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bearing a green branch as a sign of peace, and by Sellier, 27th June 1848. Next day the National Assembly issued an attached servant. His reception was not very favour a decree expressing their great sorrow on account of his able, and he had spoken only a few words, when the insur death; and the public funeral on the 7th July was one of gents, hearing some shots, and fancying they were betrayed, the most striking spectacles of its kind. The archbishop opened fire upon the national guard, and the archbishop wrote several treatises of considerable value, including one fell. He was removed to his palace, where he died on the on Egyptian hieroglyphics.

AF G H Â NIST Â N

THIS
NHIS is the name applied, originally in Persian, to the valleys of the Lora river, and then of the Helmand, as

that mountainous region between N.W. India and far as the Lake of Seistan in lat. 30°, will complete the Eastern Persia, of which the Afghans are the most nume southern boundary. Thus the whole breadth of Bilûchistân, rous and the predominant inhabitants. Afghans, under the ancient Gedrosia, a dry region occupying 5° of latithat and other names, have played no small part in Asiatic tude, intervenes between Afghanistan and the sea. history. But the present extensive application of the The western boundary runs from the intersection of the name Afghânistán is scarcely older than the shortlived Lake of Seistan with lat. 30°, bending eastward, so as to empire founded by Ahmed Khan in the middle of last exclude a part of the plain of Seistan on the eastern bank century. The Afghans themselves are not in the habit of of the lake, and then crosses the lake to near the meridian using the term.

of 61°. Thence it runs nearly due north, near this meriIn treating of this country we include a part of the dian, to a point on the Hari-Rûd, or river of Herat, about Hazâra mountain region, but not that part of the Oxus 70 miles below that city, where it encounters the spurs of the basin which is now under Afghan rule, for which see Safed Koh, which has been given as the northern boundary. AFGHAN TURKESTAN.

But if we take the limits of the entire Afghan dominions, Afghanistan generally may be regarded as a great quad- as they at present exist, the western boundary will conrilateral plateau,—using that term in the technical sense of tinue north along the Hari-Rûd to lat. 36°, and the northern a region whose lowest tracts even are considerably elevated boundary will run from this point along the borders of the above the sea-level,—extending from about 62° to 70° E. Turkman desert, so as to include Andkhoi, to Khoja Sâleh long., and from 30° to 35° Ñ. lat. This territory cor- ferry on the Oxus. The Oxus, to its source in Great Pamir, responds fairly to the aggregate of the ancient provinces of forms the rest of the northern boundary. These enlarged Aria (Herât), Drangiana (Seistân), the region of the limits would embrace the remainder of the Hazara mountain Paropamisade (Kâbul), and Arachosia (Kandahâr), with tracts, and the whole of what is now called AFGHAN Gandaritis (Peshâwar and Yûzufzai). Though the last TURKESTAN, as well as BADAKHSHAN with its dependencies, territory belongs ethnically to Afghanistan, an important now tributary to the Afghan Amir. part of it now forms the British district of Peshawar, The extreme dimensions of Afghanistan, as at first whilst the remainder acknowledges no master.

defined, will be about 600 miles from east to west, and The boundaries of Afghanistan can be stated here only 450 miles from north to south; and, if we take the whole roughly; and, from the area thus broadly defined, many

hus broadly defined, many Afghan dominion, the extent from north to portions will have to be deducted as occupied by indepen be increased to 600 miles. Within both the areas so dent or semi-independent tribes. But, so understood, they defined, however, we have included some territory over may be thus stated :

which the Afghan government has no control whatever, On the north : beginning from east, the great range of and much over which its authority is respected only when Hindu Kush, a western offshoot of the Himalya, parting backed by a special exertion of force. Under the former the Oxus basin from the Afghan basins of the Kabul river head come the valleys of the Yusufzai clan north of and Helmand. From long. 68° this boundary continues Peshawar, the Momands, Afridis, Vaziris, &c., adjoining westward in the prolongation of Hindu Kush called Koh-i- that district on the west and south-west, the high-lying Bâbâ. This breaks into several almost parallel branches, valleys of Chitral or Kâshkâr, and of the independent enclosing the valleys of the river of Herat and the Murghâb Pagans or Käfirs, among the loftier spurs of Hindu Kush. or river of Mery. The half-independent Hazara tribes Under the latter head come the eastern districts of Khost stretch across these branches and down into the Oxus and (partially) of Kurram, the Kakar country in the basin, so that it is difficult here to assign a boundary. We extreme south-east, much of the country of the tribes called assume it to continue along the range called Safed Koh or Eimâk and Hazara in the north-west, and probably Badakh“White Mountain,” which parts the Herat river valley shân with its dependencies. from the Murghab.1

If we suppose the sea to rise 4000 feet above its existing On the east: the eastern base of the spurs of the Suli-level, no part of the quadrilateral plateau that we have mâni and other mountains which limit the plains on the defined would be covered, except portions of the lower west bank of Indus, and the lower valleys opening into valley of the Kabul river, small tracts towards the Indus, these, which plains (the “Derajất”) and lower valleys and å triangle, of which the apex should be at the Lake of belong to British India. North of Peshâwar district the Seistan in the extreme south-west, and the base should boundary will be, for a space, the Indus, and then the limit, just include Herat and Kandahar, passing beyond those lying in unknown country, between the Afghan and Dard cities to intersect the western and southern boundaries tribes.

respectively. Isolated points and ridges within this triOn the south : the eastern part of the boundary, occu- angle would emerge. pied by practically independent tribes, Afghan and Bilûch, Further, let us suppose the sea to rise 7000 feet above is hard to define, having no marked natural indication. its existing level. We should still have a tract emerging But from the Shal territory (long. 67°), belonging to the so large that a straight line of 200 miles could be drawn, Bilûch state of KELAT, westward, the southern limits of from the Kushân Pass of Hindu Kush, passing about 35

miles west of Kabul, to Rangak on the road between Ghazni Not to be confounded with the more easterly Safed Kok of the and Kandahar, which nowhere should touch the submerged Kabul basin.

portion. And we believe it is certain that a line under

like conditions, but 250 miles in length, could be drawn at | feet. 'l'le whole length of the river to its confluence with right angles to the former, passing about 25 miles south of the Kabul river cannot be less than 250 miles, i.e., about Ghazni. The greater part of this latter line, however, 80 miles longer than that regarded as the main stream, would lie in the Hazara country, in which we have no measured to its most remote source. observations.

The basin of the Kabul river is enclosed at the head by In the triangular tract that would be submerged accord- the Paghman range, an offshoot of Hindu Kush, which ing to our first supposition, the lowest level is the Lake of divides the Kabul valleys from the Helmand. Up the Seistan, 1280 feet above the sea. Herat is 2650; Kan- head-waters of the stream that passes Kabul, leads the dahar, 3490.

chief road to Turkestan, crossing for a brief space into the The Afghans themselves make a broad distinction between Helmand basin by the easy pass of Unai (11,320 feet), and Kabul, meaning thereby the whole basin of the Kabul river, then over the Koh-i-Baba, or western extension of Hindu and the rest of their country, excluding the former from the Kush, by the Hajjigak passes (12,190 and 12,480 feet), to large and vague term KHORASAN, under which they con- Bâmiận. sider the rest to be comprehended. There is reason for The most conspicuous southern limit of the Kabul basin such a distinction in history as well as nature. For the is the Safed Koh, Spin-gar of the Afghans (“White MounKabul basin was in old times much more intimately con- tain," not to be confounded with the western Safed Koh nected with India, and to the beginning of the 11th cen- already named), an alpine chain, reaching, in its highest tury was regarded as Indian territory.

summit, Sita Râm, to a height of 15,622 feet, and the NATURAL DIVISIONS.—Of these, this Kabul basin (1) eastern ramifications of which extend to the Indus at and forms the first. As others we may discriminate—(2.) The below Attok. Among the spurs of this range are those lofty central part of the table-land on which stand Ghazni formidable passes between Kabul and Jalalabad, in which and Kala't-i-Ghilzai, embracing the upper valleys of ancient the disasters of 1841-42 culminated, as well as the famous Arachosia ; (3.) The upper Helmand basin ; (4.) The lower Khybar passes between Jalalabad and Peshâwar. This Helmand basin, embracing Girishk, Kandahar, and the southern watershed formed by the Safed Koh is so much Afghan portion of Seistan; (5.) The basin of the Herat nearer the Kabul river than that on the north, that the river; and (6.) The eastern part of the table-land, draining tributaries from this side, though numerous, are indiby streams, chiefly occasional torrents, towards the Indus. vidually insignificant.

Kabul Basin.-Its northern limit is the range of Hindu After flowing 60 miles (in direct measurement) eastward Kush, a name which properly applies to the lofty, snow. from the Kuner confluence, the Kabul river issues from clad crest due north of Kabul, and perhaps especially to the mountains which have hemmed it in, and enters the one pass and peak. But it has been conveniently extended plain of Peshâwar, receiving, soon after, the combined to the whole line of alpine watershed, stretching west- rivers of Swât (Soastus) and Panjkora (Guræus), two of ward from the southern end of Pamir, and represents the the great valleys of the Yusufzai. This combined river is Caucasus of Alexander's historians. Its peaks throughout called by the Afghans Landai Sîn or Little river, in disprobably rise to the region of perpetual snow, and even on tinction from the Abba Sin or Indus, and the name seems most of the passes beds of snow occur at all seasons, and, often to adhere to the lower course of the Kabul river. on some, glaciers. We find no precise height stated for Both rivers on entering the plain ramify, in delta fashion, any of its peaks, but the highest probably attain to at least into many natural channels, increased in number by arti20,000 or 21,000 feet. The height of the Kushan Pass is ficial cuts for irrigation. Finally the river enters the estimated by Lord at 15,000 feet.

Indus immediately above the gorge at Attok. The Kabul river (the ancient Kophes) is the most im

The lowest ford on the Kabul river is a bad one, near portant river of Afghanistan. It may be considered as fully Jalalabad, only passable in the dry season. Below the formed about 30 miles east of Kabul, by the junction there- Kuner confluence the river is deep and copious, crossed by abouts (the confluence does not seem to have been fixed by ferries only, except at Naoshera, below Peshawar, where any traveller) of the following streams a.) The Kabul there is usually a bridge of boats. The rapid current is stream, rising in the Unai pass towards the Helmand, which, unfavourable to navigation, but from Jalalabad downwards after passing through the city, has been joined by the Logar the river can float boats of 50 tons, and is often descended river flowing north from the skirts of the Ghilzai plateau ; by rafts on blown skins. The whole course of the river, (6.) A river bringing down from the valleys Ghorband, measured by a five-mile opening of the compasses, is as Parwân, and Panjshir, a large part of the drainage of follows :-From source of Kabul stream in Unai pass to Hindu Kush, and watering the fruitful plain of Dâman-i- Attok, 250 miles ; from source either of Logar or of PanjKoh (the “ Hill-skirt”), intersected by innumerable brooks, shir to the same, 290 miles; from source of Kashkar river and studded with vineyards, gardens, and fortalices. This to the same, 370 miles. river was formerly called Bârân, a name apparently obsolete, A marked natural division of the Kabul basin occurs but desirable to maintain ; (c.) The river of Tagao, coming near Gandâmak, above Jalalabad, where a sudden descent down from the spurs of Hindu Kush on the Kafir borders. takes effect from a minimum elevation of 5000 feet to one

Some 30 miles further east, the Alishang enters on the of only 2000. The Emperor Baber says of this : -“ The left bank, from Laghmân, above which this river and its moment you descend, you see quite another world. The confluents drain western KAFIRISTAN. Twenty miles fur- timber is different; its grains are of another sort; its ther, and not far beyond Jalalábâd, the Kabul river receives animals are of a different species ; and the manners and from the same side a confluent entitled, as regards length, customs of its inhabitants are of a different kind.” Burnes, to count as main stream. In some older maps this bears on his first journey, left the wheat harvest in progress at the name of Kâma, from a place near the confluence, and Jalalabad, and found the crop at Gandamak, only 25 miles in more recent ones Kứner, from a district on its lower distant, but 3 inches above ground. Here, in truth, course. Higher it is called the river of Kashkar, and the nature has planted the gates of India. The valleys of the Beilam. It seems to be the Choaspes, and perhaps the upper basin, though still in the height of summer affected Malamantus of the ancients. It rises in a small lake near by a sun of fierce power, recall the climate and products of the borders of Pamir, and flows in a south-west direction the finest part of temperate Europe ; the region below is a through the length of Kashkar or Chitral, an independent chain of narrow, low, and hot plains, with climate and valley-state, whose soil lies at a height of 6000 to 11,000 | vegetation of an Indian character.

Accounts of Kabul strike us by apparent contradiction. it turns nearly north, and so fows on for 70 or 80 miles, Some give scarcely any impression but that of extreme till it falls into the lake of Seistan by various mouths. The ruggedness and desolation, awful defiles, and bare black whole length of the river, measured as before, is about 615 crags; others dwell on the abounding orchards, green miles. Ferrier considers that it has water enough for navisward, charming dells, and purling streams. But both gation at all seasons, from Girishk downwards. At present aspects are characteristic. The higher spurs, both of Hindu boats are rarely seen, and those in use are most clumsy ; Kush and Safed Koh, are often clad with grand forests of rafts are employed for crossing. pine, oak, and other alpine trees, and resemble the wooded

Arghand-ab.–Of this tributary of the Helmand little is known ranges of Himalya. But the lower hills generally are except in its lower course. It rises in the Hazara country, N. W. of utterly woodless, and almost entirely naked. In the bot

Ghazni. It is said to be shallow, and to run nearly dry in height toms, often watered by clear and copious streams, we have

of summer; but when its depth exceeds 3 feet its great rapidity

makes it a serious obstacle to travellers. In its lower course it is those beauties of verdure and fertility on which some much used for irrigation, and the valley is cultivated and populous; writers dwell, and which derive new charms from contrast yet the water is said to be somewhat brackish. Its course may be with the excessive sterility of the hills that frame them.

reckoned about 235 miles.

It is doubtful whether the ancient Arachotus is to be identified We cannot speak at equal length of the other natural

with the Arghand-ab or with its chief confluent the Tarnak, which divisions of Afghanistan, but some chief points will be joins it on the left about 30 miles S.W. of Kandahar. The two noticed with the rivers. In general the remainder of the rivers run nearly parallel, inclosing the backbone of the Ghilzai country, regarded by the Afghans as included in Khorasan, plateau. The Tarnak is much the shorter (length about 197 miles) exhibits neither the savage sublimity of the defiles of the

and less copious. The ruins at Ulân Robât, supposed to represent

the city Arachosia, are in its basin ; and the lake known as Ab-i. Kabul region, the alpine forests of its higher ranges, nor Istada, the most probable representative of Lake Arachotus, is near its' nests of rich vegetation in the valleys, save in the the head of the Tarnak, though not communicating with it. The north-east part adjoining Safed Koh, where these characters Tarnak is dammed for irrigation at intervals, and in the hot season still adhere, and in some exceptional localities, such as the

almost exhausted. There is a good deal of cultivation along the

river, but few villages. The high road from Kabul to Kandahar valley of Herat, which is matchless in richness of cultiva

passes this way (another reason for supposing the Tarnak to be tion. Generally the characteristics of this country are Arachotus), and the people live off the road to eschew the onerous elevated plateaux of sandy or gravelly surface, broken by duties of hospitality. ranges of rocky hills, and often expanding in wide spaces

The Lora is the most southerly river of Afghanistan, and may be

regarded as belonging to the Helmand basin, though it is not known of arid waste, which terminate to the south-west in a regular that its waters ever reach that river. It rises near the Kand and desert of shifting sand. Even in cultivated parts there is Joba peaks in a branch of the Sulimani, and flows nearly east, passa singular absence of trees, and when the crops are not ing through the large valley of Pishîn, but lying too deep for visible this imparts an aspect of great desolation and

irrigation. The river has a course of nearly 200 miles, and con.

siderable breadth, but is never for a week together unfordable. In emptiness to the landscape. Natural wood, however, is the Shorâwak district (long. 65°-669) a good deal of irrigation is found in some parts of West Afghanistan, as in the almost drawn from it. The river is said to terminate in a lake, on the verge tropical delta of the Helmand, in the Ghør territory, and of the sandy desert. on the Herat river below Herat. Generally, indeed, in

Rivers belonging to the basin of Seistan and the Lower Helmand

are the Khash-Rud, the Farrah-Rud, and the larut. such cases the trees appear to be mimosas, tamarisks, and The Khash-rúd rises in or near the southern slopes of Siah-Koh the like, with little body of foliage.

(Black Mountain), which forms the southern wall of the valley of RIVERS.—Next to the Kabul river in importance, and Herat, and flows south, in flood reaching the Lake of Seistan, but probably much exceeding it in volume as it certainly does

generally exhausted in irrigation. It is named from Khâsh, a vil.

Inge in the Seistan plain. In the dry season it is everywhere in length, is the Helmand (Etymander), the only considerable fordable, but in floods caravans may be detained by it several days. river in its latitude from the Tigris to the Indus. The The Farrah river flows from the same quarter, and has the same Helmand has its highest sources in the Koh-i-Baba and character in floods. It is a larger stream, and at Farrah is said to Paghman hills, between Kabul and Bamian. Its succeed

have a width of 150 yards, with 2 feet of water, and a clear, swift

stream. In flood, Khanikoff was struck with the resemblance of ing course is through the least known tract of Afghanistan,

this river, rolling its yellow waves violently between steep banks of chiefly occupied by Hazaras; indeed, for a length of nearly clay, to the Cyrus at Tiflis. 300 miles no European has seen the river. This unvisited 'i'he Harút rises in the mountains S. E. of Herat, and has a course space terminates at Girishk, where the river is crossed by

of about 245 miles to the Lake of Seistan. Canals from it supply the principal route from Herat to Kandahar. Till about

abundant irrigation to the plains of Sabzvâr and Anârdarah. The

river forms a true delta with fifteen branches, giving rise to marsh 40 miles above Girishk the character of the Helmand is, and much vegetation, especially tamarisk, willow, and poplar. The said to be that of a mountain river, flowing between Harut receives in the plain a considerable affluent, the Khushkek scarped rocks, and obstructed by enormous boulders. At river: that point it enters on a flat country, and extends over a

It is possible that confusion of the name of this river with the

Ilari-Rud, or river of Herat, led to the long prevalent mistake that gravelly bed. Here, also, it begins to be used in irrigation. the latter river flowed south into the Seistan Lake-a mistake as Forty-five miles below Girishk the Helmand receives its old as Ptolemy, if his Aria Lacus be (as it seems) that of Seistan. greatest tributary, the Arghand-âb, coming past Kandahar The Ilari-rúd is formed by two chief confluents in the lofty from the high Ghilzai country. It here becomes a very Its early course is, for more than 100 miles and as far as the village

Ilazara country, not far from the sources of the river of Balkh. considerable river, said to have a width of 300 or 400 of Jâor, westward, at a height of many thousand feet above the sea. yards, and a depth of 9 to 12 feet. But this cannot be at It then descends rapidly (it is said with cataracts), but continues in all seasons, as there are fords at long intervals as far down the same direction, receiving numerous streams, to Obeh, where much as Pûlalik, 100 miles from the mouth. The desert draws

water begins to be drawn off. Sixty-five miles further it flows past

Herat, 3 miles to the south of the city. llereabouts the Kandahar road near the left bank in the lower course, and for the last

crosses the river by a masonry bridge of 26 arches. Near this fifteen 150 miles the moving sands approach within 14 mile, deep

deep canals are drawn off. A few miles below Herat the river The vegetation on the banks is here of luxuriant tropical begins to turn N. W.; and after passing for many miles through character. The whole of the lower valley seems to have

a woody tract, abounding in game, in which are the preserves of

the Herat princes, at the ancient and now ncarly deserted town of been once the seat of a prosperous population, and there is

Kassan, 70 miles from Herat, it turns due north. Though the still a good deal of cultivation for 100 miles below Girishk. drainage brought down by this river must be large, so much is Even this, however, is inuch fallen off, and lower down drawn off that, below Herat, reaches of it are at tiines quite dry, still more so, owing to disorders and excessive insecurity.

Below Kassan it receives fresh supplies, and eventually the Meshed

stream. It flows on towards Sarakhs, and dwindles away; but The course of the river is more or less south-west from

accurate information regarding it is still wanting. The channel is its source till in Seistan it approaches meridian 62°, when slown, in a map lately published, us passing Sarakhs for some 250

miles, and ending in a swamp adjoining the Daman-i-Koh, on the derived by the Mahommedans from the patriarch Lamech, border of the Turkman desert. of the rivers that run towards the Indus, south of the Kabul preted (in mixed Pushtu and Arabic) to mean“ nine rivers,”

whose tomb they profess to show; the latter name is interriver, the chief are the Kurram and the Gomal.

The Kurram drains the southern flanks of Safed Koh. The an etymology supported by the numerous streams. The middle valley of Kurram, forming the district so called, is highly word is, however, really a distortion of the ancient Indian irrigated, well peopled, and crowded with small fortified villages,

name Nagarahâra, borne by a city in this plain long before orchards, and groves, to which a fine background is afforded by the dark pine forests and alpine snows of Safed Koh. The beauty and Islam, and believed to have been the Nagara or Dionysoclimate of the valley attracted some of the Mogul emperors of Delhi, polis of Ptolemy. Many topes and other Buddhist traces and the remains exist of a garden of Shah Jahan’s. The river passes exist in the valley, but there are no unruined buildings of the British frontier, and enters the plain country a few miles above

any moment.

Baber laid out fine gardens here; and his Banu, spreading into a wide bed of sand and boulders, till it joins the Indus near Isa-Khel, after a course of more than 200 miles. By grandson (Jalaluddîn) Akbar built Jalalabad. Hindus the Kurram valley is one of the best routes from India into Afgha- form a considerable part of the town population, and have nistan. It was travelled by Major Lumsden's party in 1857–58. a large temple. The most notable point in the history of · The Gomal, rising in the Sulimani mountains, though in length Jalalabad is the stout and famous defence made there, from equal to the Kurram, and draining, with its tributaries, a much larger area, is little more than a winter torrent, diminishing to a

November 1841 till April 1842, by Sir Robert Sale. mere rivulet, till December, when it begins to swell. At its Istâlif is a town in the Koh Daman, 20 miles N.N.W. exit into the plain of the Derajat a local chief threw a dam across its of Kabul, which was stormed and destroyed, 29th Sepchannel; and it is now only in very wet seasons that its waters reach tember 1842, by a force under General M Caskill, to punish the Indus, near Dera Ismael Khan. Not long before leaving the hills it receives from the S. W. a tributary, the Zhõb, of nearly equal the towns-people for the massacre of the garrison at Charikar, length and size, coming from the vicinity of the Kand and Toba and for harbouring the murderers of Burnes. The place is peaks, in long. 68o.

singularly picturesque and beautiful. The rude houses rise LAKES.—As we know nothing of the lake in which the in terrace over terrace on the mountain-side, forming a Lora is said to end, and the greater part of the lake of pyramid, crowned by a shrine embosomed in a fine clump SEISTAN (see that article) is excluded from Afghanistan, of planes. The dell below, traversed by a clear rapid stream, there remains only the -i-Istada, on the Ghilzai plateau. both sides of which are clothed with vineyards and orchards, This is about 65 miles S.S.W. of Ghazni, and stands at a opens out to the great plain of the Daman-i-Koh, rich with height of about 7000 feet, in a site of most barren and trees and cultivation, and dotted with turreted castles; dreary aspect, with no tree or blade of grass, and hardly a beyond these are rocky ridges, and over all the eternal habitation in sight. It is about 44 miles in circuit, and snows of Hindu Kush. Nearly every householder has his very shallow; not more than 12 feet deep in the middle. garden with a tower, to which the families repair in the The chief feeder is the Ghazni river. The Afghans speak fruit season, closing their houses in the town. The town of a stream draining the lake, but this seems to be un is estimated, with seven villages depending on it, to contain founded, and the saltness and bitterness of the lake is about 18,000 souls. against it. Fish entering the salt water from the Ghazni Chûrîkâr (population 5000) lies about 20 miles north river sicken and die.

of Istalif, at the north end of Koh Daman, and watered by PROVINCES AND TOWNS.—The chief political divisions a canal from the Ghorband branch of the Baran river. of Afghanistan in recent times are stated to be Kabul, Hereabouts must have been the Triodon, or meeting of the Jalalabad, Ghazni, Kandahar, Herat, and AFGHAN TUR- three roads from Bactria, spoken of by Strabo and Pliny. KESTAN (q.v.), to which are sometimes added the command It is still the seat of the customs levied on trade with of the Ghilzais and of the Hazaras. This list seems to omit Turkestan, and also of the governor of the Kohistân or the unruly districts of the eastern table-land, such as hill country of Kabul, and is a place of considerable trade Kurram, Khost, &c. But we must not look for the pre- with the regions to the north. During the British occupacision of European administration in such a case.

tion a political agent (Major Eldred Pottinger, famous in In addition to KABUL, GHAZNI, KANDAHAR, HERAT, the defence of Herat) was posted here with a Gûrkha described under those articles, there are not many places corps under Captain Codrington and Lieutenant Haughton. in Afghanistan to be called towns. We notice the follow. In the revolt of 1841, after severe fighting, they attempted ing

to make their way to Kabul, and a great part was cut off. Jalálâbâd lies, at a height of 1946 feet, in a plain on Pottinger, Haughton (with the loss of an arm), and one the south of the Kabul river. It is by road 100 miles from sepoy only, reached the city then; though many were afterKabul, and 91 from Peshawar. Between it and Peshawar wards recovered. intervene the Khybar and other adjoining passes; between Kala't- e-Ghilzai has no town, but is a fortress of some it and Kabul the passes of Jagdalak, Khurd-Kabul, &c. importance on the right bank of the Tarnak, on the road The place has been visited by no known European since between Ghazni and Kandahar, 89 miles from the latter, and Sir G. Pollock's expedition in 1842. As it then existed, at a height of 5773 feet. The repulse of the Afghans in the town, though its walls had an extent of 2100 yards, 1842 by a sepoy garrison under Captain Craigie, was one contained only 300 houses, and a permanent population of of the most brilliant feats of that war. 2000. The walls formed an irregular quadrilateral in a Girishk is also a fort rather than a town, the latter being ruinous state, surrounded on all sides by buildings, gardens, insignificant. It is important for its position on the high the remains of the ancient walls, &c., affording cover to an road between Kandahar and Herat, commanding the ordinassailant. The town walls were destroyed by Pollock, but ary passage and summer ford of the Helmand. It was held have probably been restored.

by the British from 1839 till August 1842, but during the The highly-cultivated plain is, according to Wood, 25 latter nine months, amid great difficulties, by a native miles in length by 3 or 4 miles in breadth; the central part garrison only, under a gallant Indian soldier, Balwant Singh. covered with villages, castles, and gardens. It is abund Farrah belongs to the Seistan basin, and stands on the antly watered.

river that bears its name, and on one of the main routes from The province under Jalalabad is about 80 miles in length Herat to Kandahar, 164 miles from the former, 236 miles by 35 in width, and includes the large district of Laghman, from the latter. The place is enclosed by a huge earthen north of the Kabul river, as well as that on the south, rampart, crowned with towers, and surrounded by a wide which is called Nangnihâr. The former name, properly and deep ditch, which can be flooded, and with a covered Lamghân, the seat of the ancient Lampagæ, is absurdly way. It has the form of a parallelogram, running north

and south, and only two gates. As a military position it occasionally by breezes from Hindu Kush, and the nights is of great importance, but it is excessively unhealthy. are usually cool. Baber says that, even in summer, one Though the place would easily contain 4500 houses, there could not sleep at Kabul without a sheepskin, but this were but 60 habitable when Ferrier was there in 1845, nor seems exaggerated. At Kandahar snow seldom falls on was there much change for the better when Colonel Pelly the plains or lower hills; when it does, it melts at once. passed in 1858. Farrah is a place of great antiquity; At Herat, though 800 feet lower than Kandahar, the certainly, it would seem, the Phra of Isidore of Charax (1st summer climate appears to be more temperate; and, in fact, century), and possibly Prophthasia, though this is more the climate altogether is one of the most agreeable in Asia. probably to be sought in the great ruins of Peshâwarân, In July, Ferrier says he found the heat never to pass farther south, near Lâsh. According to Ferrier, who 98°, and rarely 91° to 93o (Fahr.). These are not low alludes to "ancient chronicles and traditions,” the city on figures, but must be compared with his register at Girishk, the present site within the great rampart was sacked by just given. From May to September the wind blows from the armies of Chinghiz, and the survivors transported to the N.W. with great violence, and this extends across the another position, one hour further north, where there are country to Kandahar. The winter is tolerably mild; snow now many ruins and bricks of immense size (a yard square), melts as it falls, and even on the mountains does not lie with cuneiform letters, showing that site again to be vastly long. Three years out of four at Herat it does not freeze older than Chinghiz. The population came back to the hard enough for the people to store ice; yet it was not southern site after the destruction of the mediæval city by very far from Herat, and could not have been at a greatly Shah Abbas, and the city prospered again till its bloody higher level (at Kafir Kala', near Kassan) that, in 1750, siege by Nadir Shah. Since then, under constant attacks, Ahmed Shah's army, retreating from Persia, is said to have it has declined, and in 1837 the remaining population, lost 18,000 men from cold in a single night. amounting to 6000, was carried off to Kandahar. Such

The summer rains that accompany the S.W. monsoon in are the vicissitudes of a city on this unhappy frontier. India, beating along the southern slopes of the Himalya,

Sabzvâr, the name of which is a corruption of old Persian, travel up the Kabul valley, at least to Laghman, though Isphizar, “horse-pastures,” is another important strategic they are more clearly felt in Bajaur and Panjkora, under point, 93 miles from Herat and 71 miles north of Farrah, the high spurs of the Hindu Kush, and in the eastern in similar decay to the latter. The present fort, which in branches of Safed Koh. Rain also falls at this season at 1845 contained a small bazar and 100 houses, must once the head of Kurram valley. South of this the Sulimani have been the citadel of a large city, now represented by mountains may be taken as the western limit of the extensive suburbs, partly in ruins. Water is conducted from monsoon's action. It is quite unfelt in the rest of Afghanthe Harut by numerous canals, which also protect the istan, in which, as in all the west of Asia, the winter rains approaches.

are the most considerable. The spring rain, though less Zarni is a town in the famous but little known country copious, is more important to agriculture than the winter of Ghur, to the east of Herat, the cradle of a monarchy (the rain, unless where the latter falls in the form of snow. Ghurid dynasty) which supplanted the Ghaznevides, and Speaking generally, the Afghanistan climate is a dry one. ruled over an extensive dominion, including all Afghanistan, The sun shines with splendour for three-fourths of the year, for several generations. Zarni, according to Ferrier, was and the nights are even more beautiful than the days. the old capital of Ghur. Ruins abound; the town itself is Marked characteristics are the great differences of summer small, and enclosed by a wall in decay. It lies in a pleasant and winter temperature and of day and night temperature, valley, through which fine streams wind, said to abound with as well as the extent to which change of climate can be trout. The hills around are covered with trees, luxuriantly attained by slight change of place. As Baber again says festooned with vines. The population in 1845 was about of Kabul, at one day's journey from it you may find a place 1200, among whom Ferrier noticed (a remarkable circum- where snow never falls, and at two hours' journey, a place stance)some Gheberfamilies. The bulk of the people are Sûris where snow almost never melts ! and Taimúnis, apparently both very old Persian tribes. The Afghans vaunt the salubrity and charm of soine

CLIMATE. — The variety of climate is immense, as might local climates, as of the Tobah hills above the Kakar country, be expected. At Kabul, and over all the northern part of and of some of the high valleys of the Safed Koh. the country to the descent at Gandamak, winter is rigorous, The people have by no means that immunity from disease but especially so on the high Arachosian plateau. In which the bright dry character of the climate and the fine Kabul the snow lies for two or three months; the people physical aspect of a large proportion of them might lead us seldom leave their houses, and sleep close to stoves. At to expect. Intermittent and remittent fevers are very Ghazni the snow has been known to lie long beyond the prevalent: bowel complaints are common, and often fatal vernal equinox; the thermometer sinks to 10° and 15° be in the autumn. The universal custom of sleeping on the low zero (Fahr.); and tradition relates the entire destruction house-top in summer promotes rheumatic and neuralgic of the population of Ghazni by snow-storms more than once. affections; and in the Koh Daman of Kabul, which the

At Jalalabad the winter and the climate generally natives regard as having the finest of climates, tiiv mortality assume an Indian character, and the hot weather sometimes from fever and bowel complaint, between July and October, brings the fatal simúm. The summer heat is great every- is great; the immoderate use of fruit predisposing to such where in Afghanistan, but most of all in the districts ailments. Stone is frequent; eye disease is very common, as bordering on the Indus, especially Sewi, on the lower are hæmorrhoidal affections and syphilitic diseases in repulHelmand, and in Seistan. All over Kandahar province sive forms. A peculiar skin disease of syphilitic origin the summer heat is intense, and the simum is not unknown. prevails at Kandahar, and native physicians there are said The hot season throughout the “Khorasan” part of the by Bellew to admit that hardly one person in twenty is freo country is rendered more trying by frequent dust-storms and from the taint in some form. fiery winds; whilst the bare rocky ridges that traverse the NATURAL PRODUCTIONS Minerals. Afghanistan is country, absorbing heat by day and radiating it by night, believed to be rich in minerals, but few are wrought. Some render the summer nights most oppressive. At Girishk, small quantity of gold is taken from the streams in LaghFerrier records the thermometer in August to have reached man and the adjoining districts. Famous silver mines 118°to 120° (Fahr.) in the shade. At Kabul the summer sun were formerly wrought near the head of the Panjshir has much of its Indian power, though the heat is tempered valley, in Hindu Kush. Iron of excellent quality is pro

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