The Farokhar, or river of Talikan, is the most easterly, coming out of entirely surrounded by mountains, well-watered, and rich in vegeBadakhshan, the boundary of which runs along the watershed on tation. The people are Mongol Hazaras, and, according to Ferrier, its left bank. The Bangi flows through Khost from the highlands idolaters. Their country is a part of the old territory of Garjistân. of Badakhshan, east of Ăndarab. A third tributary, the Shorâb, At Shah Mashad, about half-way between this and the plains, the salt, as its name implies, drains the high range called Esk-mushk, river was crossed by Major Eldred Pottinger, but we have no access above Narin.

to his report. Further down, as the river approaches the foot of The Surkhab or Kunduz river enters the Oxus at a point approxi. Murghab Bålâ, on the road from Maimana to Herat, it runs with mately (no traveller has visited the confluence) 32 miles N. W. of great violence, and the valley narrows to a defile. At Panjdeh, Kunduz, its whole length, exclusive of minor windings, being about 35 to 40 miles below Murghab, it begins to flow through a valley of 220 miles.

clay soil, bounded by sandy heights, and gradually opening into the From Ghori downwards, the hills which bound the valley on either plain of Merv. Hereabouts, too, it quits the Afghan territory, but side appear to be of no great elevation, and to be tolerably clothed the boundary does not seem as yet to have been precisely fixed. with grass, and occasionally with fir trees; the aspect of the country About 100 miles from Panjdeh the river reaches Merv, where forgradually approximating to that of Badakhshan, in contrast to the merly there was a great dam, securing the fertility of that oasis, more sterile offshoots of Koh-i-Baba to the westward.

the nucleus of ancient Margiana. This was destroyed by the Amir Kunduz itself lies very low, scarcely 500 feet above sea level, Maasum (otherwise Shah Murad) of Bokhara, about 1785, when he and the roads approaching the town have to pass over piles amid carried off the whole population into slavery. Beyond Merv the the swampy vegetation. The adjacent plain is in the main richly river is lost in the desert. cultivated and thickly peopled, but it is interspersed with extensive tracts of jungly grass, and is extremely and proverbially unhealthy.

PROVINCES AND PLACES OF NOTE.—We do not know The plains, which extend, though not unbroken, from Kunduz to the precise divisions maintained under the Afghans, but the Oxus, are free from the bare and repulsive character of those they coincide generally with the old principalities or further west, and are described as covered in part with rich cultiva: khanates, the hereditary rulers of which, in several cases, tion, thick with groves and hamlets, and in part with splendid continue in authority under the Afghan governor of Turkepasture.

Proceeding westward, the next tributary to the Oxus basin is the stan. Bamian, Saighan, and the higher valleys belong, it is Khulm river. The traveller from Bamian northward first touches understood, to a special command over the Hazara tribes. the Khulm river, on descending from the Kara-Kotal, at a spot called Doâb Shâhpasand, probably 5000 feet above the sea, where

I. Kunduz.—Beginning again from the east, the first its two main sources join, and the main road to Turkestan keeps on

province is Kunduz, having on the east Badakhshan, on or near the river till its exit on the Oxus plain. The character of the west Khulm, on the north the Oxus, and on the south the mass of mountains which extends from the Koh-i-Baba to Hindu Kush. The districts of Kunduz are approximately Khulm is utter rocky aridity, but broken sometimes in the sudden trench-like valleys by an exuberant vigour of vegetation. Along a

as follows:-(1.) Kunduz, with the chief town of the prochain of these trench-like gorges, walled by stupendous cliffs seem vince, a wretched place, as described by Wood, of some ing sometimes almost to close overhead, the traveller descends to 500 or 600 mud huts, intermingled with straw sheds, wards Khulm.. At Haibak the valley opens out, but closes in again Uzbek tents, gardens, and corn-fields, and overlooked by a before Khulm is reached. Here he emerges from a narrow gorge upon mud fort on an extensive mound. (2.) Hazrat Imâm, on the the plain of the Oxus, some 20 miles from the great river, and leaves the mountains suddenly, as one leaves the gate of a fortress, still irrigated and fertile Oxus plain. The town, known in the rising behind in a bold rampart to the height of 2500 feet. The Middle Ages as Arhang, is described as about the same river is believed to be spent in irrigation before reaching the Oxus. size as Kunduz, with a better fort, protected by a wet

As far north at least as Khurram, half-way from Bamian to Khulm, ditch. (3.) Baghlân, and (4.) Ghori, in the swampy valley the offshoots of Koh-i-Baba, west of the Khulm defile, must reach a height of 11,000 or 12,000 feet; for here Ferrier found bitter cold

of the Surkhab. (5.) Doshi, further up the same valley, at and snow on the top on the 7th of July (latitude nearly 36°). the confluence of the Andarab stream. (6.) Killagai and

The next river westward is the Balkh river, sometimes called Khinján, near the lower part of the Andarab stream. Dehás. It rises not far from some of the tributaries of the Surkhab, (7.) Andarab, at the foot of the Tul and Khâwak passes nor from the sources of the Herat river, at a remarkable spot which, under the name of the Band-i-Barbar, or Barbar dam, is the subject

over Hindu Kush, often supposed to be the Adrapsa of of various legends, though we have no distinct account of it. The Alexander's historians. This secluded town was a favourite valley of Yekâlang, on the upper waters of this river, at a height of minting place of the Samanid sovereigns of Persia and 7000 feet above the sea, was visited by A. Conolly, and is described Turkestan, in the 10th century, probably owing to the length by to 1 mile in width. Ferrier is the only traveller who vicinity of silver mines at Paryân. (8.) Khost lies between has crossed the mature stream, and he merely mentions that he Andarab and Kunduz. The name often occurs in the forded it, and that it was rather rapid. We thus know almost history of Baber and his successors. (9.) Narin and Ishnothing of the river. In length it cannot come far short of the kimisħ lie to the east of Baghlan, at the sources of the Surkhab. Beyond the lofty mountains recently spoken of, some of the hills towards the Balkh-ab have a thin clothing of wood, and Baghlan stream and of the Shorab branch of the Kunduz the valleys opening on the river are wide and not unfertile. The river. The second name appears to be the same as Eshkmain valley expands into level tracts of pasture, covered by long mushk, which Wood applies to a high mountain in this grass, and intersected by artificial water-courses; but (as with the quarter. (10.) Farhang and Châl lie on the borders of plain is narrow, and walled in by very high hills on either side. Badakhshan, and are utterly unknown. (11.) Tâlikân also The ruins and gardens of ancient Balkh stand about 6 miles from lies on the borders of Badakhshan, but is pretty well known, the hills, but no part of the river appears to reach the site in its being on the main road between Kunduz and Faizabad, natural bed, nor does any part of its waters reach the Oxus in a the capital of Badakhshan. It is now a poor place, but is running stream. The plains that slope from the gardens of Balkh to the Oxus are

ancient, and was once famous. A fortress here stood a naturally white hard steppes, destitute of spontaneous verdure save long siege from Chinghiz Khan, and the place is mentioned sparse brush of tamarisk and other meagre growths; but the soil by Marco Polo as Taican. During the rule of Murad responds richly to irrigation whenever this is bestowed.

Beg of Kunduz this was the seat of a government that The next stream that we meet with, and the last that can be considered even as an indirect tributary of the Oxus, is that which fer- included Badakhshan. (12.) Khanabad, on the river of tilises the small khanates of Shibrghan and Andkhui, on the verge

that name, pleasantly elevated above the swampy level of of the Turkman desert; whilst the two confluents that contribute Kunduz, is, or was, the usual summer residence of the chiefs to form it have previously watered the territories of Siripul and | of that territory. Maimana. The river, or whatever survives of its water after irri.

II. Khulm was the next of the khanates, lying between gating Andkhui, is lost in the desert. The taste of the water is

Kunduz and Balkh. The districts, as far as we know abominable, and, though the inhabitants are accustomed to it, strangers suffer from its use.

them, are the following :-(1.) Táshkurghân. The old The last river that we have to notice is the Murghab, which rises town of Khulm stood in the Oxus plain, surrounded by between the two northern branches of the Koh-i-Baba or Paro

watered orchards of famous productiveness; but it lay so pamisus. Ferrier is the only traveller who has been on the upper waters of the Murghah. He takes no notice of the river itself, but exposed to the raids of the Kunduz Uzbeks that the chief, describes a remarkable plain or basin, about 120 miles in circuit, | Killich Ali, in the beginning of this century, transferred

his residence to Tashkurghan, 4 miles further south, united streams from Şiripul and from Maimana. It was and just at the mouth of the defile—a cheerless group of once a flourishing city, and the oasis was reckoned to convillages, consisting of mud houses with domed roofs, con tain 50,000 inhabitants, but the place has scarcely recovered nected by gardens and enclosed by a mud wall; it is sup- from the destruction it endured at the hands of Yar posed to contain at least 15,000 souls, and is a place of Mahommed of Herat in 1840. It was at Andkhui that considerable trade. (2.) Haibak. The town presents | Moorcroft died in 1825 ; but his grave is at Balkh. Trerather an imposing aspect, clustering round a castle of beck, the last survivor of his party, died and was buried at some strength on an isolated eminence; the domed houses, Mazar. (3.) Maimana, 105 miles from Balkh, and some 50 however, are compared to large brown bee-hives. The south-west of Andkhui, contains some ten or twelve villages Khulm river valley here opens out, and is very fertile; the or townships, besides the capital, and a population estimated banks are shaded by luxuriant fruit trees. The site is at 100,000 souls. It is a district of considerable produca very ancient one, and, under the name of Samangân, was tiveness, industry, and trade, and the Uzbek inhabitants famous in Persian legend. One traveller describes there a have a high reputation as soldiers. The chief was formerly remarkable relic of antiquity called the Takht or Throne a notorious slave-dealer. (4.) Siripul. This khanate lying of Rustam. This, from the account, would seem to have within the limits of the undulating country south-west of been a Buddhist dagoba. (3.) Khurram Sarbâgh, so Balkh and east of Maimana, is of about the same calibre called from two villages in the upper defiles of the Khulm as the latter, but somewhat lower in estimated population. river.

Two-thirds of the people are Uzbeks, the rest Hazaras. III. Balkh. Balkh proper is the populous and well- From the last a tribute of slaves is, or used to be, exacted; watered territory upon the eighteen canals which draw off and Hazara widows, it is said, were claimed as governthe waters of the Balkh-ab, and on which there are said to ment property, and sold by auction. The town of Siripu] be 360 villages.

is an irregular mass of houses clustered on the slope of a No trace has been recovered of the ancient splendours of hill crowned by a fort. Many tents gather round it also, Bactra, nor do the best judges appear to accept Ferrier's and Ferrier estimates the population of town and tents as belief that he saw cuneiform inscriptions upon bricks dug high as 18,000. The valley below is abundantly watered, up there. A late Indian report by an intelligent Mahom and the breadth of orchards and tillage is considerable. medan speaks of a stone throne in the citadel, to which POPULATION.—In the estimate of population cited under traditional antiquity is ascribed, but of this we know no AFGHANISTAN, that of Afghan Turkestan is reckoned at more. The remains that exist are scattered over some 20 642,000. This includes 55,000 for Badakhshan (no doubt miles of circuit, but they consist mainly of mosques and too low an estimate); and the remainder, for the provinces tombs of sun-dried brick, and show nothing even of early included under our present article, excluding Hazaras, will Mahommedan date. The inner city, surrounded by a be 587,000. Anything but a round number is entirely ruined wall of 4 or 5 miles in compass, is now entirely inappropriate to such an estimate ; but we shall probably deserted; a scanty population still occupies a part of the not be far wrong if we reckon the population at 600,000. outer city. In 1858 Mahommed Afzal Khan, ruling the The Tajiks, or people of Iranian blood, are probably tho districts of Turkestan on behalf of his father, Dost representatives of the oldest surviving race of this region. Mahommed, transferred the seat of the Afghan govern They are found in some districts of Balkh and valleys of ment and the bulk of the population to Takhtapul, a Kunduz. Khost, for instance, is said to be chiefly occuposition which he fortified, some 8 miles east of the old pied by them. Uzbeks seem to be the most numerous city; and this remains the capital of the Afghan territories race; and there are some other Turk tribes not classed as on the Oxus.

Uzbeks. There seem to be a good many families claiming The only other place of note in the district is Mazûr-i- Arab descent; Afghans, especially about Balkh and Khulm; Sharif, or the “Noble Shrine," on the road to Khulm, and in the towns some Hindus and Jews. where a whimsical fiction has located the body of ’Ali, the PRODUCTS AND INDUSTRY.—We have no means of give son-in-law of Mahommed. It is the object of pilgrimages, ing any systematic account of the products of these proand the scene of a great annual fair. Vámbéry speaks of vinces, either in natural history or industry. Rock-salt is the roses, matchless for colour and fragrance, that grow on worked at Chal, near the Badakhshan frontier, as well as the pretended tomb.

beyond that frontier. Pistachio nuts are grown largely in of the districts lying on the Balkh river within the hills the hill country of Kunduz, as well as the adjoining districts we know nothing.

of Badakhshan, and the whole supply of India, Central Akcha, some 40 to 45 miles westward from Balkh, was Asia, and Russia is said to be derived from this region. an Uzbek khanate before the last Afghan conquest. It is Fruit is abundant and excellent, especially in Khulm and small, but well-watered and populous. The town is forti- Balkh. Andkhui, before its decay, was famous for the fied, and has a citadel. Accounts differ as to the popula- black sheepskins and lambskins which we call astrakhan; tion; one writer calls them Uzbeks, another Sarak Turk- and also for a breed of camels in great demand. Kunduz

produces a breed of horses, highly valued in the Kabul IV. The provinces known as the Four Domains are : market under the name of Kataghan. Maimana also (1.) Shibrghan, some 20 miles west of Akcha. This was is famous for horses, which are often exported to India ; another small Uzbek khanate. The town, which contains and is a mart for carpets and textures of wool and camels' about 12,000 Uzbeks and Parsiwans, has a citadel, but is hair, the work of Turkman and Jamshidi women. Slavenot otherwise fortified. It is surrounded by good gardens, dealing and man-stealing have long been the curse of this and excellent cultivation, but its water supply is dependent region, but late changes have tended to restrict these, and upon Siripul, and, in the frequent case of hostility between the Russian conquest of Khiva will probably have a most the two, is liable to be cut off. Ferrier speaks highly of beneficial effect in this respect at least. the climate and the repute of the inhabitants for valour. History.-Ancient Balkh, or Bactra, was probably one Shibrghan (Sapurgan) and its fine melons are mentioned of the oldest capitals in Central Asia. There Persian traby Marco Polo. (2.) Andkhui, about 20 miles north-west dition places the teaching of Zoroaster. Bactriana was a of Shibrghan, forms an oasis in the desert, watered by the

2 The Uzbeks were, however, a confederation of many Turk and Burslem, A Peep into Turkestan, p. 125.

Tartar tribes, not one race.


province of the Achæmenian empire, and probably was sacres which he began, and which were repeated in degree occupied in great measure by a race of Iranian blood. in succeeding generations. For about a century these About B.C. 250, Theodotus, governor of Bactria under the Oxus provinces were attached to the empire of the Dehli Seleucidæ, declared his independence, and commenced the Moguls, and then fell into Uzbek hands. In the last history, so dark to us, of the Greco-Bactrian dynasties, century they formed a part of the dominion of Ahmed whose dominions at one time or another—though probably Khan Durrani (see AFGHANISTAN), and so remained under never simultaneously—touched the Jaxartes and the Gulf his son Timur. But during the fratricidal wars of Timur's of Cutch. Parthian rivalry first, and then a series of sons they fell back under the independent rule of various nomad movements from inner Asia, overwhelmed the Uzbek chiefs. Among these, the Kataghans of Kunduz isolated dominion of the Greeks (circa B.c. 126). Powers were long predominant; and their chief, Murad Beg (1815 rose on the Oxus, known to the Chinese as Yuechi, Kweish- to about 1842), for some time ruled Külâb beyond the wang, Yetha, Tukhâras, and what not; dimly to western Oxus, and all south of it from near Balkh to Pamir. Asia and Europe as Kushậns, Haiâthala, Ephthalito or In 1850 the Afghans recovered Balkh and Khulm; by White Huns, and Tochari. Buddhism, with its monas 1855 they had also gained Akcha and the four western teries, colossi, and gilded pagodas, spread over the valley khanates; Kunduz in 1859. They were proceeding to of the Oxus. We do not know what further traces of that extend their conquests to Badakhshan, when the Amir of time may yet be revealed; but we see some in the gigantic that country agreed to pay homage and tribute. sculptures of Bamian. The old Arab historians of the We have noticed, in the conclusion of the article AFGHANMahommedan conquest celebrate a heathen temple at ISTAN, the correspondence which recently took place (1872– Balkh, which they call Naobihär, which Sir H. Rawlinson 73) with Russia regarding the recognition of the Oxus as has pointed out to have been certainly a Buddhist monas the boundary of Afghan Turkestan. tery (Nava-Vihára). The name Naobihar still attaches to Antiquities.These are known but very imperfectly. a village on one of the Balkh canals, thus preserving, The best known, and probably the most remarkable, are through so many centuries, the memory of the ancient the famous colossi at Bamian, with the adjoining innumerIndian religion. The memoirs of the Chinese pilgrim able caves. In the same locality are the ruins of the Hwen Thsang, in the first part of the 7th century, give mediæval city destroyed by Chinghiz, the great fort called many particulars of the prevalence of his religion in the Sayadabad, and the ruins of Zohak. At Haibak are numerous principalities into which the empire of the numerous caves like those of Bamian. Balkh seems to Tukharas had broken up; and it is remarkable how many have little or nothing to show, though probably excavation of these states and their naines are identical with those would be rewarded. The little known or unknown valleys which still exist. This is not confined to what were great of Badakhshan probably contain remains of interest, but cities like Balkh and Bamian; it applies to Khulm, Khost, our only notices of them are so highly spiced with imaginaBaghlan, Andarab, and many more.

tion as to be worthless. General Ferrier saw remarkable As Haiathalah, or Tokhâristân, the country long con rock sculptures in a defile in the Hazara country, south of tinued to be known to Mahommedans; its political destiny Siripul, and curious rock excavations a little further south. generally followed that of Khorasan. It bore the brunt of (Wood's Journey, 2d ed., 1873, with Introductory Essay; all the fury of Chinghiz, and the region seems never to Ferrier's Caravan Journeys ; Burnes's Travels ; Indian have effectually recovered from the devastations and mas official documents; Vámbéry's Travels; &c., &c.) (H. Y.)

AFIUM-KARA-HISSAR, a city of Asiatic Turkey, in AFRANIUS, LUCIUS, whose early history is unknown, the pashalic of Anatolia, nearly 200 miles E. of Smyrna, was a devoted friend and adherent of Pompey, whom he and 50 miles S.S.E. of Kutaiah. It stands partly on served with distinction as one of his lieutenants in the level ground, partly on a declivity, and above it rises a Sertorian and Mithridatic wars. In the year 60 B.C., and precipitous trachytic rock 400 feet in height, on the sum- chiefly by Pompey's support, he was raised to the consulinit of which are the ruins of an ancient castle. From its ship, but in performing the duties of that office he showed, situation on the route of the caravans between Smyrna and like many other soldiers both before and since, an utter western Asia on the one hand, and Armenia, Georgia, &c., incapacity to manage civil affairs. In the following year, on the other, the city is a place of extensive trade, and its while governor of Cisalpine Gaul, he had the good fortune bazaars are well stocked with the merchandise both of to obtain the honour of a triumph, and on the allotment Europe and the East. Opium in large quantities is pro- of Spain to Pompey, 55 B.C., Afranius and Petreius were duced in its vicinity, and forms the staple article of its sent to take charge of the government of that country. commerce; and there are, besides, manufactures of black On the rupture between Cæsar and Pompey, they were felts, carpets, arms, and saddlery. Afium contains several compelled, after a short campaign in which they were at mosques (one of them a very handsome building), and it first successful, to surrender to Cæsar at Ilerda, 49 B.C., is the seat of an Armenian bishop. The population is and were dismissed on promising not to serve again in the estimated at about 60,000.

war. Afranius, regardless of his promise, joined Pompey AFRAGOLA, a town of Italy, in the province of Napoli, at Dyrrhachium, and at the battle of Pharsalia, 48 B.C., he 6 miles N.N.E. of Naples. It has extensive manufac had charge of Pompey's camp. On the complete defeat of tures of straw bonnets. Population of commune (1865), Pompey, Afranius, despairing of pardon from Cæsar, re16,493.

paired to Africa, and was present at the battle of Thapsus, AFRANIUS, LUCIUS, a Latin poet who lived about a 46 B.C., which ruined the hopes of the Pompeians in that century before Christ. He wrote comedies in imitation of part of the world. Escaping from the field with a strong Menander, and was commended by Cicero and Quintilian body of cavalry, he was afterwards taken prisoner, along for his acute genius and fluent style. The fragments of with Faustus Sulla, by the troops of Sittius, and handed his works which are extant have been collected by Bothe over to Cæsar, whose veterans, disappointed at their not in his Poetce Scenici Latini, and by Neukirch in his De being led to immediate execution, rose in tumult and put Falula Toqata Romanorum.

them to death.

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