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AFRICA

Ancient geography of Africa. Egypt.

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THIS vast continent, thougn associated from the dawn | D’Anville could trace such discovery no farther than to

of civilisation with traditions and mysteries of the Cape Delgado; and M. Gosselin contends that the ancients
most stimulating kind, has remained until recently one of never proceeded down the coast beyond Brava. But Dr.
the least known, and, both commercially and politically, Vincent, who has entered more profoundly into the subject
one of the least important of the great divisions of the than any of his predecessors, and brought a great fund of
globe. The knowledge of Africa possessed by the ancients learning to bear on the question, in his Periplus of the
was very limited, owing principally to its physical construc- Erythrean Sea, has with great plausibility extended these
tion. The great desert, which in a broad belt stretches boundaries to Mozambique and to the island of Madagascar.
quite across the continent, forbade every attempt to pass
it until the introduction of the camel by the Arabs. The
want of any known great river, except the Nile, that might
conduct into the interior, contributed to confine the Greek
and Roman colonists to the habitable belt along the north-
ern coast. The Phænicians are known to have formed
establishments on the northern coast of Africa at a very
early period of history, probably not less than 3000 years
ago; and the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses dates as far
back as the year B.C. 525. We may consider, therefore,
the coasts of Egypt, of the Red Sea, and of the Mediter-
ranean, to have been settled and well known to the ancient
Asiatics, who were constantly passing the narrow isthmus
which divided their country from Africa and led them im-
mediately from parched deserts into a fertile valley, watered
by a magnificent river. But whether they were much or
little acquainted with the western coast, which bounds the
Atlantic, and the eastern coast, washed by the Indian Ocean,
is a question that has exercised the research and ingenuity

PLANTI Ecodrzez
of the ablest scholars and geographers, and has not yet
been satisfactorily answered.

This question being one of curiosity rather than utility,
we shall only state the case, and the results of the several
inquiries, without entering into the merits of the arguments
advanced by the different parties. We are told by Hero-
dotus, that Necho, king of Egypt, sent out an expedition
under the command of certain Phænician seamen, for the
purpose of circumnavigating Africa; and that, on their re-
turn, they asserted that they had accomplished this under-

Sketch Map of Africa. taking. Few of the ancient writers give credit to the story; Egypt, under the Ptolemies, the great patrons of science but, among the moderns, the Abbé Paris and Montesquieu and promoters of discovery, possessing the advantage of have contended that this voyage was actually performed. the only great river which falls from the African continent Isaac Vossius and D'Anville have strong doubts; and Dr into the Mediterranean, made no progress beyond its anVincent and M. Gosselin maintain that such an expedition, cient boundaries; and though the Romans, who subseat such a period, exceeds all the means and resources of quently possessed Egypt, penetrated beyond the limits of navigation, then in its infancy. Last of all comes Major their own dependencies, they extended their discoveries no Rennel, who, in his elucidation of the geography of Hero- further than Fezzan in one direction, and, at a later period, dotus, has done more than all the rest in clearing away the beyond Nubia as far as Abyssinia, and the regions of the doubts of history; and he argues the possibility of such a Upper Nile. We know nothing of the progress made by voyage, from the construction of their ships, with flat bot- the Carthaginians in the discovery of Interior Africa; but The Cartoms and low masts, enabling them to keep close to the although it has been asserted that their merchants had thaginiaus. land, and to discover and enter into all the creeks and har- reached the banks of the interior river, which we call the bours which any part of the coast might present. At all Kawara or Niger, they have left nothing on record that events, one thing is evident: if such an expedition ever will warrant such a supposition. The story told by Herocircumnavigated the African continent, the fruits of it have dotus, of some Nasamonians crossing the desert, and arrivnearly, if not entirely, perished.

ing at a large river, can only be applicable to some western About half a century after this supposed expedition, the arm of the Nile. The people from whom we derive the The Arabs. account of another voyage, down the western coast, is con first information concerning the interior of Northern Africa tained in the Periplus of Hanno, which has also called forth are the Arabs, who, by means of the camel, were able to many learned and elaborate discussions among modern geo- penetrate across the great desert to the very centre of the graphers, some of whom would carry Hanno to the Bight continent, and along the two coasts as far as the Senegal and of Benin, others only to Sherbro Sound or the river Nun the Gambia on the west, and to Sofala on the east. On this in lat. 28° N.

latter coast they not only explored to an extent far beyond The extent to which ancient discovery proceeded along any supposed limits of ancient discovery, but planted colonies the eastern coast of Africa, has divided the opinion of the at Sofala, Mombas, Melinda, and at various other places. learned nearly as much as its progress on the western coast. The 15th century produced a new era in maritime dis- PortuDelisle, Huet, and Bochart, made the discovery of the coast covery. The voyages of the Portuguese were the first to guese. to extend as far south as Mozambiqne and Madagascar. I give anything like an accurate outline of the two coasts,

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Eastern coast.

and to complete the circumnavigation of Africa. The dis- also died. His servant, Richard Lander, returned to Eng.
covery of America and the West India islands gave rise to land, after having explored a part of the adjoining regions.
that horrid traffic in African negroes, which has since been Major Laing succeeded in reaching Timbuktu from Tri. Laing.
suppressed; but this traffic has been the means of acquiring poli, but was murdered on his return in the desert.
a more extended and accurate knowledge of that part of In 1827 and 1828 Caillié set out from the Rio Nunez Caillié.
the coast which lies between the rivers Senegal and the on the western coast, reached Timbuktu, and returned from

Cameroons, as well as of the manners and character of the that place through the Great Desert to Marocco. A second
The Eng, people who inhabit this extended line of coast. With the Portuguese journey was undertaken in 1830 from Mozam-
lish and English and French settlements in Africa began a systematic bique to the Cazembe's dominions, and Major Monteiro,
French.
survey of the coast, and portions of the interior.

the leader of the expedition, more fortunate than his preAfrican The uncertainty and confusion that prevailed in the geo-decessor Dr Lacerda, was enabled to complete a map of the associa graphy of the interior of Africa induced a few learned and country traversed, and to bring back a complete account tion.

scientific individuals to form themselves into an association of this portion of the interior.
for promoting the exploration of Inner Africa. This society The termination of the Joliba, Kawara, or Niger, remained Landers.
was formed in London in 1788, and under its auspices im- in obscurity till 1830, when it was ascertained by Lander
portant additions were made to the geography of Africa and his brother, who succeeded in tracing the river from
by Houghton, Mungo Park, Hornemann, and Burckhardt. Yaouri down to its mouth. They embarked on a second
Repeated failures, however, at length discouraged the asso- expedition, which sailed in 1832, for the purpose of ascend-
ciation from engaging other missionaries, and it subse- ing the Kawara as far as Timbuktu. But only Rabba was

quently merged in the Royal Geographical Society in 1831. reached, and the general results of the expedition were Discoveries During the last sixty years more has been done to make most disastrous. in the 19th us acquainted with the geography of Africa than during The great Niger expedition, similar to the foregoing, Niger excentury. the whole of the 1700 previous years, since Ptolemy, taken consisted of three steam-vessels, and was despatched by the pedition.

together. With Mungo Park, strictly speaking, commences Government in 1841, under Captain Trotter. It proved a

the era of unceasing endeavours to explore the interior. failure, and resulted in a melancholy loss of life. Park. Mungo Park proceeded in 1795 from the river Gambia In the region between the Kawara and the coast, Mr Duncan.

on the west coast, to the Joliba (commonly called Niger), Duncan, one of the survivors of the Niger expedition,
traced this river as far as the town of Silla, explored the made some additions to our geographical knowledge by
intervening countries, determined the southern confines of his journey to Adafoodia, in 1845–46. This enterprising
the Sahara, and returned in 1797. In 1805 this adven- traveller met with an untimely death in a second attempt
turous traveller embarked on a second journey in the same in the same region for the purpose of reaching Timbuktu.
regions, for the purpose of descending down the river Joliba The preceding journeys were confined chiefly to the East-
to its mouth. This journey added little to the discoveries northern and western portions of the continent. A much African
already made, and cost the traveller his life. He is ascer greater number of travellers explored the regions drained

travellers. tained to have passed Timbuktu, and to have reached Boussa, by the Nile, the salubrity of which, particularly of Lacerda. where he was killed by the natives. In 1798 Dr Lacerda, Abyssinia, is so infinitely greater than that of Western

a scientific Portuguese traveller, who had already acquired Africa, that among the many explorers of the former, a
fame through his journeys in Brazil, made the first great very small proportion have died as compared with the im-
journey in South-Eastern Africa, inland from Mozambique, mense loss of life in Western Africa. Among the most
and reached the capital of the African king, known as the distinguished of the earlier East African travellers are
Cazembe, in whose country he died.

Bruce (1768-73), Browne (1793), who reached Darfur,
Horne Hornemann, in 1796-98, penetrated from Cairo to Mur- Burckhardt (1814), Cailliaud (1819), and more recently

zuk, and transmitted from that place valuable information Rüppel (1824–25), Russegger (1837), D'Abbadie (1838–
respecting the countries to the south, especially Bornu. 44), Beke (1840-44), D'Arnaud and Werne on the White
He then proceeded in that direction, but it is supposed Nile (1840-42), and Brun Rollet (1845).
that he soon afterwards perished, as no accounts of his fur Though the Dutch settlement in South Africa was South-
ther progress have ever reached Europe. The first actual founded as early as 1650, not much information of the African

travellers.
crossing of the continent that has been recorded was ac interior of that portion of the continent was gained till the
complished between the years 1802 and 1806, by two Pom- end of the 18th century, when a series of journeys was com-
beiros or mercantile traders in the employment of the Por- menced by Sparrmann, and followed up by Vaillant, Barrow,
tuguese, who passed from Angola eastward through the Trotter, Somerville, Lichtenstein, Burchell (1812), Camp-
territories of the Muata Hianvo and the Cazembe, to the bell, Thomson, Smith, Alexander (1836-37), and Harris.
possessions on the Zambeze. In 1816 an expedition was A station of the Church Missionary Society was estab- Mombas

sent out by the English Government, under the command lished near Mombas, in about 4° S. lat. on the east coast mission. Tuckey. of Captain Tuckey, to the river Congo, which was at that of Africa, in 1845, and the zealous missionaries in charge

time believed to be the lower course of the Joliba. This of it began to make exploring journeys into the interior.
was a disastrous undertaking, and the geographical addi- Thus, early in 1849, the Rev. Mr Rebmann discovered the
tions were but slight, the river having been ascended a great snow-clad mountain of Kilima-njaro, rising on the
distance of only 280 miles.

edge of the inland plateau ; and his companion, Dr Krapf,
Lyon and In 1819 Lyon and Ritchie penetrated from Tripoli to taking a more northerly route, came in sight of a second
Ritchie.
Murzuk, and a little distance beyond that place.

huge mountain named Kenia, also snow-clad, though directly
Denham, In 1822 Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney set forth beneath the equator. Frequent reports reached these mis-
Clapper from Tripoli in the same direction, crossed the Great De- sionaries of vast lakes in the interior beyond the mountains
ton, and
Oudney.

sert, and reached, on the 4th February 1823, the great lake they had discovered, and their information awakened a
Tsad or Chad. The surrounding countries were explored as great interest in this region at home.
far as Sakatu in the west, and Mandara in the south. This About this time an embassy, for the purpose of conclud-
journey was altogether one of the most successful and im- ing commercial treaties with the chiefs of Northern Africa,
portant into the interior. Oudney died in Bornu, but Clap- as far as Lake Chad, by which the legitimate trade of these
perton undertook a second journey from the coast of Guinea, countries should be extended and the system of slavery Richard-
crossed the Kawara, and arrived at Sakatu, at which place he abolished, was originated by Mr James Richardson, who son.

mann,

White

left England for this purpose in 1849, accompanied by Drs | lakes which had been reported by the Mombas missionaries.
Barth and Overweg. The expedition had already almost Their most successful journey (1857–59) resulted in the

reached the scene of its labours when Richardson died; discovery of Lake Tanganyika, in a deep basin, between Barth. Overweg also fell a victim to his exertions, but Dr Barth 3° and 8° S. lat., and of the southern portion of a perhaps

continued his explorations till 1856. During this time he greater lake northward, supposed by Speke, its discoverer,
traversed in many directions almost the whole of the to be the head reservoir of the Nile.
northern Soudan, completing a series of journeys which In a new journey in the Zambeze region in 1859, Dr Living-
must always remain most conspicuous in North African Livingstone, accompanied by Dr Kirk, traced the Shire stone and

Kirk (the
travel, and
upon which we are still dependent for the greater river, a northern tributary of the Zambeze, to its outflow

Shire). part of our knowledge of the central negro states. from the Nyassa, the most southerly of the great African

In the summer of 1849, Dr Livingstone, who, as an chain of fresh lakes.

agent of the London Missionary Society, had laboured and About this time also several travellers (Petherick (1858), Explorers Living travelled in the countries immediately north of the Cape Lejean, Miani, the Poncets, Antinori, Debono, Peney) of the stone. Colony since 1840, began those remarkable journeys in the were adding much to the existing knowledge of the Upper

Nile, (L. Ngami). interior of Southern Africa, which have continued until the White Nile from the Egyptian side; and in the north the

Duveyrier. present time, and have given to him the first place among Algerian Sahara was being explored by the French scienAfrican discoverers. The finding of Lake Ngami, the tific traveller Duveyrier. central point of the continental drainage of South Africa, In 1860 Captain Speke, anxious to extend knowledge was the great discovery of the first year.

of the great inland reservoirs which had been discovered in Two journeys from the west coast now claim attention. his former journey, and to connect them with the known Graça. In 1846 a Portuguese trader named Graça succeeded in countries to northward, accompanied by Captain Grant, Speke and

again reaching the country of the South African potentate, again left Zanzibar. Reaching a point on the north-western Grant.
named the Muata Yanvo, from Angola ; he was followed shores of the great lake which he had previously made
by a Hungarian named Ladislaus Magyar, who explored known, and which he now named the Victoria Nyanza, the
the central country in various directions from 1847 to 1851. traveller thence traced the outflowing river to the White
Between 1851 and 1853 Livingstone made two journeys Nile at Gondokoro, thus completing a great link in the

northward from his station in the land of the Bechuanas, chain of African discoveries, which binds the country known Living. and was the first European to embark upon the upper from the east coast to that explored from the side of Egypt. stone (the course of the Zambeze. From the Makololo country, in Meanwhile Dr Livingstone had endeavoured to find a Zambeze). the central part of the river basin, he now led a party of way to his newly-discovered Lake Nyassa from the mouth Living

natives westwards up-stream to the water-parting of the of the Rovuma, a large river which flows to the Indian stone (L. continent at the little Lake Dilolo, and thence to the western Ocean near Cape Delgado, and which was also reported to Nyassa).

slope, reaching the Portuguese coast at Loanda in 1854. take its rise in this lake, but the river proved to be unGalton. During 1851 Galton explored a part of the south-western navigable beyond a point not far from the sea. He

country inhabited by the Damaras and Ovampo, from Wal- returned then (in 1861) to the Shire river; and, carrying
fisch Bay to a point in lat. 17° 58' S., and long. 21° E., a boat past its rapids, launched out to explore the whole
determining accurately a number of positions in this region. length of Lake Nyassa.
On the south-east, also, Gassiot made an interesting journey A series of important journeys by Gerhard Rohlfs had Rohlfs
from Port Natal north-westward through the mountains to now (1861) begun in Marocco and in the Maroccan Sahara ; (Marocco).
the river Limpopo.

and on the equatorial east coast region, Baron von der Von Two most remarkable journeys across the whole continent Decken had extended Rebmann's information in the region Decken. Silva Porto now follow in order ; the one, made by Silva Porto, a Por- of the snowy mountain, Kilima-njaro.

tuguese trader, who leaving Benguela in 1853, took an In the south the artist Baines had crossed the Kalahari Baines.
eastward route, parallel to but considerably northward of Desert from Damara Land to the fails of the Zambeze.
the Zambeze, over perfectly unknown country. He then In 1862 Petherick made an important journey of explora-

rounded the southern end of the Lake Nyassa (afterwards tion in the Nile region west of Gondokoro.
Living explored by Livingstone), and made his way across the east The year 1864 was marked by the discovery of a second

coast-land to the mouth of the Rovuma river, having spent great reservoir lake of the Nile, near the latitude of the (Victoria Falls).

a year and two months in his tedious march. The other Victoria Nyanza, by Baker, pushing southward from Gon- Baker was executed by Livingstone, who in returning (1855–56) dokoro. This lake the discoverer named the Albert Nyanza. (Albert by a somewhat more northerly route than that travelled over During this year also, Rohlfs extended his travels from

Lake). in going westward to Loanda, descended the Zambeze to its Marocco to the oasis of Tuat, thence making his way to mouth at Quilimane, discovering the wonderful Victoria Ghadames and Tripoli; in Western Africa, the officers of Falls of the river on his way.

the French marine stationed at the Gaboon explored the In 1856 an important addition was made to the more delta region of the great Ogowai river; and Du Chaillu, Du Chaillu.

exact geography of Africa, in a survey of the greater part in a second journey (1864-65), entered the gorilla country Moffat. of the course of the Orange river, by Mr Moffat, a son of of Ashango, south of this river; whilst, on the east coast, the veteran South African missionary.

Baron von der Decken attempted the navigation of the von
The following year was one of great activity in African Juba, but was destined to fall a martyr to the jealousies of Decken.

exploration. Damara Land, in the south-west, was tra- the Galla and Somali tribes, whose territories the river
Hahn and versed by Messrs Hahn and Rath as far as the southern divides.
Rath.

limit of the Portuguese territory at the Cunene river ; Dr After a short stay at Tripoli, the traveller Rohlfs again Rohlfs Bastian. Bastian was exploring the interior of Congo and Angola, turned southward, and in a journey which lasted from across N. Du Chaillu and Du Chaillu had begun his first journey in the forest 1865 to 1867, crossed the whole northern continent—first Africa).

country of the Fan tribes on the equatorial west coast. reaching Lake Chad by almost the same route as that for

Under the auspices of the Royal Geographical Society, merly taken by Barth, and thence striking south-westward
Burton and Captains Burton and Speke, already distinguished by their by a new path to the Bight of Benin.
Speke. perilous journey to Harar, a trading centre in the Somali In 1866 some progress was made in discovery in the

and Galla country of the east African promontory, set out west, by the navigation of the Ogowai river by Walker, for Walker
from Zanzibar, to ascertain the truth about the great inland 200 miles from its mouth. Hahn and Rath also extended

stone

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