time when these were more than superficial and deceptive | unbeliever; their aversion to the Persians being aggravated indications of character, and were not marred by greed and thereby. But to those of another faith they are more treacherous cruelty.

tolerant than most Mahoiamedans, unless when creed bePOLITICAL INSTITUTIONS.— The political institutions of comes a war-cry. They are very superstitious in regard to the Afghans present the rude and disjointed materials of a charms, omens, astrology, and so forth; and greatly adfree constitution. The nation is theoretically divided into dicted to the worship of local saints, whose shrines (ziyârat) four great stocks, supposed to spring from four brothers. are found on every hill-top. The shrine, a domed tomb, or But these four divisions are practically obsolete, and only mayhap a heap of stones within a wall, sometimes marks come up in genealogies. Each tribe has split into several the saint's grave, but is often a cenotaph. The saint may branches, and in the more numerous and scattered tribes have been unknown in life for his virtues, but becomes these branches have separated, and each has its own chief. after death an object of veneration, for reasons often hard They retain, however, the common name, and an idea of to discern. In the immediate environs of Ghazni there are community in blood and interests.

no less than 197 of these shrines. The type of the Afghan institutions is perhaps best seen A very marked feature in Afghan character is the pasin some of the independent tribes near the British frontier. sionate love of field sports, especially hawking. DeerThese cling most closely to the democratic traditions. stalking in the open plains, the driving of game to wellTheir rude state of society is held together by a code as known points by a host of beaters, and wild-fowl shooting rude, which is acknowledged, however, and understood by with decoys, are others of their sports. They are capital every one, and enforced by the community, every member horsemen, and unerring marksmen with the native rifle of which considers its infringement as an act committed (jezail). against his own privileges. The Maliks or chiefs are the Among themselves the people are convivial and humorous. representatives of the tribe, division, or family to which Festive gatherings are frequent, where they come together, they each belong, but they possess no independent power not to buy or sell, or even to quarrel, but to make a noise of action, and before they can speak in council, they must and be happy. Tilting, shooting, racing, and wild music have collected the wishes of the bodies which they represent. vary the amusements.

The men of the section (kandi) of a village, having come They have a wild dance called the atan, in which the to a decision, send their representative to a council of the men work themselves into great excitement. Among some whole village, and these again to that of the sept (khail), Kakar tribes it is said the atan is sometimes danced by and the appointed chiefs of the septs finally assemble as both sexes together. the council of the ûlûs or tribe. These meetings, in all their GOVERNMENT.—Afghanistan is now, and has been bestages, are apt to be stormy. If persuasion and argument fore, under one prince, but it is hardly a monarchy as we fail to produce unanimity, no further steps can be taken, are used to understand the term. It is rather the governunless one party be much the weaker, when sometimes the ment of a dictator for life over a military aristocracy, and stronger side will forcibly extort assent. When once a within this a congeries of small democracies. Elphinstone council has decided, implicit compliance is incumbent on compares it with Scotland in the middle ages; some the tribe under heavy penalties, and the maliks have the things suggest a comparison with Poland, in spite of differpower of enforcing these.

ence of physical geography; but in neither was there the Justice is administered in the towns, more or less defect democratic constitution of the Afghan ulus. The sirdars ively, according to Mahommedan law, by a kâzi and muftis. govern in their respective districts, each after his own But the unwritten code by which Afghan communities in fashion; jealous, ambitious, turbulent, the sovereign can their typical state are guided, and the maxims of which restrain them only by their divisions. There is no unity penetrate the whole nation, is the Pukhtûnwali, or usage nor permanence; everything depends on the pleasure of a of the Pathans, a rude system of customary law, founded number of chiefs bound by no law, always at variance, on principles such as one might suppose to have prevailed and always ready to revolt when they have the slightest before the institution of civil government."

interest in doing so—almost always ready to plunge into A prominent law in this code is that called Nanawatai, strife with a wild delight in it for its own sake. In war, or “entering in." By this law the Pathan is bound to

as in peace, chiefs and soldiers are ready to pass from one grant any boon claimed by the person who passes his service to another without scruple. It is a matter of threshold and invokes its sanctions, even at the sacrifice of speculation, and no disgrace. his own life and property. So also the Pathan is bound The spirit of Afghan character and institutions was to feed and shelter any traveller claiming hospitality. Re- tersely expressed by an old man to Elphinstone, who had taliation must be exacted by the Pathan for every injury urged the advantages of quiet and security under a strong or insult, and for the life of a kinsman. If immediate king: “We are content with discord, we are content with opportunity fail, a man will dodge his foe for years, with alarms, we are content with blood; but we will never be the cruel purpose ever uppermost, using every treacherous content with a master.” artifice to entrap him. To omit such obligations, above all REVENUES.—The revenues of Dost Mahommed Khan the vendetta, exposes the Pathan to scorn. The injuries of were estimated in 1857 at 4,000,000 rupees, or about one generation may be avenged in the next, or even by £400,000. This included Afghan Turkestan, but not remoter posterity. The relatives of a murdered man may, Herat, which he did not hold. The Herat revenue was however, before the tribal council, accept a blood-price. estimated some years before (probably too low) at £80,000.

Crimes punished by the Pathan code are such as murder In the later years of Dost Mahommed the net revenue is without cause, refusal to go to battle, contravention of the stated to have amounted to £710,000, of which the army decision of a tribal council, adultery.

cost £430,000.1 Information on this subject is very imThe Afghans are Mahommedans of the Sunni or ortho- perfect, and not always consistent. There seems to be a dox body, with the exception of a few tribes, perhaps not tax on the produce of the soil, both in kind and in money, truly Pathan, who are Shiahs. They are much under the and a special tax on garden ground. A house-tax of influence of their Mullahs, especially for evil; and have a about 5 rupees is paid by all who are not Pathans. The stronger feeling against the Shiah heretic than against the latter pay a much lighter tax under another name; and



1 See Edin. Review, July 1873, p. 273.

the Hindus pay the separate poll-tax (jazeya). Taxes are ruption Tálút) through a son whom they ascribe to him, paid on horses, &c., kept, and on the sale of animals in called Jeremiah, who again had a son called Afghana. the public market.

The numerous stock of Afghana were removed by NebuThe aggregate of taxation is not great, but the smallest chadnezzar, and found their way to the mountains of Ghur exaction seems a tyrannical violence to an Afghan. Nor and Feroza (east and north of Herat). Only nine years does payment guarantee the cultivator from further squeez- after Mahommed's announcement of his mission they heard ing. In many parts of the country collections are only of the new prophet, and sent to Medina a deputation made spasmodically by military force. The people are let headed by a wise and holy man called Kais, to make alone for years, till need and opportunity arise, when a inquiry. The deputation became zealous converts, and on force is marched in, and arrears extorted.

their return converted their countrymen. From Kais and Customs dues at Kabul and Kandahar are only 21 per his three sons the whole of the genuine Afghans claim cent. nominally, but this is increased a good deal by descent. exactions. There is a considerable tax on horses ex This story is repeated in great and varying detail in ported for sale, and a toll on beasts of burden exporting sundry books by Afghans, the oldest of which appears to merchandise, from 6 rupees on a loaded camel to 1 rupee be of the 16th century; nor do we know that any trace of on a donkey.

the legend is found of older date. In the version given MILITARY FORCE.—According to the old system the by Major Raverty (Introd. to Afghan Grammar), Afghanah Afghan forces were entirely composed of the ulus, or is settled by King Solomon himself in the Sulimani mountribesmen of the chiefs, who were supposed to hold their tains; there is nothing about Nebuchadnezzar or Ghur. lands on a condition of service, but who, as frequently as The historian Firishta says he had read that the Afghans not, went over to the enemy in the day of need. As a were descended from Copts of the race of Pharaoh. And counterpoise, the late Amir Dost Mahommed began to one of the Afghan histories, quoted by Mr Bellew, relates form a regular army. In 1858 this contained 16 infantry" a current tradition ” that previous to the time of Kais, regiments of (nominally) 800 men, 3 of cavalry of 300 Bilo the father of the Biluchis, Uzbak (evidently the father men, and about 80 field-pieces, besides a few heavy guns. of the Uzbegs), and Afghana were considered as brethren. The pay was bad, and extremely irregular, and punish- As Mahommed Uzbeg Khan, the eponymus of the medley ments were severe. The men were fine, but recruited in of Tartar tribes called Uzbegs, reigned in the 14th century the worst manner, viz., the arbitrary and forcible seizure A.D., this gives some possible light on the value of these of able-bodied men. There were also Jezailchi (riflemen), so-called traditions. irregulars, some in the Amir's pay, others levies of the local We have analogous stories in the literature of almost all chiefs; and a considerable number of irregular cavalry. We nations that derive their religion or their civilisation from have failed to obtain recent data on this subject.

a foreign source. To say nothing of the farce of the Book LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.—Persian is the vernacular of Mormon, there is in our own age and in our own country of a large part of the non-Afghan population, and is fami a considerable number of persons who seriously hold and liar to all educated Afghans. But the proper language of propagate the doctrine that the English people are descended the Afghans is Pushtů, or Pukhtů (these are dialectic from the tribes of Israel, and the literature of this whimsivariations). Currency has been given to the notion that cal theory would fill a much larger shelf than the Afghan this language has a Semitic character, but this appears to histories. But the Hebrew ancestry of the Afghans is more be quite erroneous, and is entirely rejected by competent worthy at least of consideration, for a respectable number authorities, the majority of whom class Pushtu positively of intelligent officers, well acquainted with the Afghans, as an Aryan or Indo-Persian language. The Pushtu have been strong in their belief of it; and though the vocabulary preserves a number of ancient forms and con customs alleged in proof will not bear the stress laid on nections with words that remain isolated in other Aryan them, undoubtedly a prevailing type of the Afghan physilanguages. Interesting illustrations of this and other ognomy has a character strongly Jewish. This characteristic points connected with Pushtu will be found in a paper by is certainly a remarkable one; but it is shared, to a Isidor Löwenthal in the J. of the As. Soc. of Bengal, vol. considerable extent, by the Kashmiris (a circumstance xxix.

which led Bernier to speculate on the Kashmiris representPushtu does not seem to be spoken in Herat, or (roughly ing the lost tribes of Israel), and, we believe, by the Tajik speaking) west of the Helmand.

people of Badakhshan. There is a respectable amount of Afghan literature. In the time of Darius Hystaspes (B.C. 500) we find the region The oldest work in Pushtu as yet mentioned is a history and various parts of it occupied by Sarangians (in Seistan), Arian,

now called Afghanistan embraced in the Achæmenian satrapies, of the conquest of Swat by Shaikh Mali, a chief of the Yusufzais, and leader in the conquest (A.D. 1413-24).

(in Herat), Sattagydians (supposed in highlands of upper Helmand

and the plateau of Ghazni), Dadicæ suggested to be Tajiks), In 1494 Kajú Khan became chief of the same clan; Aparyto (mountaineers, perhaps of Safed Koh, where lay the during his rule Buner and Panjkora were completely con- Paryete of

Paryeto of Ptolemy), Gandarii (in Lower Kabul basin), and Pakquered, and he wrote a history of the events. But these

tyes, on or near the Indus. In the last name it has been plausibly works have not been met with. In the reign of Akbar, suggested that we have the Pukhtun, as the eastern Afghans proBayazîd Ansari, called Pir-i-Roshan, “The Saint of Light, to be the oldest name of the country of the Afghans in their tradithe founder of an heretical sect, wrote in Pushtu; as did tions. his chief antagonist, a famous Afghan saint called Akhund

Alexander's march led him to Artacoana (Herat ?), the capital of Darweza.

Aria, and thence to the country of the Zarangæ (Seistan), to that

of the Euergetæ, upon the Etymander (Helmand river), to Arachosia, The literature is richest in poetry. Abdarrahmân (17th thence to the Indians dwelling among snows in a barren country, century) is the best known poet. Another very popular probably the highlands between Ghazni and Kabul. Thence he poet is Khushâl Khan, the warlike chief of the Khattaks

marched to the foot of Caucasus, and spent the winter among the in the time of Aurangzib. Many other members of his Hupian, near Charikar. "On his return from Bactria he prosecuted

Paropamisado, founding a city, Alexandria, supposed to be family were poets also. Ahmed Shah, the founder of the his march to India by the north side of the Kabul river. monarchy, likewise wrote poetry. Ballads are numerous. The Ariana of Strabo corresponds generally with the existing

HISTORY.— The Afghan chroniclers call their people dominions of Kabul, but overpasses their limits on the west and Bani-Israil (Arab. for Children of Israel), and claim descent


About 310 B.C. Seleucus is said by Strabo to have given to the from King Saul (whom they call by the Mahommedan cor Indian Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), in consequence of a marriage.

contract, some part of the country west of the Indus, occupied by history of the Afghan countries under the Mongols is obscure ; but an Indian population, and no doubt embracing a part of the Kabul that régime must have left its mark upon the country if we judge basin. Some 60 years later occurred the establishment of an inde from the occurrence of frequent Mongol names of places, and even pendent Greek dynasty in Bactria. of the details of their history of Mongol expressions adopted into familiar language. and extent of their dominion in different reigns we know almost nothing, and conjecture is often dependent on such vague data as All these countries were included in Timur's conquests, are afforded by the collation of the localities in which the coins of and Kabul at least had remained in the possession of one of independent princes have been found. But their power extended certainly over the Kabul basin, and probably, at times, over the his descendants till 1501, only three years before it fell into whole of Afghanistan. The ancient architecture of Kashmir, the the hands of another and more illustrious one, Sultan Baber. tope of Manikyala in the Panjab, and many sculptures found in It was not till 1522 that Baber succeeded in permanently the Peshawar valley, show unmistakable Greek influence. Deme- wresting Kandahar from the Arghuns, a family of Mongol trius (circa B.C. 190) is supposed to have reigned in Arachosia after descent, who had long held it. From the time of his being expelled from Bactria, much as, at a later date, Baber reigned in Kabul after his expulsion from Samarkand. Eucratides (181 conquest of Hindustan (victory at Panipat, April 21, 1526), B.C.) is alleged by Justin to have warred in India. With his coins, Kabul and Kandahar may be regarded as part of the empire found abundantly in the Kabul basin, commences the use of an of Dehli under the (so-called) Moghul dynasty which Baber Arianian inscription, in addition to the Greek, supposed to imply founded. Kabul so continued till the invasion of Nadir the transfer of rule to the south of the mountains, over a people whom the Greek dynasty sought to conciliate. Under Heliocles (1738). Kandahar often changed hands between the (147 B.C. ?), the Parthians, who had already encroached on Ariana, Moghuls and the rising Safavis (or Sofis) of Persia. pressed their conquests into India. Menander (126 B.C.) invaded Under the latter it had remained from 1642 till 1708, The coinage of a succeeding king, Hermæus, indicates a barbaric when in the reign of Husain, the last of them, the Ghilzais, irruption. There is a general correspondence between classical and provoked by the oppressive Persian governor Shahnawaz Chinese accounts of the time when Bactria was overrun by Scythian Khan (a Georgian prince of the Bagratid house) revolted invaders. The chief nation among these, called by the Chinese under Mir Wais, and expelled the Persians. Mir Wais Yuechi, about 126 B.C. established themselves in Sogdiana and

was acknowledged sovereign of Kandahar, and eventually on the Oxus in five hordes. Near the Christian era the chief of one of these, which was called Kushan, subdued the rest, and extended defeated the Persian armies sent against him, but did not his conquests over the countries south of Hindu Kush, including long survive (d. 1715). Sind as well as Afghanistan, thus establishing a great dominion, Mahmud, the son of Mir Wais, a man of great courage of which we hear from Greek writers as Indo-Scythia. Buddhism had already acquired influence over the people of the

and energy, carried out a project of his father's, the conKabul basin, and some of the barbaric invaders adopted that system. quest of Persia itself. After a long siege, Shah Husain Its traces are extensive, especially in the plains of Jalalabad and came forth from Ispahan with all his court, and surrendered Peshawar, but also in the vicinity of Kabul.

the sword and diadem of the Sofis into the hands of the Various barbaric dynasties succeeded each other, among which a notable monarch was Kanishka or Kanerkes, who reigned and con

Ghilzai (Oct. 1722). Two years later Mahmud died mad, quered apparently about the time of Our Lord, and whose power

and a few years saw the end of Ghilzai rule in Persia. extended over the upper Oxus basin, Kabul, Peshawar, Kashmir, Nadir Shah (1737–38) both recovered Kandahar and and probably far into India. His name and legends still filled the took Kabul. But he gained the goodwill of the Afghans, land, or at least the Buddhist portion of it, 600 years later, when and enrolled many in his army. Among these was a noble the Chinese pilgrim Hwen Thsang travelled in India ; they had even reached the great Mahommedan philosopher, traveller, and young soldier, Ahmed Khan, of the Saddozai family of the geographer, Abu Rihân AlBirûni, in the 11th century; and they Abdali clan, who after the assassination of Nadir (1747) are still celebrated in the Mongol versions of Buddhist ecclesiastical was chosen by the Afghan chiefs at Kandahar to be their story.

In the time of Hwen Thsang (630-45 A. D.) there were both Indian leader, and assumed kingly authority over the eastern part and Turk princes in the Kabul valley, and in the succeeding cen- of Nadir's empire, with the style of Dur-i-Durrân, “Pearl turies both these races seem to have predominated in succession.

of the Age," bestowing that of Durrani upon his clan, the The first Mahommedan attempts at the conquest of Kabul were un. Abdalis. With Ahmed Shah, Afghanistan, as such, first successful, though Seistan and Arachosia were permanently held took a place among the kingdoms of the earth. from an early date. It was not till the end of the 10th century the twenty-six years of his reign he carried his warlike

During hands of the Turk Sabaktegin, who had established his capital at expeditions far and wide. Westward they extended nearly Ghazni. There, too, reigned his famous son Mahmûd, and a series to the shores of the Caspian; eastward he repeatedly entered of descendants, till the middle of the 12th century, rendering the India as a conqueror. city one of the most splendid in Asia. We then have a powerful (Jan. 6, 1761), with vastly inferior numbers, he gave the

At his great battle of Panipat the first. But the historians give them a legendary descent from Mahrattas, then at the zenith of power, a tremendous Zohák, which is no Afghan genealogy. The founder of the dynasty defeat, almost annihilating their vast army; but the sucwas Alâuddin, chief of Ghur, whose vengeance for the cruel death of his brother at the hands of Bahram the Ghaznevide was wreaked fered from a terrible disease, he died in 1773, bequeathing

cess had for him no important result. Having long sufin devastating the great city. His nephew Shahabuddîn Mahommed repeatedly invaded India, conquering as far as Benares. His empire to his son Timûr a dominion which embraced not only in India indeed—ruled by his freedmen who after his death became Afghanistan to its utmost limits, but the Panjab, Kashmir, medan monarchy which endured nominally till 1857. For a brief Khorasan as tributary governments. independent-may be regarded as the origin of that great Mahom. and Turkestan to the Oxus, with Sind, Biluchistan, and period the Afghan countries were subject to the king of Kharizm, and it was here chiefly that occurred the gallant attempts of Jala

Timur transferred his residence from Kandahar to luddin of Kharizm to withstand the progress of Chinghiz Khan. Kabul, and continued during a reign of twenty years to

A passage in Firishta seems to imply that the Afghans in the stave off the anarchy which followed close on his death. Sulimani mountains were already known by that name in the first He left twenty-three sons, of whom the fifth, Zamân Mirza, century of the Hegira, but it is uncertain how far this may be built on. The name Afghans is very distinctly mentioned in 'Utbi's by help of Payindah Khan, head of the Barakzai family History of Sultan Mahmud, written about A.D. 1030, coupled with of the Abdalis, succeeded in grasping the royal power. that of the Khiljis. It also appears frequently, in connection with For many years barbarous wars raged between the brothers, the history of India in the 13th and 14th centuries. The successive during which Zamân Shah, Shuja-ul-Mulk, and Mahmud,

The last owed success to in part. Of the Khiljis (1288-1821) we have alrcady spoken. The successively held the throne. Tughlaks (1321-1421) were originally Tartars of the Karauna tribe. Fatteh Khan, son of Payindah, a man of masterly ability The Lodis (1450-1526) were pure Pathans. For a century and more in war and politics, the eldest of twenty-one brothers, a after the Mongol invasion the whole of the Afghan countries were family of notable intelligence and force of character, and under Mongol rule; but in the middle of the 14th century a native dynasty sprang up in western Afghanistan, that of the Kurts, many of these he placed over the provinces. The maligwhich extended its rule over Ghur, Herat, and Kandahar. The nity of Kamrân, the worthless son of Mahmud, succeeded

in making the king jealous of his minister; and with match marched out of the camp. The winter was severe, the less treachery, ingratitude, and cruelty, the latter was first troops demoralised, the march a mass of confusion and Llinded, and afterwards murdered with prolonged torture, massacre ; for there was hardly a pretence of keeping the the brutal Kamran striking the first blow.

terms. On the 13th the last survivors mustered at GanThe Barakzai brothers united to avenge Fatteh Khan. damak only twenty muskets. Of those who left Kabul, The Saddozais were driven from Kabul, Ghazni, and Kan- Dr Brydone only reached Jalalabad, wounded and half dahar, and with difficulty reached Herat (1818). Herat dead. Ninety-five prisoners were afterwards recovered. remained thus till Kamran's death (1842), and after that The garrison of Ghazni had already been forced to surwas held by his able and wicked minister Yar Mahom- render (10th December). But General Nott held Kanmed. The rest of the country was divided among the dahar with a stern hand, and General Sale, whu had Barakzais-Dost Mahommed, the ablest, getting Kabul. reached Jalalabad from Kabul at the beginning of the outPeshawar and the right bank of the Indus fell to the Sikhs break, maintained that important point gallantly. after their victory at Naoshera in 1823. The last Afghan To avenge these disasters and recover the prisoners hold of the Panjab had been lost long before—Kashmir in preparations were made in India on a fitting scale; but 1819; Sind had cast off all allegiance since 1808; the it was the 16th April 1842 before General Pollock could Turkestan provinces had been practically independent since relieve Jalalabad, after forcing the Khybar Pass. After a the death of Timur Shah.

long halt there, he advanced (20th August), and gaining In 1809, in consequence of the intrigues of Napoleon rapid successes, occupied Kabul (15th September), where in Persia, the Hon. Mountstewart Elphinstone had been Nott, after retaking and dismantling Ghazni, joined him sent as envoy to Shah Shuja, then in power, and had been two days later. The prisoners were happily recovered from well received by him at Peshawar. This was the first time Bamian. The citadel and central bazaar of Kabul were the Afghans made any acquaintance with Englishmen. destroyed, and the army finally evacuated Afghanistan Lieut. Alex. Burnes visited Kabul on his way to Bokhara December 1842. in 1832. In 1837 the Persian siege of Herat and the Shah Shuja had been assassinated soon after the deparproceedings of Russia created uneasiness, and Burnes was ture of the ill-fated garrison. Dost Mahommed, released, sent by the Governor-General as resident to the Amir's was able to resume his position at Kabul, which he retained court at Kabul. But the terms which the Dost sought till his death in 1863. Akbar Khan was made vazir, but were not conceded by the government, and the rash reso died in 1848. lution was taken of re-establishing Shah Shuja, long a The most notable facts in later history must be briefly refugee in British territory. Ranjit Singh, king of the stated. In 1848, when the Sikh revolt broke out, Dost Panjab, bound himself to co-operate, but eventually Mahommed, stimulated by popular outcry and by the Sikh declined to let the expedition cross his territories. The offer to restore Peshawar, crossed the frontier and took “Army of the Indus,” amounting to 21,000 men, therefore Attok. A cavalry force of Afghans was sent to join Sher assembled in Upper Sind (March 1838), and advanced Singh against the British, and was present at the battle of through the Bolan Pass under the command of Sir John Gujerat (21st Feb. 1849). The pursuit of the Afghans by Keane. There was hardship, but scarcely any opposition. Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert, right up to the passes, was so Kohandil Khan of Kandahar fled to Persia. That city hot that the Dost owed his escape to a fleet horse. was occupied in April 1839, and Shah Shuja was crowned In 1850 the Afghans re-conquered Balkh. in his grandfather's mosque. Ghazni was reached 21st In January 1855, friendly intercourse, which had been July; a gate of the city was blown open by the engineers renewed between the Dost and the British government, (the match was fired by Lieut. afterwards Sir Henry led to the conclusion of a treaty at Peshawar. Durand); and the place was taken by storm. Dost In November 1855, after the death of his half-brother, Mahommed, finding his troops deserting, passed the Hindu Kohandil Khan of Kandahar, the Dost made himself master Kush, and Shah Shuja entered the capital (7th August). of that province. In 1856 came the new Persian advance The war was thought at an end, and Sir John Keane to Herat, ending in its capture, and the English expedition (made a peer) returned to India with a considerable part to the Persian Gulf. In January 1857 the Dost had an of the force, leaving behind 8000 men, besides the Shah's interview at Peshawar with Sir J. Lawrence, at which the force, with Sir W. Macnaghten as envoy, and Sir A. former was promised arms and a subsidy for protection Burnes as his colleague.

against Persia. In consequence of this treaty a British During the two following years Shah Shuja and his mission under Major Lumsden proceeded to Kandahar. allies remained in possession of Kabul and Kandahar. The Indian mutiny followed, and the Afghan excitement The British outposts extended to Saighân, in the Oxus strongly tried the Dost's fidelity, but he maintained it. basin, and to Mullah Khan, in the plain of Seistan. Dost Lumsden's party held their ground, and returned in May Mahommed surrendered (Nov. 3, 1840), and was sent to 1858. India, where he was honourably treated. From the begin

From the begin. | In 1863, Dost Mahommed, after a ten months' siege, ning, insurrection against the new government had been captured Herat; but he died there thirteen days later rife. The political authorities were over-confident, and (9th June), and was succeeded by his son Sher Ali Khan. neglected warnings. On the 2d November 1841 the Since then the latter has passed through many vicissirevolt broke out violently at Kabul, with the massacre of tudes in rivalry with his brothers and nephews, and at Burnes and other officers. The position of the British one time (1867) his fortunes were so low that he held only camp, its communications with the citadel, and the location | Balkh and Herat. By the autumn of 1868, however, he of the stores were the worst possible; and the general was again established on the throne of Kabul, and his (Telphinstone) was shattered in constitution. Disaster after competitors were beaten and dispersed. In April 1869 disaster occurred, not without misconduct. At a confer- Sher Ali Khan was honourably and splendidly received at cnce (23d December) with the Dost's son, Akbar Khan, Amballa by the Earl of Mayo, who had shortly before who had taken the lead of the Afghans, Sir W. Macnaghten replaced Sir J. Lawrence. Friendly relations were conwas murdered by that chief's own hand. On 6th January | firmed, though the Amir's expectations were not fulfilled. 1842, after a convention to evacuate the country had been He received the balance of a donation of £120,000 which signed, the British garrison, still numbering 4500 soldiers had been promised and partly paid by Sir John Lawrence. (of whom 690 were Europeans), with some 12,000 followers, A considerable present of artillery and arms was made to

him; since then some small additional aid in money and tain, near the Indus, which has been plausibly identified arms has been sent, but no periodical subsidy.

with the Aornos of the Greeks, and the hills more immeSher Ali Khan now reigns over all Afghanistan and diately compassing the Peshawar valley, abound in the ruins Afghan Turkestan, whilst Badakhshan is tributary to him. of very ancient fortresses.

of very ancient fortresses. At Talash, on the Panjkora In the latter part of 1872 a correspondence which had river, are extensive ruins of massive fortifications; and in gone on between the Governments of Russia and England Swat there are said to be remains of several ancient cities. resulted in a declaration by the former that Afghanistan In the valley of the Tarnak are the ruins of a great city was beyond the field of Russian influence; whilst the (Ulan Robat), supposed to be ancient Arachosia. About Oxus, from its source in Lake Sirikol to the western Girishk, on the Helmand, are extensive mounds and other limit of Balkh, was recognised as the frontier of Afghan traces of buildings; and the remains of several great cities dominion.

exist in the plain of Seistan, as at Pulki, Peshawaran, and ANTIQUITIES. --We can afford space for only the briefest Lakh, relics of ancient Drangiana, as yet unexamined. An indication on this subject. The basin of the Kabul river ancient stone vessel, preserved in a mosque at Kandahar, especially abounds in remains of the period when Buddhism is almost certainly the same that was treasured at Peshawar flourished, beginning with the Inscribed Rock of Shah- in the 5th century as the begging-pot of Sakya-Muni. bâzgarhi, or Kapur-di-giri, in the Peshawar plain, which of the city of Ghazni, the vast capital of Mahmud and his bears one of the repliche of the famous edicts of Asoka race, no substantial relics survive, except the tomb of (not later than B.c. 250). In the Koh-Daman, north of Mahmud and two remarkable brick minarets. Kabul, are the sites of several ancient cities, the greatest of To the vast and fruitful harvest of coins that has been which, called Beghram, has furnished coins in scores of gathered in Afghanistan and the adjoining regions, we can thousands, and has been supposed to represent Alexander's here but make an allusion. Nicæa. Nearer Kabul, and especially on the hills some (Elphinstone's Caubool; various papers in J. As. Soc. miles south of the city, are numerous topes. In the valley Bengal; Ferrier's Journeys, and Hist. of the Afghans; of Jalalabad are many remains of the same character. In Bellew's Journal, Report on the Yusufrais, and Notes on the Peshawar plain and on the adjoining heights are Flora of Afgh.; James's Report on Peshawar District; numerous ancient cities and walled villages, in many cases Raverty's Afghan_Grammar; Panjab Trade Report; presenting ruins of much interest, besides the remains of Baber's Memoirs; Kaye's History; papers by Major Lumstopes, monasteries, cave temples, &c.; and frequently sculp- den, and by Lieut.-Col. C. M. Macgregor, &c. The paratures have been found on those sites, exhibiting evident graph on the Animal Kingdom has been revised by Prof traces of the influence of Greek art. The Mahâban moun- | Henry Giglioli of Florence.)

(H. Y.)

AFGHAN TURKESTAN is a convenient name applied that region. We know almost nothing of these mountains, of late years to those provinces in the basin of the Oxus except from the journey of Ferrier, who crossed all three which are subject to the Amir of Kabul. BADAKUSHAN watersheds in four days of July 1845. He describes the and its dependencies, now tributary to the Amir, are some middle range as very lofty, with a good deal of snow on times included under the name, but will not be so included the pass; the southern range not so high, the northern here. The whole of the Afghan dominions consist of one not nearly so high. AFGHANISTAN as defined under that heading, AFGHAN RIVERS. - We shall first describe the rivers of this TURKESTAN, and BADAKHSHAN with its dependencies. region in succession.

The territories included here will be, beginning from For the Oxus itself, see that article. the east, the khanates or principalities of Kunduz, Khulm, the river of Kunduz, known also as the river of Aksarai, the Surkhâb,

Beginning from the eastward, its first tributary within our limits is Balkh with Akcha; and the western khanates of Sir-i-pul, and what not. As the principal source of this river we may regard Shibrghân, Andkhùi, and Maimana, sometimes classed the stream of Bamian, fed close under the Koh-i-Baba by a variety together as the Chihâr Vilâyat, or “Four Domains ;' and of torrents which join from the pass of Akrobat and other gorges of besides these, such part of the Hazara tribes as lie north the Hazara country, adjoining that famous site (8496 feet above of the Hindu Kush and its prolongation, defined in the of the ancient population ; such are the "Cutlers' Vale,” “the

sea level). The names of some of these seem to preserve a tradition article AFGHANISTAN. The tract thus includes the whole Smiths' Vale," the Valley of Eye-paint.”. At the eastern end of southern moiety of the Oxus basin, from the frontier of the valley the Bamian stream receives another of nearly equal bulk, Badakhshan on the east to the upper Murghâb river on descending from the pass of Hajjigak, the most important crossing the west. The Oxus itself forms the northern boundary, of the mountains between Kabul and the Oxus, and from which the from the confluence of the Kokcha or river of Badakhshan, Haibak, to Khulm, in the Oxus valley. On the volcanic rock which in 691° E. long., to Khoja Salih ferry, in 65° E. long. parts the streams stand extensive ruins, the name of which, Zohâk, nearly. Here the boundary quits the river and skirts the connects them with the most ancient legends of Persian history. Turkman desert to the point where the Murghâb issues the Sheikh Alis, one of the most famous Hazara clans, and

From this the river turns nearly north, passing the country of upon it. Along the whole southern boundary we have a

closely skirting the great range of Hindu Kush. About 40 miles tract of lofty mountain country. Thus, in the east, above N.N.E. of Zoħak it receives from the left two confluents, of size Kunduz, we have the Hindu Kush rising far into the probably almost equal to its own-the rivers of Saighan and of region of perpetual snow, and with passes ranging from Kamard, both rising to the westward of Bamian, and crossing the 12,000 to 13,000 feet and upwards. Above Khulm and take the name of Surkhab. The first considerable confluent on the

highway from Bamian to Khulm. Hereabouts the river seems to Balkh is the prolongation of Hindu Kush, called Koh-i-baba, right is the Andarâb river, draining the valley of that name, and in which the elevation of the cols or passes seems to be nearly joining at Doshi, about 85 miles in a direct line N. E. of Zohak. as high, though the general height of the crest is lower.

About Ghori, still a place of some note, the valley widens out The mountains then fork in three branches westward, viz., greatly, and becomes in places swampy, with expanses of tall grass, Koh-i-Siâh, “The Black Mountain,” to the south of the bridged at Thomri, a few miles beyond Ghori, a work ascribed to Herat river; Koh-i-Safed, “ The White Mountain,” between Aurangzih. It then receives from the right the Baghlân river, the Herat river and the Murghab, and a third ridge north of coming from Narîn and the hills of Khost. The only remaining the latter river. The second branch (Safed-Koh) has been town of Kunduz, sometimes called the Khânâbâd river, sometimes

confluent is the important one which joins immediately below the assumed in the article AFGHANISTAN as the boundary of by the nanes of its chief contributaries, the Farokhar and Bangi.

I. – 31

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