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mtumtenak: Olifant CALPE COLON
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Ancient geography of Africa. Egypt.
of civilisation with traditions and mysteries of the Cape Delgado; and M. Gosselin contends that the ancients
This question being one of curiosity rather than utility,
Sketch Map of Africa. taking. Few of the ancient writers give credit to the story; Egypt, under the Ptolemies, the great patrons of science but, among the moderns, the Abbé Paris and Montesquieu and promoters of discovery, possessing the advantage of have contended that this voyage was actually performed. the only great river which falls from the African continent Isaac Vossius and D'Anville have strong doubts; and Dr into the Mediterranean, made no progress beyond its anVincent and M. Gosselin maintain that such an expedition, cient boundaries; and though the Romans, who subseat such a period, exceeds all the means and resources of quently possessed Egypt, penetrated beyond the limits of navigation, then in its infancy. Last of all comes Major their own dependencies, they extended their discoveries no Rennel, who, in his elucidation of the geography of Hero- further than Fezzan in one direction, and, at a later period, dotus, has done more than all the rest in clearing away the beyond Nubia as far as Abyssinia, and the regions of the doubts of history; and he argues the possibility of such a Upper Nile. We know nothing of the progress made by voyage, from the construction of their ships, with flat bot- the Carthaginians in the discovery of Interior Africa; but The Cartoms and low masts, enabling them to keep close to the although it has been asserted that their merchants had thaginiaus. land, and to discover and enter into all the creeks and har- reached the banks of the interior river, which we call the bours which any part of the coast might present. At all Kawara or Niger, they have left nothing on record that events, one thing is evident: if such an expedition ever will warrant such a supposition. The story told by Herocircumnavigated the African continent, the fruits of it have dotus, of some Nasamonians crossing the desert, and arrivnearly, if not entirely, perished.
ing at a large river, can only be applicable to some western About half a century after this supposed expedition, the arm of the Nile. The people from whom we derive the The Arabs. account of another voyage, down the western coast, is con first information concerning the interior of Northern Africa tained in the Periplus of Hanno, which has also called forth are the Arabs, who, by means of the camel, were able to many learned and elaborate discussions among modern geo- penetrate across the great desert to the very centre of the graphers, some of whom would carry Hanno to the Bight continent, and along the two coasts as far as the Senegal and of Benin, others only to Sherbro Sound or the river Nun the Gambia on the west, and to Sofala on the east. On this in lat. 28° N.
latter coast they not only explored to an extent far beyond The extent to which ancient discovery proceeded along any supposed limits of ancient discovery, but planted colonies the eastern coast of Africa, has divided the opinion of the at Sofala, Mombas, Melinda, and at various other places. learned nearly as much as its progress on the western coast. The 15th century produced a new era in maritime dis- PortuDelisle, Huet, and Bochart, made the discovery of the coast covery. The voyages of the Portuguese were the first to guese. to extend as far south as Mozambiqne and Madagascar. I give anything like an accurate outline of the two coasts,
and to complete the circumnavigation of Africa. The dis- also died. His servant, Richard Lander, returned to Eng.
Cameroons, as well as of the manners and character of the that place through the Great Desert to Marocco. A second
the leader of the expedition, more fortunate than his preAfrican The uncertainty and confusion that prevailed in the geo-decessor Dr Lacerda, was enabled to complete a map of the associa graphy of the interior of Africa induced a few learned and country traversed, and to bring back a complete account tion.
scientific individuals to form themselves into an association of this portion of the interior.
quently merged in the Royal Geographical Society in 1831. reached, and the general results of the expedition were Discoveries During the last sixty years more has been done to make most disastrous. in the 19th us acquainted with the geography of Africa than during The great Niger expedition, similar to the foregoing, Niger excentury. the whole of the 1700 previous years, since Ptolemy, taken consisted of three steam-vessels, and was despatched by the pedition.
together. With Mungo Park, strictly speaking, commences Government in 1841, under Captain Trotter. It proved a
the era of unceasing endeavours to explore the interior. failure, and resulted in a melancholy loss of life. Park. Mungo Park proceeded in 1795 from the river Gambia In the region between the Kawara and the coast, Mr Duncan.
on the west coast, to the Joliba (commonly called Niger), Duncan, one of the survivors of the Niger expedition,
travellers. tained to have passed Timbuktu, and to have reached Boussa, by the Nile, the salubrity of which, particularly of Lacerda. where he was killed by the natives. In 1798 Dr Lacerda, Abyssinia, is so infinitely greater than that of Western
a scientific Portuguese traveller, who had already acquired Africa, that among the many explorers of the former, a
Bruce (1768-73), Browne (1793), who reached Darfur,
zuk, and transmitted from that place valuable information Rüppel (1824–25), Russegger (1837), D'Abbadie (1838–
sent out by the English Government, under the command lished near Mombas, in about 4° S. lat. on the east coast mission. Tuckey. of Captain Tuckey, to the river Congo, which was at that of Africa, in 1845, and the zealous missionaries in charge
time believed to be the lower course of the Joliba. This of it began to make exploring journeys into the interior.
edge of the inland plateau ; and his companion, Dr Krapf,
huge mountain named Kenia, also snow-clad, though directly
sert, and reached, on the 4th February 1823, the great lake they had discovered, and their information awakened a
left England for this purpose in 1849, accompanied by Drs | lakes which had been reported by the Mombas missionaries.
reached the scene of its labours when Richardson died; discovery of Lake Tanganyika, in a deep basin, between Barth. Overweg also fell a victim to his exertions, but Dr Barth 3° and 8° S. lat., and of the southern portion of a perhaps
continued his explorations till 1856. During this time he greater lake northward, supposed by Speke, its discoverer,
Shire). part of our knowledge of the central negro states. from the Nyassa, the most southerly of the great African
In the summer of 1849, Dr Livingstone, who, as an chain of fresh lakes.
agent of the London Missionary Society, had laboured and About this time also several travellers (Petherick (1858), Explorers Living travelled in the countries immediately north of the Cape Lejean, Miani, the Poncets, Antinori, Debono, Peney) of the stone. Colony since 1840, began those remarkable journeys in the were adding much to the existing knowledge of the Upper
Nile, (L. Ngami). interior of Southern Africa, which have continued until the White Nile from the Egyptian side; and in the north the
Duveyrier. present time, and have given to him the first place among Algerian Sahara was being explored by the French scienAfrican discoverers. The finding of Lake Ngami, the tific traveller Duveyrier. central point of the continental drainage of South Africa, In 1860 Captain Speke, anxious to extend knowledge was the great discovery of the first year.
of the great inland reservoirs which had been discovered in Two journeys from the west coast now claim attention. his former journey, and to connect them with the known Graça. In 1846 a Portuguese trader named Graça succeeded in countries to northward, accompanied by Captain Grant, Speke and
again reaching the country of the South African potentate, again left Zanzibar. Reaching a point on the north-western Grant.
northward from his station in the land of the Bechuanas, chain of African discoveries, which binds the country known Living. and was the first European to embark upon the upper from the east coast to that explored from the side of Egypt. stone (the course of the Zambeze. From the Makololo country, in Meanwhile Dr Livingstone had endeavoured to find a Zambeze). the central part of the river basin, he now led a party of way to his newly-discovered Lake Nyassa from the mouth Living
natives westwards up-stream to the water-parting of the of the Rovuma, a large river which flows to the Indian stone (L. continent at the little Lake Dilolo, and thence to the western Ocean near Cape Delgado, and which was also reported to Nyassa).
slope, reaching the Portuguese coast at Loanda in 1854. take its rise in this lake, but the river proved to be unGalton. During 1851 Galton explored a part of the south-western navigable beyond a point not far from the sea. He
country inhabited by the Damaras and Ovampo, from Wal- returned then (in 1861) to the Shire river; and, carrying
and on the equatorial east coast region, Baron von der Von Two most remarkable journeys across the whole continent Decken had extended Rebmann's information in the region Decken. Silva Porto now follow in order ; the one, made by Silva Porto, a Por- of the snowy mountain, Kilima-njaro.
tuguese trader, who leaving Benguela in 1853, took an In the south the artist Baines had crossed the Kalahari Baines.
rounded the southern end of the Lake Nyassa (afterwards tion in the Nile region west of Gondokoro.
coast-land to the mouth of the Rovuma river, having spent great reservoir lake of the Nile, near the latitude of the (Victoria Falls).
a year and two months in his tedious march. The other Victoria Nyanza, by Baker, pushing southward from Gon- Baker was executed by Livingstone, who in returning (1855–56) dokoro. This lake the discoverer named the Albert Nyanza. (Albert by a somewhat more northerly route than that travelled over During this year also, Rohlfs extended his travels from
Lake). in going westward to Loanda, descended the Zambeze to its Marocco to the oasis of Tuat, thence making his way to mouth at Quilimane, discovering the wonderful Victoria Ghadames and Tripoli; in Western Africa, the officers of Falls of the river on his way.
the French marine stationed at the Gaboon explored the In 1856 an important addition was made to the more delta region of the great Ogowai river; and Du Chaillu, Du Chaillu.
exact geography of Africa, in a survey of the greater part in a second journey (1864-65), entered the gorilla country Moffat. of the course of the Orange river, by Mr Moffat, a son of of Ashango, south of this river; whilst, on the east coast, the veteran South African missionary.
Baron von der Decken attempted the navigation of the von
exploration. Damara Land, in the south-west, was tra- the Galla and Somali tribes, whose territories the river
limit of the Portuguese territory at the Cunene river ; Dr After a short stay at Tripoli, the traveller Rohlfs again Rohlfs Bastian. Bastian was exploring the interior of Congo and Angola, turned southward, and in a journey which lasted from across N. Du Chaillu and Du Chaillu had begun his first journey in the forest 1865 to 1867, crossed the whole northern continent—first Africa).
country of the Fan tribes on the equatorial west coast. reaching Lake Chad by almost the same route as that for
Under the auspices of the Royal Geographical Society, merly taken by Barth, and thence striking south-westward
and Galla country of the east African promontory, set out west, by the navigation of the Ogowai river by Walker, for Walker