries a sealed book to the civilised world. On of Equatorial Africa.

the other hand, it must be observed, that when these outer Equatorial Between 10° N. and 10° S. of the equator, but especially barriers have been passed, the great interior of the land, forests. in that portion of it the outskirts of which have only as in its most productive regions, possesses a network of vast

yet been reached by travellers, Africa appears to be a land rivers and lakes, unsurpassed in extent by those of any
of dense tropical forest. Wherever it has been penetrated, country of the world, by means of which the resources of
travellers speak of an excessively rank vegetation; passage Central Africa may in future be thoroughly developed.
has to be forced through thick underwood and creeping The Nile is the oldest of historical rivers, and afforded Nile.
plants, between giant trees, whose foliage shuts out the the only means of subsistence to the earliest civilised
sun's rays; and the land teems with animal and insect life people on earth, and yet the origin of this river remained
of every form and colour. Describing the forests of an enigma almost to the present day. Though it drains
Manyuema country, west of the Tanganyika Lake, Living a larger area than any other river of Africa, upwards of
stone sayg—“Into these (primæval forests] the sun, though 1,000,000 square miles, and in this respect is one of the
vertical, cannot penetrate, excepting by sending down at largest rivers of the globe, the Nile, passing for a great
midday thin pencils of rays into the gloom. The rain portion of its lower course through the desert belt of North
water stands for months in stagnant pools made by the Africa, and receiving no tributaries there, loses much of
feet of elephants. The climbing plants, from the size of a its volume by evaporation, and is far surpassed in the
whipcord to that of a man-of-war's hawser, are so numerous, quantity of water conveyed to the ocean by the Congo,
that the ancient path is the only passage.

When one in the moist equatorial zone. The great labours of Dr

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