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virgin.) So despotic did the tyranny becume in the West, gentlemen, who had been sent to him for virtuous educathat in the time of Charlemagne it was necessary to re tion, had been brought up, besides others of a meaner rank, strain abbots by legal enactments from mutilating their whom he fitted for the universities. His table, attendance, monks, and putting out their eyes; while the rule of St and officers were an honour to the nation. He would Columba ordained 100 lashes as the punishment for very entertain as many as 500 persons of rank at one time, slight offences. An abbot also had the power of excom besides relieving the poor of the vicinity twice a week. municating refractory nuus, which he might use if desired He had his country houses and fisherics, and when ho by their abbess.

travelled to attend Parliament his retinue amounted to The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and upwards of 100 persons. The abbots of Clugny and reverence by the brethren of his house. When he appeared Vendome were, by virtue of their office, cardinals of the either in church or chapter all present rose and bowed. Romish Church. His letters were received kneeling, like those of the Pope In process of time the title abbot was improperly transand the king. If he gave a command, the monk receiving ferred to clerics who had no connection with the monastic it was also to kneel. No monk might sit in his presence, system, as to the principal of a body of parochial or leave it without his permission. The highest place was clergy; and under the Carlovingians to the chief chaplain naturally assigned to him, both in church and at table. of the king, Abbas Curiæ, or military chaplain of the emIn the East he was commanded to eat with the other monks. peror, Abbas Castrensis. It even came to be adopted by In the West the rule of St Benedict appointed him a sepa- purely secular officials. Thus the chief magistrate of the rate table, at which he might entertain guests and strangers. republic at Genoa was called Abbas Populi. Ducange, in This permission opening the door to luxurious living, the his Glossary, also gives us Abbas Campanilis, Clocherii, Council of Aix, A.D. 817, decreed that the abbot should Palatii, Scholaris, &c. dine in the refectory, and be content with the ordinary Lay abbots, so called, had their origin in the system cf fare of the monks, unless he had to entertain a guest. commendation, in the Sth century. By this, to meet any These ordinances proved, however, generally ineffectual to great necessity of the state, such as an inroad of the Sarasecure strictness of diet, and contemporaneous literature cens, the revenues of monasteries were temporarily comabounds with satirical remarks and complaints concerning mended, i.e., handed over to some layman, a noble, or even the inordinate extravagance of the tables of the abbots. the king himself, who for the time became titular abbot. When the abbot condescended to dine in the refectory, his Enough was reserved to maintain the monastic brotherchaplains waited upon him with the dishes, a servant, if hood, and when the occasion passed away the revenues necessary, assisting them. At St Alban's the abbot took were to be restored to their rightful owners. The estates, the lord's seat, in the centre of the high table, and was however, had a habit of lingering in lay hands, so that in served on silver plate, and sumptuously entertained noble- the 9th and 10th centuries most of the sovereigns and men, ambassadors, and strangers of quality. When abbots nobles among the Franks and Burgundians were titular dined in their own private hall, the rule of St Benedict abbots of some great monastery, the revenues of which charged them to invite their monks to their table, provided they applied to their own purposes. These lay-abbots there was room, on which occasions the guests were to ab were styled Abbacomites or Abbates Milites. Hugh Capet, stain from quarrels, slanderous talk, and idle gossipping. before his elevation to the throne, as an Albacomes held The complaint, however, was sometimes made (as by Matt. the abbeys of St Denis and St Germain in commendam. Paris of Wulsig, the third abbotof St Alban's), that they invited Bishop Hatto, of Mentz, A.D. 891-912, is said to have held ladies of rank to dine with them instead of their monks. The 12 abbeys in commendam at once. In England, as wc sce ordinary attire of the abbot was according to rule to be the from the Acts of the Council of Cloveshoc, in the 8th same as that of the monks. But by the 10th century the century, monasteries were often invaded and occupied by rule was commonly set aside, and we find frequent com- laymen. This occurred sometimes from the monastery plaints of abbots dressing in silk, and adopting great having voluntarily placed itself under the protection of a sumptuousness of attire. Nay, they sometimes laid aside powerful layman, who, from its protector, became its opthe monastic habit altogether, and assumed a secular dress. pressor. Sometimes there were two lines of abbots, one of This was a necessary consequence of their following the chase, laymen enjoying the lion's share of the revenues, another which was quite usual, and indeed at that time only natural. of clerics fulfilling the proper duties of an abbot on a small With the increase of wealth and power, abbots had lost fraction of the income. The gross abuse of lay commenmuch of their special religious character, and become great dation which had sprung up during the corruption of lords, chiefly distinguished from lay lords by celibacy. the monastic system passed away with its reformation in Thus we hear of abbots going out to sport, with their men

the 10th century, either voluntarily or by compulsion. carrying bows and arrows; keeping horses, dogs, and The like abuse prevailed in the East at a later period. huntsmen ; and special mention is made of an abbot of John, Patriarch of Antioch, at the beginning of the 12th Leicester, cir. 1360, who was the most skilled of all the century, informs us that in his time most monasteries had nobility in hare-hunting. In magnificence of equipage and been handed over to laymen, beneficiarii, for life, or for retinue the abbots vied with the first nobles of the realm. part of their lives, by the emperors. They rode on mules with gilded bridles, rich saddles and In conventual cathedrals, where the bishop occupied housings, carrying hawks on their wrist, attended by an the place of the abbot, the functions usually devolving on immense train of attendants. The bells of the churches the superior of the monastery were performed by a prior. were rung as they passed. They associated on equal terms In other convents the prior was the second officer next to with laymen of the highest distinction, and shared all their tho abbot, representing him in his absence, and fulfilling pleasures and pursuits. This rank and power was, how- his duties. The superiors of the cells, or small monastic ever, often used most beneficially. For instance, we read establishments dependent on the larger monasteries, were of Whiting, the last Abbot of Glastonbury, judicially mur also called priors. They were appointed by the abbots, dered by Henry VIII., that his house was a kind of well- and held office at their pleasnre. ordered court, where as many as 300 sons of noblemen and

Authorities : - Bingham, Origines; Ducange, Glossary;

Herzog, Realwörterbuch ; Robertson, Ch. Hist.; Martene, 1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, circa 930, is charged by

De Antiq. Monast. Ritibus, Montalembert, Monks of the Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.

IVest

(E. V.)

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ABBOT, CHARLES, speaker of the House of Commons sence being unwelcome at court, he lived from that time from 1802 to 1817, afterwards created Lord Colchester. in retirement, leaving Laud and his party in undisputed See COLCHESTER.

ascendency. He died, at Croydon on the 5th August 1633, ABBOT, GEORGE, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born and was buried at Guildford, his native place, where he had October 19, 1562, at Guildford in Surrey, where his father endowed an hospital with lands to the value of £300 a year. was a cloth-worker. He studied at Balliol College, Oxford, Abbot wrote a large number of works; but, with the excepand was chosen Master of University College in 1597. tion of his Exposition on the Prophet Jonah (1600), which He was three times appointed to the office of Vice-Chan-was reprinted in 1845, they are now little known. His cellor of the University. When in 1604 the version of the Geography, or a Brief Description of the Whole World, Bible now in use was ordered to be prepared, Dr Abbot's passed through numerous editions. name stood second on the list of the eight Oxford divines ABBOT, GEORGE, known as “The Puritan," has been to whom was intrusted the translation of the New Testa- oddly and persistently mistaken for others. He has been ment, excepting the Epistles. In 1608 he went to Scotland described as a clergyman, which he never was, and as son with the Earl of Dunbar to arrange for a union between of Sir Morris Abbot, and his writings accordingly entered the Churches of England and Scotland, and his conduct in in the bibliographical authorities as by the nephew of that negotiation laid the foundation of his preferment, by the Archbishop of Canterbury. One of the sons of Sir attracting to him the notice and favour of the king. With Morris Abbot was, indeed, named George, and he was out having held any parochial charge, he was appointed a man of mark, but the more famous George Abbot Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1609, was translated was of a different family altogether. He was son or to the see of London a month afterwards, and in less grandson (it is not clear which) of Sir Thomas Abbot, than a year was made Archbishop of Canterbury. This knight of Easington, East Yorkshire, having been born rapid preferment was due as much perhaps to his flat- there in 1603-4, his mother (or grandmother) being tering his royal master as to his legitimate merits. After of the ancient house of Pickering. He married å his elevation he showed on several occasions firmness daughter of Colonel Purefoy of Caldecote, Warwickshire, and courage in resisting the king. In the scandalous and as his monument, which may still be seen in the divorce suit of the Lady Frances Howard against the Earl church there, tells, he bravely held it against Prince of Essex, the archbishop persistently opposed the dissolu- Rupert and Maurice during the civil war.

He was a tion of the marriage, though the influence of the king and member of the Long Parliament for Tamworth. As a court was strongly and successfully exerted in the opposite layman, and nevertheless a theologian and scholar of direction. In 1618, when a declaration was published by rare ripeness and critical ability, he holds an almost the king, and ordered to be read in all the churches, per- unique place in the literature of the period. His Whole mitting sports and pastimes on the Sabbath, Abbot had Booke of Job Paraphrased, or made easy for any to underthe courage to forbid its being read at Croydon, where he stand (1640, 4to), is in striking contrast, in its concinnity happened to be at the time. As may be inferred from and terseness, with the prolixity of too many of the Puritan the incident just mentioned, Abbot was of the Protestant or expositors and commentators. His Vindicie Sabbathi (1641, Puritan party in the Church. He was naturally, therefore, 8vo) had a profound and lasting influence in the long a promoter of the match between the Elector Palatine and Sabbatic controversy. His Brief Notes upon the Whole Book the Princess Elizabeth, and a firm opponent of the projected of Psalms (1651, 4to), as its date shows, was posthumous. marriage of the Prince of Wales with the Infanta of Spain. He died February 2, 1648. (MS. collections at AbbeyThis policy brought upon him the hatred of Laud and the ville for history of all of the name of Abbot, by J. T. court. The king, indeed, never forsook him; but Buck- Abbot, Esq., F.S.A., Darlington; Dugdale’s Antiquities of ingham was his avowed enemy, and he was regarded with Warwickshire, 1656, p. 791; Wood's Athence (Bliss), s. v.; dislike by the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles I. Cox's Literature of the Sabbath ; Dr James Gilfillan on In 1622 a sad misfortune befell the archbishop while The Sabbath; Lowndes, Bodleian, B. Museum Catal. hunting in Lord Zouch’s park at Bramzill. A bolt from s. v.)

(A. B. G.) his cross-brow aimed at a deer happened to strike one of ABBOT, ROBERT. Noted as this Puritar. divine was in the keepers, who died within an hour, and Abbot was so his own time, and representative in various ways, he has greatly distressed by the event that he fell into a state of hitherto been confounded with others, as Robert Abbot, settled melancholy. His enemies maintained that the fatal Bishop of Salisbury, and his personality distributed over issue of this accident disqualified him for his office, and a Robert Abbot of Cranbrook; another of Southwick, argued that, though the homicide was involuntary, the Hants; a third of St Austin's, London ; while these successport of hunting which had led to it was one in which no sive places were only the successive livings of the one clerical person could lawfully indulge. The king had to Robert Abbot. He is also described as of the Archbishop's refer the matter to a commission of ten, though he said or Guildford Abbots, whereas he was in no way related, that “ an angel might have miscarried after this sort.” A albeit he acknowledges very gratefully, in the first of his decision was given in the archbishop's favour; but to pre- epistles-dedicatory of A Hand of Fellowship to IIelpe Keepe vent disputes, it was recommended that the king should ovt Sinne and Antichrist (1623, 4to), that it was from the formally absolve him, and confer his office upon him anew. archbishop he had “received all” his “worldly mainteAfter this the archbishop seldom appeared at the council, nance,” as well as “best earthly countenance" and "fatherly chiefly on account of his infirmities. He attended the incouragements.” The worldly maintenance was the preking constantly, however, in his last illness, and performed sentation to the vicarage of Cranbrook in Kent, of which the ceremony of the coronation of Charles I. A pretext | the archbishop was patron. This was in 1616. He had was soon found by his enemies for depriving him of all his received his education at Cambridge, where he proceeded functions as primate, which were put in commission by M.A., and was afterwards incorporated at Oxford. In the king. This high-handed procedure was the result of 1639, in the epistle to the reader of his most noticeable Abbot's refusal to license a sermon preached by Dr Sibthorp, book historically, his Triall of our Church-Forsakers, in which the king's prerogative was stretched beyond con- he tells us, “I have lived now, by God's gratious disstitutional limits. The archbishop had his powers restored pensation, above fifty years, and in the place of my to him shortly afterwards, however, when the king found allotment two and twenty full.” The former dato it absolutely nccessary to summon a Parliament. His pre- carries us back to 1588–89, or perhaps 1587–88—the

“Armada” year—as his birth-time; the latter to 1616-17 | April and May 1869; The Lands of Scott, by James F. (ut supra). In his Bee Thankfull London and her Sisters Hunnewell, cr. 8vo, 1871; Scott Loan Exhibition Cata. (1626), he describes himself as formerly “ assistant to a logue, 4to, 1871. reverend divine .... now with God," and the name on ABBOTSFORD CLUB, one of the principal printing the margin is “Master Haiward of Wool Church.” This clubs, was founded in 1834 by Mr W. B. D. D. Turnbull, and was doubtless previous to his going to Cranbrook. Very named in honour of Sir Walter Scott. Taking a wider remarkable and effective was Abbot's ministry at Cran- range than its predecessors, the Bannatyne and Maitland brook, where the father of Phineas and Giles Fletcher was Clubs, it did not confine its printing (as remarked by Mr the first." Reformation” pastor, and which, relatively small Lockhart) to works connected with Scotland, but admitted as it is, is transfigured by being the birth-place of the poet all materials that threw light on the ancient history of of the “ Locustæ” and “The Purple Island.”. His parish- literature of any country, anywhere described or discussed ioners were as his own “sons and daughters” to him, and by the Author of Waverley. The club, now dissolved, con by day and night he thought and felt, wept and prayed, for sisted of fifty members; and the publications extend to 34 them and with them. He is a noble specimen of the rural vols. quarto, issued during the years 1835-1864. clergyman of his age. Puritan though he was in his deepest ABBREVIATION, a letter or group of letters, taken convictions, he was a thorough Churchman as toward Non- from a word or words, and employed to represent them for conformists, e.g., the Brownists, with whom he waged stern the sake of brevity. Abbreviations, both of single words warfare. He remained until 1643 at Cranbrook, and then and of phrases, having a meaning more or less fixed and chose the very inferior living of Southwick, Hants, as be- recognised, are common in ancient writings and inscriptween the one and the other, the Parliament deciding tions, and very many are in use at the present time.

A against pluralities of ecclesiastical offices. Succeeding the distinction is to be observed between abbreviations and the “extruded” Udall of St Austine's, Abbot continued there contractions that are frequently to be met with in old until a good old age. In 1657, in the Warning-piece, he manuscripts, and even in carly printed books, whereby is described as still “pastor of Austine's in London.” He letters are dropped out here and there, or particular collo. disappears silently between 1657-8 and 1662. Robert cations of letters represented by somewhat arbitrary symbols. Abbot's books are distinguished from many of the Puritans The commonest form of abbreviation is the substitution for by their terseness and variety. (Brook's Puritans, iii. a word of its initial letter; but, with a view to preveut 182, 3; Walker's Sufferings, Wood's Athence (Bliss); Cata- ambiguity, one or more of the other letters are frequently logus Impressorum Librorum in Bibliotheca Bodleiana, s.v.; added. Letters are often doubled to indicate a plural or a Palmer's Nonconf. Mem., ii. 218.)

(A. B. G.) superlative. ABBOTSFORD, the celebrated residence of Sir Walter I. CLASSICAL ABBREVIATIONS.—The following list conScott, situated on the south bank of the river Tweed, about tains a selection from the abbreviations that occur in the three miles above Melrose. The nucleus of the property writings and inscriptions of the Romans:was a small farm of 100 acres, with the “inharmonious

Á. designation" of Clarty Hole, acquired by Scott on the lapse A. Absolvo, Ædilis, Æs, Ager, Ago, Aio, Amicus, Annus, of his lease (1811) of the neighbouring house of Ashestiel.

Antiquo, Auctor, Auditor, Augustus, Aulus, Aurum,

Aut. It was gradually increased by various acquisitions, the last

A. A. Æs alienum, Ante audita, Apud agrum, Aurum argentum. and principal being that of Toftfield (afterwards named

AA.

Augusti. AAA. Augusti tres. Huntlyburn), purchased in 1817. The present new house was A. A.A.F.F. Auro argento ære flando feriundo.1 then commenced, and was completed in 1824. The general | A.A.V. Alter ambove.

A.C. ground-plan is a parallelogram, with irregular outlines

Acta causa, Alius civis.

A.D. Ante diem ; e.g., A.D.V. Ante diem quintum. one side overlooking the Tweed, and the other facing a A.D.A. Ad đandos agros. courtyard; and the general style of the building is the ÆD. Ædes, Ædilis, Ædilitas. Scottish baronial. Scott had only enjoyed his new resi

ÆM, and AIM. Æmilius, Æmilia.

ÆR. Ærarium. ÆR.P. Ære publico. dence one year when (1825) he met with that reverse of

A.F. Actum fide, Auli filius. fortune (connected with the failure of Ballantyne and AG. Ager, Ago, Agrippa. Constable), which involved the estate in debt. In 1830, A. G. Animo grato, Aulus Gellius. the library and museum were presented as a free gift by A. L. A. and A.L.E. Arbitrium litis æstimandæ

A.M. and A.MILL. Ad milliarium. the creditors; and after Scott's death, which took place at

AN. Aniensis, Annus, Ante. Abbotsford in September 1832, a committee of friends ANN. Annales, Anni, Annona. subscribed a further sum of about £8000 towards the same ANT. Ante, Antonius. object. The property was wholly disencumbered in 1847, A.O. Alii omnes, Amico optimo. by Mr Cadell, the publisher, accepting the remaining A.P.

Appius, Apud.

Ad pedes, Ædilitia potestate. claims of the family over Sir Walter Scott's writings in

A.P.F. Auro (or argento) publico feriundo. requital of his obligation to obliterate the heritable bond on A.P.M. Amico posuit monumentum, Annorum plus minus. the property. The result of this transaction was, that not A.P.R.C. Anno post Romam conditam. only was the estate redeemed by the fruit of Scott's brain, AR. V.V.D.D. Aram votam volens dedicavit, Arma votiva dono dedit.

ARG. but a handsome residue fell to the publisher. Scott's only A T. A tergo. Also A TE. and A TER. son Walter (Lieutenant-Colonel 15th Hussars) did not live | A.T.M.D.O. Aio te mihi dare opertere. to enjoy the property, having died on his way from India AV, Augur, Augustus, Aurelius.

A. V. Annos vixit. in 1847. Its subsequent possessors have been Scott's

A. V.C. Ab urbe condita. son-in-law, J. G. Lockhart, and the latter's son-in-law, AVG.

Augur, Augustus. J. R. Hope Scott, Q.C., whose daughter (Scott's great- AVGG. Augusti (generally of two). AVGGG. Augusti tres. granddaughter) is the present proprietor. Mr Lockhart AVT.PR. R. Auctoritas provinciæ Romanorum. died at Abbotsford in 1854.—See Life of Scott, by J. G.

B. Lockhart; Abbotsford and Newstead Abbey, by Washing

Balbius, Balbus, Beatus, Bene, Beneficiarius, Beneficium, ton Irving; Abbotsford Notánda in Gentleman's Mag., B. for V. Berna, Bivus, Bixit.

Bonus, Brutus, Bustum.
B.A.

Bixit annos, Bonis auguriis, Bonus amabilis.
1 The Catalogue of the Library at Abbotsford forms vol. lxi. of the
Bannatyno Club publications.

2 Describing the function of the triumviri monetales.

B.

C.C.

BB. or B.B. Bene bene, i.e., optime, Optimus.

G. B.D. Bona dox, Bonum datum.

G. Gaius (=Caius), Gallia, Gaudium, Gellius, Gemina, Gens, B.DD. Bonis deabus.

Gesta, Gratia. B.D.S.M. Bene de se merenti.

G.F. Gemina fidelis (applied to a legion). So G.P.F. Gemina B.F. Bona femina, Bona fides, Bona fortuna, Bonum factum.

pia fidelis. & Bona femina, Bona filia.

GL. Gloria. B. H. Bona hereditaria, Bonorum heres.

GN, Genius, Gens, Genus, Gnæus (=Cnaus). B.I. Bonum judicium. B.I.I. Boni judicis judicium.

G.P.R. Genio populi Romani. B.M. Beatæ memoriæ, Bene merenti.

H. B.N. Bona nostra, Bonum nomen.

H. Habet, IIeres, Hic, Homo, Honor, IIora.
BN.H.I. Bona hic invenies.

HER. Heres, Herennius. HER. and HERC. Hercules.
B.P. Bona paterna, Bonorum potestas, Bonum publicum. H.L. Hac lege, Hoc loco, Honesto loco.
B.Q. Bene quiescat, Bona quæsita.

H.M. Hoc monumentum, Honesta mulier, Hora mala.
B.RP.N. Bono reipublicæ natus.

H.S.E. Hic sepultus est, Hic situs est. BRT. Britannicus.

H.V. Hæc urbs, Hic vivit, Honeste vixit, Honestus vir. B.T. Bonorum tutor, Brevi tempore. B.V. Bene vale, Bene vixit, Bonus vir.

I. B.V.V. Balnea vina Venus.

I. Immortalis, Imperator, In, Infra, Inter, Invictus, Ipse, BX. Bixit, for vixit.

Isis, Judex, Julius, Junius, Jupiter, Justus.
C.

IA. Jam, Intra.

I.C.
Casar, Caius, Caput, Causa, Censor, Civis, Cohors, Colonia,

Julius Cæsar, Juris Consultum, Jus civile.

ID.
Comitialis (dies), Condemno, Consul, Cum, Curo,

Idem, Idus, Interdum.

I.D.
Custos.

Inferis diis, Jovi dedicatum, Jus dicendum, Jussu Dei.

I.D.M. Jovi deo magno.
&B.
Caia, Centuria, Cum, the prefix Con.

I.F.
Civis bonus, Commune bonum, Conjugi benemerenti, Cui

In foro, In fronte.

I. H. bono.

Jacet hic, In honestatem, Justus homo.

IM.
Calumniæ causa, Causa cognita, Conjugi carissimæ, Con-

Imago, Immortalis, Immunis, Impensa.

IMP. silium cepit, Curiæ consulto.

Imperator, Imperium. C.C.C. Calumniæ cavendæ causâ.

I.O.M. Jovi optimo maximo.

I.P. In publico, Intra provinciam, Justa persona.
C.C.F. Cæsar (or Caius) curavit faciendum, Caius Caii filius.
CC.VV. Clarissimi viri.

I.S.V.P. Impensa sua vivus posuit.
C.D. Caesaris decreto, Caius Decius, Comitialibus diebus.

K. CES. Censor, Censores. CESS. Censores

K. Kæso, Caia, Calumnia, Caput, Carus, Castra. C.F. Causa fiduciæ, Conjugi fecit, Curavit faciendum.

K., KAL., and KL. Kalendæ. C.H. Custos heredum, Custos hortorum.

L. C.I. Caius Julius, Consul jussit, Curavit judex.

L. Lælius, Legio, Lex, Libens, Liber, Libra, Locus, Lollius, CL. Clarissimus, Claudius, Clodius, Colonica

Lucius, Ludus. CL. V. Clarissimus vir, Clypeum vovit.

LB. Libens, Liberi, Libertus.
C. M. Caius Marius, Causa mortis.

L.D.D.D. Locus datus decreto decurionum.
CN.
Cnzus.

LEG. Legatus, Legio.
COH. Coheres, Cohors.

LIB. Liber, Liberalitas, Libertas, Libertus, Librarius. COL Collega, Collegium, Colonia, Columna.

LL. Leges, Libentissime, Liberti. COLL. Collega, Coloni, Coloniæ.

L.M. Libens merito, Locus monumenti. COM. Comes, Comitium, Comparatum.

L.S. Laribus sacrum, Libens solvit, Locus sacer. CON. Conjux, Consensus, Consiliarius, Consul, Consularis.

LVD. Ludus. COR. Cornelia (tribus), Cornelius, Corona, Corpus.

LV.P.F. Ludos publicos fecit. COS. Consiliarius, Consul, Consulares. Coss. Consules.

M. C.P. Carissimus or Clarissimus puer, Civis publicus, Curavit

Magister, Magistratus, Magnus, Manes, Marcus, Marius, ponendum.

Marti, Mater, Memoria, Mensis, Miles, Monumentum, C.R. Caius Rufus, Civis Romanus, Curavit reficiendum.

Mortuus, Mucius, Mulier. CS. Cæsar, Communis, Consul.

M'.

Manius. C.V. Clarissimus or consularis vir.

M.D. Magno Deo, Manibus diis, Matri deum, Merenti dedit. CVR. Cura, Curator, Curavit, Curia.

MES. Mensis. MESS. Menses.

M.F. Mala fides, Marci filius, Monumentum fecit.
D.

M.I. Matri Idaeæ, Matri Isidi, Maximo Jovi.
D. Dat, Dedit, &c., De, Decimus, Decius, Decretum, Decurio, MNT. and MON. Moneta.

Deus, Dicit, &r., Dies, Divus, Dominus, Domus, M.P. Male positus, Monumentum posuit.
Donum.

M.S. Manibus sacrum, Memoriæ sacrum, Manu scriptum.
D.C. Decurio colonize, Diebus comitialibus, Divus Cæsar. MVN. Municeps, or municipium; 80 also MN., MV., and
D.D. Dea Dia, Decurionum decreto, Dedicavit, Deo dedit, Dono

MVNIC. dedit.

M.V.S. Marti ultori sacrum, Merito votum solvit. D.D.D. Datum decreto decurionum, Dono dedit dedicavit.

N. D.E.R. De ea re.

N. DES. Designatus.

Natio, Natus, Nefaştus (dies), Nepos, Neptunus, Nero, D.I. Dedit imperator, Diis immortalibus, Diis inferis.

Nomen, Non, Nonæ, Noster, Novus, Numen, Numá D.I.M. Deo invicto Mithre, Diis inferis Manibus.

rius, Numerus, Nummus.

NEP. D.M. Deo Magno, Dignus memoria, Diis Manibus, Dolo malo.

Nepos, Neptunus.

N.F.C. Nostræ fidei commissum,
D.O.M. Deo Optimo Maximo.

N.L.
D.P.S. Dedit proprio sumptu, Deo perpetuo sacrum, De pecunia N.M.V. Nobilis memoriæ vir.

Non licet, Non liquet, Non longe.

NN.
E.

Nostri. NN., NNO., and NNR. Nostrorum.

NOB. Nobilis. NOB., NOBR., and NOV. Novembris. E. Ejus, Eques, Erexit, Ergo, Est, Et, Etiam, Ex.

N.P. Nefastus primo (i.e., priore parte diei), Non potest.
EG. Æger, Egit, Egregius.
E M.

O.
Egregiæ memorize, Ejusmodi, Erexit monumentum.
EQ.M. Equitum magister.

0. Ob, Officium, Omnis, Oportet, Optimus, Opus, Ossa. E.R.A. Ea res agitur.

OB. Obiit, Obiter, Orbis.
F.

0.C.S. Ob cives servatos.

0.H.F. Omnibus honoribus functus. F. Fabius, Facere, Fecit, &c., Familia, Fastus (dies), Felix,

O.H.S.S. Ossa hic sita sunt.
Femina, Fides, Filius, Flamen, Fortuna, Frater, Fuit,

OR.
Functus.

Hora, Ordo, Ornamentum.
F.C. Faciendum curavit, Fidei commissum, Fiduciæ caun.

0.T.B.Q. Ossa tua bene quiescant. F.D. Fidem dedit, Flamen Dialis, Fraude donavit.

P. P.F.F. Ferro flamma fame, Fortior fortuna fato.

P. Pars, Passus, Pater, Patronus, Pax, Perpetuus, Pes, Pius, FL. Filius, Flamea, Flaminius, Flavius.

Plebs, Pondo, Populus, Post, Posuit, Præses, Prætor, F.L Favete linguis, Fecit libens, Felix liber.

Primus, Pro, Provincia, Publicus, Publius, Puer. PR Forum, Fronte, Frumentarius.

P.C. Pactum conventum, Patres conscripti, Pecunia constituta, F.R Forum Romanum.

Ponendum curavit, Post consulatum, Potestate censoria

M.

sua,

Q.R.

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P.F. Pia fidelis, Pius felix, Promissa fides, Publii filius. which they occur. There is no occasion to explain here
P.M. Piæ memoriæ, Plus minus, Pontifex maximus.

the common abbreviations used for Christian names, books P.P. Pater patratus, Pater patriæ, Pecunia publica, Prepositus, of Scripture, months of the year, points of the compass,

Primipilus, Proprætor.
PR. Præses, Prætor, Pridie, Princeps.

grammatical and mathematical terms, or familiar titles, P.R. Permissu reipublicæ, Populus Romanus.

like “Mr," &c. P.R.C. Post Romam conditam.

The ordinary abbreviations, now or recently in use, may
PR. PR. Præfectus prætorii, Proprætor.
P. S. Pecunia sua, Plebiscitum, Proprio sumptu, Publicæ saluti.

be conveniently classified under the following headings :P.V. Pia victrix, Præfectus urbi, Præstantissimus vir.

1. ABBREVIATED TITLES AND DESIGNATIONS.
Q.

A. A. Associate of Arts.
Q. Quæstor, Quando, Quantus, Que, Qui, Quinquennalis, A.B. Able-bodied scaman.
Quintus, Quirites.

A.M. (Artium Magister), Master of Arts.
Q.D.R. Qua de re.

A. R. A. Associate of the Rcyal Academy.
Q.I.S.S. Quæ infra scripta sunt; so Q. S. S. S. Quae supra, &c. A.R.S.A. Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.
QQ.
Quæcunque, Quinquennalis, Quoque.

B.A. Bachelor of Arts.
Quæstor reipublicæ.

B.C.L. Bachelor of Civil Law.
R.

B.D. Bachelor of Divinity.
R. Recte, Res, Respublica, Retro, Rex, Ripa, Roma, Romanus, B.LL. Bachelor of Laws.
Rufus, Rursus.

B.Sc. Bachelor of Science. R.C. Romana civitas, Romanus civis.

C. Chairman, RESP. and RP. Respublica.

C.A. Chartered Accountant.
RET. P. and RP. Retro pedes.

C.B. Companion of the Bath.
S.

C.E. Civil Engineer.
S. Sacrum, Scriptus, Semis, Senatus, Sepultus, Servius, C.M. (Chirurgice Magister), Master in Surgery.
Servus, Sextus, Sibi, Sine, Situs, Solus, Solvit, Sub,

C.M.G. Companion of St Michael and St George.
Suus.

C.S.I. Companion of the Star of India.
SAC. Sacerdos, Sacrificium, Sacrum.

D.C.L. Doctor of Civil Law. S.C. Senatus consultum.

D.D. Doctor of Divinity. S.D. Sacrum diis, Salutem dicit, Senatus decreto, Sententiam

D.Lit. Doctor of Literature. dedit.

D.M. Doctor of Medicine (Oxford). S.D.M. Sacrum diis Manibus, Sine dolo malo.

D.Sc. Doctor of Science. SER. Servius, Servus.

Ebor. (Eboracensis), of York. 1 S.E.T.L. Sit ei terra levis.

F.C.S. Fellow of the Chemical Society. SN. Senatus, Sententia, Sine.

F.D. (Fidci Defensor), Defender of the Faith. S.P. Sacerdos perpetua, Sine pecunia, Sua pecunia.

F.F.P.S. Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians & Surgeons (Glasgow.) S.P.Q.R. Senatus populusque Romanus.

F.G.S. Fellow of the Geological Society. S.S. Sanctissimus senatus, Supra scriptum.

F.K.Q.C.P.I. Fellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians S.V.B.E. E.Q.V. Si vales bene est, ego quidem valeo.

in Ireland. T.

F.L.S. Fellow of the Linnean Society.
T. Terminus, Testamentum, Titus, Tribunus, Tu, Turma,

F.M. Field Marshal.
Tutor.

F.P.S. Fellow of the Philological Society.
TB., Ti., and TIB. Tiberius.

F.R.A.S. Fellow of the Royal Astronorsical Society.
TB., TR., and TRB. Tribunus.

F.R.C.P. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
T.F. Tostamentum fecit, Titi filius, Titulum fecit, Titus F.R.C.P.E. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Elin.
Flavius.

burgh. TM. Terminus, Testamentum, Therme.

F.R.C.S. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. T.P. Terminum posuit, Tribunicia potestate, Tribunus plebis.

F.R.G.S. Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
TVL. Tullius, Tullus.

F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society.
V.

F.R.S. E. Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
V. Urbs, Usus, Uxor, Vale, Verba, Vestalis, Vester, Vir, F.R.S. L. Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.
Vivus, Vixit, Volo, Votum.

F.S.A. Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. V.A. Veterano assignatus, Vixit annos.

F.S.S. Fellow of the Statistical Society. V.C. Vale conjux, Vir clarissimus, Vir consularis.

F.Z.S. Fellow of the Zoological Society. V.E. Verum etiam, Vir egregius, Visum est.

G.C.B. Knight Grand Cross of the Bath.
V.F. Usus fructus, Verba fecit, Vivus fecit.

G.C.H. Knight Grand Cross of Hanover.
V.P. Urbis præfectus, Vir perfectissimus, Vivus posuit. G.C.M.G. Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George.
V.R. Urbs Roma, Uti rogas, Votum reddidit.

G.C.S.I. Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India.

H.R. H. His (or Her) Royal Highness. II. MEDIÆVAL ABBREVIATIONS.—Of the different kinds J.P. Justice of the Peace. of abbreviations in use in the middle ages, the following J.U.D. (Juris utriusque Doctor), Doctor of Civil and Canon Law. are examples :

K.C.S.I. Knight Commander of the Star of India. A.M. Ave Maria,

K.C.B. Knight Commander of the Bath.

K.G. Knight of the Garter. B.P. Beatus Paulus, Beatus Petrus.

K.P.
CC. Carissimus (also plur. Carissimi), Clarissimus, Circum.

Knight of St Patrick.
K.T.

Knight of the Thistle.
D. Deus, Dominicus, Dux.

L. A.H. Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Hall. D.N.PP. Dominus noster Papa.

L.C.J. Lord Chief Justice. FF. Felicissimus, Fratres, Pandectä (prob. for Gr. II).

LL.B. (Legum Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Laws. 1.C. or I.X. Jesus Christus. I.D.N. In Dei nomine.

LL.D. (Lcgum Doctor), Doctor of Laws. KK. Karissimus (or -mi).

LL.M. (Legum Magister), Master of Laws.

L.R.C.P. Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians. MM. Magistri, Martyres, Matrimonium, Meritissimus.

L.R.C.S. Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons. O.S.B. Ordinis Sancti Benedicti.

L.S.A. Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Society. PP. Papa, Patres, Piissimus.

M.A. Master of Arts. R.F. Rex Francorum.

M.B. R.P.D. Reverendissimus Pater Dominus.

(Medicince Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Medicine.

M.C. Member of Congress. S.C.M. Sacra Cæsarea Majestas.

M.D. (Medicino Doctor), Doctor of Medicine.
S.M.E. Sancta Mater Ecclcsia.

M.P. Member of Parliament.
S.M.M. Sancta Mater Maria.
S.R.I. Sanctum Romanum Imperium.

M.R.C.P. Member of the Royal College of Physicians.
S.V. Sanctitas Vestra, Sancta Virgo.

M. R. I. A. Member of the Royal Irish Academy.

Mus. B. Bachelor of Music.
V. Venerabilis, Venerandus.
V.R.P. Vestra Reverendissima Paternitas.

1 An archbishop or bishop, in writing his signature, substitutes for III. ABBREVIATIONS NOW IN USE.—The import of these

his surname the name of his see; thus the prelates of Canterbury, York,

Oxford, London, &c., subscribe themselves A. C. Cantuar., W. Ebor., will often be readily understood from the connection in J. F. Oxon., J. London, &c.

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