ground of common sense, that beauty must exist in objects exaltation of the function is estimated, or generic if only
independently of our minds. As to the nature of the the degree of conformity of an individual to the appointed
Beautiful, he taught that all beauty resides primarily in the functions of the species is taken into account. Mr Ruskin's
faculties of the mind, intellectual and moral. The beauty wide knowledge and fine ästhetic perception make his
which is spread over the face of visible nature is an emana works replete with valuable suggestions, though he appears
tion from this spiritual beauty, and is beautiful because it wanting in scientific accuracy, and lacks, as Mr Mill has
symbolises and expresses it. Thus the beauty of a plant pointed out, all appreciation of the explanatory power of
resides in its perfection for its end, as an expression of the association with respect to the ideal elements of typical
wisdom of its Creator. Reid's theory of beauty is thus beauty.
purely spiritual.

Of the more analytic writers on the effects of the Beautiful, The analy. Sir W. The celebrated Lectures on Metaphysics of Sir W. Hamilton Addison deserves a passing mention, less, however, for the tical theur

ists. Hamilton. do not, unfortunately, contain more than a slight prelimin- scientific precision of his definitions, than for the charm

Addison. ary sketch of the writer's theory of the emotional activities. of his style. His Essays on the Imagination, contriHe defines pleasure, following very closely the theory of buted to the Spectator, are admirable specimens of popular Aristotle, as “a reflex of the spontaneous and unimpeded æsthetic reflection. Addison means by the pleasures of imexertion of a power of whose energy we are conscious” agination those which arise originally from sight, and he (vol. ii. p. 440). And, in perfect agreement with this con divides them into two classes—(1.) Primary pleasures, which ception, he divides the various feelings according to the entirely proceed from objects before our eyes; and (2.) faculties or powers, bodily or mental, of which they are the Secondary pleasures, flowing from ideas of visible objects. . concomitants. In the scheme thus faintly shadowed forth, The original sources of pleasure in visible objects are greatthe sentiments of Taste are regarded as subserving both ness, novelty, and beauty. This, it may be said, is a valuthe subsidiary and the elaborative faculties in cognition, in able distinction, as pointing to the plurality of sources in other words, the Imagination and the Understanding. The the æsthetic impression, but the threefold division is only a activity of the former corresponds to the element of variety very rough tentative, and destitute of all logical value, in the beautiful object, while that of the latter is concerned novelty of impression being always a condition of beauty. with its unity. A beautiful thing is accordingly defined The secondary pleasures, he rightly remarks, are rendered “ as one whose form occupies the Imagination and Under- far more extended than the original by the addition of the standing in a free and full, and, consequently, in an agree proper enjoyment of resemblance, which is at the basis of able activity" (p. 512). In this way, the writer conceives, all mimicry and wit. Addison recognises, too, the effects he comprehends all pre-existing definitions of beauty. He of association in the suggestion of whole scenes, and their explicitly excludes all other varieties of pleasure, such as accompaniments by some single circumstance. He has the sensuous, from the proper gratification of beauty. The some curious hints as to the physiological seat of these æsthetic sentiment is thus regarded as unique and not mental processes, and seeks, somewhat naïvely, to connect resolvable into simpler feelings. Similarly, he denies any these pleasures with teleological considerations. proper attribute of beauty to fitness. The essence of the In the Elements of Criticism of Lord Kaimes, another Lord sentiment of sublimity he finds, much in the same way as attempt is made to affiliate æsthetic phenomena to simpler Kaimes. Kant, in a mingled pleasure and pain; “ of pleasure in the pleasures of experience. Beauty and ugliness are simply consciousness of the strong energy, of pain in the conscious- the pleasant and the unpleasant in the higher senses of ness that this energy is vain.” He recognises three forms sight and hearing. By “higher” he means more intelof Sublimity: those of Extension or space, of Protension lectual, and he conceives these two senses to be placed or time, and of Intension or power. Finally, he thinks midway between the lower senses and the understanding. that the Picturesque differs from the Beautiful in appealing He appears to admit no more general feature in beautiful simply to the imagination. A picturesque object is one objects than this pleasurable quality. Like Hutcheson, he whose parts are so palpably unconnected that the under- divides beauty into intrinsic and relative, but understands

standing is not stimulated to the perception of unity. by the latter ideas of fitness and utility, which were Ruskin.

like interpretation of beauty, as spiritual and excluded from the Beautiful by Hutcheson. He illustrates typical of divine attributes, has been given by Mr Ruskin the English tendency to connect mental processes with in the second volume of his Modern Painters. This part of physiological conditions, by referring the main elements of his work, bearing the title “Of Ideas of Beauty," has a very the feeling of sublimity to the effect of height in objects in systematic appearance, but is in fact a singularly desultory compelling the spectator to stand on tiptoe, by which the series of æsthetic ideas put into a very charming language, chest is expanded and muscular movements produced which and coloured by strong emotion. Mr Ruskin distinguishes give rise to the peculiar emotion. between the theoretic faculty concerned in the moral per Passing by the name of Sir Joshua Reynolds, whose Hogarth. ception ard appreciation of ideas of beauty and the theory of beauty closely resembles that of Père Buffier, we imaginative or artistic faculty, which is employed in re come to the speculations of another artist and painter, garding in a certain way and combining the ideas received Hogarth. He discusses in his Analysis of Beauty all the from external nature. The former, he thinks, is wrongly elements of visible beauty, both form and colour, often named the æsthetic faculty, as though it were a mere manifesting great speculative skill, and always showing a operation of sense. The object of the faculty is beauty, wide and accurate knowledge of art. He finds altogether which Mr Ruskin divides into typical and vital beauty. six elements in beauty, namely-(1.) Fitness of the parts The former is the external quality of bodies that typifies to some design, as of the limbs for support and movement; some divine attribute. The latter consists in “the appearance (2.) Variety in as many ways as possible, thus in form, of felicitous fulfilment of function in living things.” The length, and direction of line, shape, and magnitude of forms of typical beauty are—(1.) Infinity, the type of the figure, &c.; (3.) Uniformity, regularity, or symmetry, which divine incomprehensibility; 2. Unity, the type of the is only beautiful when it helps to preserve the character divine comprehensiveness; (3.) Repose, the type of the of fitness ; (4.) Simplicity or distinctness, which gives divine permanence; (4.) Symmetry, the type of the divine pleasure not in itself, but through its enabling the eye to justice; (5.) Purity, the type of the divine energy; and enjoy variety with ease; (5.) Intricacy, which provides (6.) Moderation, the type of government by law.Vital employment for our active energies, ever eager for pursuit, beauty, again, is regarded as relative when the degree of and leads the eye “a wanton kind of chase"; (6.) Quantity

A very


or magnitude, which draws our attention, and produces | incomplete. This is especially applicable to music, where
admiration and awe. The beauty of proportion he very the delight of mere sensation is perhaps most conspicuous.
acutely resolves into the needs of fitness. Hogarth applies He fails, too, to see that in the emotional harmony of the
these principles to the determination of degrees of beauty ideas, which, according to his view, make up an impression
in lines, and figures, and compositions of forms. Among of beauty, there is a distinct source of pleasure over and
lines he singles out for special honour the serpentine above that supplied by the simple feeling and by the ideas
(formed by drawing a line once round from the base to the themselves.
apex of a long slender cone) as the line of grace or beauty Jeffrey's Essay on Beauty is little more than a modifica- Jeffrey.
par excellence.

Its superiority he places in its many tion of Alison's views. He defines the sense of beauty as
varieties of direction or curvature, though he adds that consisting in the suggestion of agreeable and interesting
more suddenly curving lines displease by their grossness, sensations previously experienced by means of our various
while straighter lines appear lean and poor. In this last pleasurable sensibilities. He thus retains the necessity of
remark Hogarth tacitly allows another principle in graceful ideal suggestion, but at the same time discards the sup-
line, namely, gentleness, as opposed to suddenness, of posed requirement of a train of ideas. Jeffrey distinctly
change in direction, though he does not give it distinct saw that this theory excludes the hypothesis of an inde-
recognition in his theory, as Burke did. Hogarth’s opinions pendent beauty inherent in objects. He fails as completely
are of great value as a set off against the extreme views of as Alison to disprove the existence of a sensuous or organic
Alison and the association school, since he distinctly attri- beautiful, and, like him, is avowedly concerned to show
butes a great part of the effects of beauty in form, as in the presence of some one, and only one, determining prin-
colour, to the satisfaction of primitive susceptibilities of ciple in all forms of the Beautiful.
the mind, though he had not the requisite psychological D. Stewart's chief merit in the aesthetic discussions, con- Dugald
knowledge to reduce them to their simplest expression. In tained in his Philosophical Essays, consists in pointing out Stewart,
his remarks on intricacy he shows clearly enough that he this unwarranted assumption of some single quality (other
understood the pleasures of movement to be involved in all than that of producing a certain refined pleasure) running
visual perception of form.

through all beautiful objects, and constituting the essence Burke's speculations on the Beautiful, in his Philosophical of beauty. He shows very ingeniously how the successive Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and transitions and generalisations in the meaning of the term Beautiful, are curious as introducing physiological con- beauty may have arisen. He thinks it must originally have siderations into the explanation of the feelings of beauty. connoted the pleasure of colour, which he recognises as They illustrate, moreover, the tendency of English writers primitive. His criticisms on the one-sided schemes of to treat the problem as a psychological one. He finds the other writers, as Burke and Alison, are very able, though elements of beauty to be-(1.) Smallness of size; (2.) he himself hardly attempts any complete theory of beauty. Smoothness of surface; (3.) Gradual variation of direction His conception of the Sublime, suggested by the etymology of outline, by which he means gentle curves; (4.) Delicacy, of the word, renders prominent the element of height in or the appearance of fragility; (5.) Brightness, purity, and objects, which he conceives as an upward direction of softness of colour. The Sublime he resolves, not very motion, and which operates on the mind as an exhibition carefully, into astonishment, which he thinks always con of power, namely, triumph over gravity. tains an element of terror. Thus “infinity has a ten Of the association psychologists James Mill did little Professor dency to fill the mind with a delightful horror.” Burke more towards the analysis of the sentiments of beauty than Bain. seeks what he calls “ efficient causes” for these phenomena re-state Alison's doctrine. On the other hand, Professor in certain affections of the nerves of sight, which he com- Bain, in his treatise The Emotions and the Will, carries pares with the operations of taste, smell, and touch. this examination considerably further. He asserts with Terror produces " an unnatural tension and certain violent Stewart that no one generalisation will comprehend all emotions of the nerves," hence any objects of sight which pro- varieties of beautiful objects. He thinks, however, that duce this tension awaken the feeling of the Sublime, which the æsthetic emotions, those involved in the fine arts, may is a kind of terror. Beautiful objects affect the nerves of be roughly circumscribed and marked off from other modes sight just as sm oth surfaces the nerves of touch, sweet of enjoyment by means of three characteristics—(1.) Their tastes and odours the corresponding nerve fibres, namely, not serving to keep up existence, but being gratifications by relaxing them, and so producing a soothing effect on sought for themselves only; (2.) Their purity from all the mind. The arbitrariness and narrowness of this theory, repulsive ingredients; (3.) Their eminently sympathetic looked at as a complete explanation of beauty, cannot well or sharable nature in contrast to the exclusive pleasures escape the reader's attention.

of the individual in eating, &c. The pleasures of art are Alison, in his well-known Essays on the Nature and divided, according to Mr Bain's general plan of the mind, Principles of Taste, proceeds on an exactly opposite into (1.) The elements of sensation-sights and sounds; (2.) method to that of Hogarth and Burke. He considers The extension of these by intellectual revival-ideal sugand seeks to analyse the mental process which goes on gestions of muscular impression, touch, odour, and other when we experience the emotion of beauty or sublimity. pleasurable sensations; (3.) The revival, in ideal form also, He finds that this consists in a peculiar operation of the of pleasurable emotions, as tenderness and power, and in imagination, namely, the flow of a train of ideas through a softened measure of emotions painful in reality, as fear; the mind, which ideas are not arbitrarily determined, but (4.) The immediate gratification, that is in actual form, of always correspond to some simple affection or emotion (as certain wide emotional susceptibilities reaching beyond art, cheerfulness, sadness, awe), awakened by the object. He namely, the elating effect of all change of impression under thus makes association the sole source of the Beautiful, and the forms of artistic contrast and variety; and, secondly, denies any such attribute to the simple impressions of the the peculiar delight springing from harmony among imsenses. His exposition, which is very extensive, contains pressions and feelings, under its several æsthetic aspects, many ingenious and valuable contributions to the ideal or musical harmony and melody, proportion, &c. The details association side of æsthetic effects, both of nature and of art; in Mr Bain's exposition are rich and varied in relation but his total exclusion of delight (by which name he dis- to the psychology of the subject. He finds the effect of tinguishes æsthetic pleasure) from the immediate effects of sublimity in the manifestation of superior power in its colour, visible form, and tone, makes his theory appear very highest degrees, which manifestation excites a sympathetio


Herbert špencer.

elation in the beholder. The Ludicrous, again, is defined | very ingenious, even if not very definite, mode of explain-
by Mr Bain, improving on Aristotle and Hobbes, as the ing many of the mysterivus effects of tone, and even of
degradation of something possessing dignity in circum-colour.
stances that excite no other strong emotion. The pleasure Among works on the history of æsthetic doctrines, the
accompanying the impression may be referred either to the student may be referred to the following :-
elation of a sense of power or superiority ideally or sym-

In German literature, which contains the most complete histories, pathetically excited, or to a sense of freedom from restraint, Max Schasler's Kritische Geschichte der Æsthetik, forming the first both of which have in common the element of a joyous two volumes of an æsthetic system, is the fullest. Still he hardly rebound from pressure. Thus it will be seen that Professor does justice to English writers, there being no mention of Alison Bain recognises no new mental principle in æsthetic effects, and recent thinkers. His stand-point is only definable as a new

modification of Hegelianism. Zimmermann's Geschichte der Æsthetik but regards them as peculiar combinations and transforma is also to be recommended. Lotze's Geschichte der Esthetik in Deutschtions, according to known psychological laws, of other and land is a highly critical résumé of German systems, characterised by simpler feelings.

a good deal of caution, and a desire to mediate between opposing An interesting turn has been given to the psychology of views, and if not very definite in its result, very appreciative and

suggestive of the many-sidedness of the subject. In French, aesthetics by Mr Herbert Spencer. In some of his essays, Lévêque's work, La Science du Beau, contains a very fair account of as the one entitled " The Origin and Function of Music,” the most conspicuous systems, ancient and nuodern. In our own and more fully in the concluding chapter of his Psychology literature, numerous references to other systems are to be found in

the essays of Alison ; and Jeffrey attempts a brief historical survey (second edition), on the Æsthetic Sentiments, he offers a

of the doctrines of beauty in his article on the subject. Dugald new theory of the genesis of the pleasures of beauty and Stewart's essays mostly fall into critical examination of the chief art, based on his doctrine of evolution. He takes up theories of beauty. Finally, Professor Bain, in his Compendium of Schiller's idea of the connection between æsthetic activity Mental and Moral Science, supplies a brief but careful account of

(J. s.) and play, only he deals with this latter not as an ideal most of the known theories of the Beautiful. tendency, but as a phenomenal reality, seeking to make it AETION, a painter, whose famous picture of the marthe actual starting point in the order of evolution of riage of Roxana and Alexander was exhibited at the æsthetic action. Play or sport is defined as the superfluous Olympic games, and gained Aëtion so much reputation and useless exercise of faculties that have been quiescent that the president of the games gave him his daughter in for a time, and have in this way become so ready to dis- marriage. The picture is minutely described by Lucian. charge as to relieve themselves by simulated actions. Aëtion appears from that author to have flourished in the Æsthetic activities yield to the higher powers of percep- times of Hadrian and the Antonines. tion and emotion the substituted exercise which play AETIUS, a Roman general of the closing period of the yields to the lower impulses, agreeing with play in not western empire, born at Dorostolus in Moesia, late in the directly subserving any processes conducive to life, but 4th century. While detained for some time as a hostage being gratifications sought for themselves only. This in the camp of Rhuas, king of the Huns, he acquired an point of affinity between the two classes of pleasures is a influence with the barbarians that was afterwards of much valuable addition to æsthetic theory, and helps one to advantage to himself, though the same cannot be said of it understand how the artistic impulse first arose. At the as regards the empire. He led into Italy an army of same time it is doubtful how far all present æsthetic 60,000 Huns, which he employed first to support the usurppleasures, as the passive enjoyments of colour and tone, can ing Emperor John, and, on the death of the latter, to enforce be interpreted as substituted activities in Mr Spencer's his claim to the supreme command of the army in Gaul

They seem rather to be original and instinctive upon Placidia, the empress-mother and regent for Valenmodes of gratification not dependent on any previous exer tinian III. Afterwards, when he incurred the disfavour cises of life-function, except so far as the structure and of Placidia for the death of his rival Boniface, he again functions of the senses as a whole may be viewed as the employed an army of Huns to compel her to reinstate him product of multitudinous life-processes in animal evolu- in his former position. In Gaul he won his military repution. Mr Spencer, moreover, forms a hierarchy of æsthetic tation, upholding for nearly twenty years, by combined pleasures, the standard of height being either the number policy and daring, the falling fortunes of the western of powers duly exercised, or what comes to the same empire. His greatest victory was that of Chalons-sur-Marne thing, the degree of complexity of the emotional faculty (20th Sept. 451), in which he utterly routed Attila and the thus exercised. The first, and lowest class of pleasures, Huns—the number slain on both sides being, according to are those of simple sensation, as tone and colour, which one computation, 300,000, though this is obviously an are partly organic and partly the results of association. exaggeration. This was the last triumph of the empire. The second class are the pleasures of perception, as em Three years later (454) Aëtius presented himself at court ployed upon the combination of colours, &c. The highest to claiia the emperor's daughter in marriage for his son order of pleasures are those of the æsthetic sentiments Gaudentius; but Valentinian, suspecting him of designs proper, consisting of the multitudinous emotions ideally upon the crown, slew him with his own hand. excited by æsthetic objects, natural and artistic. Among AETIUS, surnamed “the Atheist,” founder of an exthese vaguely and partially revived emotions Mr Spencer treme sect of the Arians, was a native of Cæle-Syria. reckons not only those of the individual, but also many of After working for some time as a coppersmith, he became the constant feelings of the race. Thus he would attri a travelling doctor, and displayed great skill in disputations bule the vagueness and apparent depth of musical emotion on medical subjects; but his controversial power soon to associations with vocal tones, built up during the course found a wider field for its exercise in the great theological

This graduated scheme is evidently dictated question of the time. He studied successively under the by the assumption that the higher the stage of evolution, Arians, Paulinus, bishop of Antioch, Athanasius, bishop of the higher the pleasure. Yet Mr Spencer admits that this Anazarbus, and the presbyter Antonius of Tarsus. In 350 measure of æsthetic value will not suffice alone, and he he was ordained a deacon by Leontius of Antioch, but was adds, that the most perfect form of asthetic gratification shortly afterwards forced by the orthodox party to leave is realised when sensation, perception, and emotion, are that town. At the first synod of Sirmium, he won a present in fullest and most pleasurable action. Mr Spen- dialectic victory over the homoiousian bishops Basilius and cer's supposition, that much of the pleasure of æsthetic Eustathius, who sought in consequence to stir up against emotion is referrible to transmitted experience, offers a him the enmity of Cæsar Gallus. In 356 he went to


of vast ages.

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Alexandria with Eunomius in crder to uvccate Arianism, | Five hundred and fifty of the chief men were barbarously but he was banished by Constantius. Julian the apostate assassinated by the partisans of Rome solely on the susrecalled him from exile, bestowed upon him an estate in picion of favouring the designs of Perseus. The Ætolians Lesbos, and retained him for a time at his court in Con- appeared before Æmilius Paullus in mourning habits, and stantinople. Being consecrated a bishop, he used his office made loud complaints of such inhuman treatment, but in the interests of Arianism by creating other bishops of could obtain no redress; on the contrary, ten commisthat party. At the accession of Valens (364) he retired to sioners, who had been sent by the senate to settle the his estate at Lesbos, but soon returned to Constantinople, affairs of Greece, enacted a decree, declaring that those who where he died in 367. The Anoman sect of the Arians, were killed had suffered justly, since it appeared to them of whom he was the leader, are sometimes called after him that they had favoured the Macedonian party. From this Aëtians. His work De Fide has been preserved in connec time those only were raised to the chief honours and tion with a refutation written by Epiphanius.

employments in the Ætolian republic who were known to AETIUS, a Greek physician, born at Amida in Meso- prefer the interest of Rome to that of their country, and potamia, who lived at the end of the 5th or the beginning thus all the magistrates of Ætolia became the creatures of the 6th century. Of his personal history little is known, and mere tools of the Roman senate. In this state of except that he studied at Alexandria, and was physician to servile subjection they continued till the destruction of the court at Constantinople with the title comes obsequii. Corinth and the dissolution of the Achæan league, when TIe wrote a work entitled Bißría latpikà ‘Ekkaideka, which Ætolia, with the other free states of Greece, was reduced is mainly a compilation from the works of previous authors. to a Roman province, commonly called the province of Eight books of this were issued from the Aldine press at Achaia. In this state, with little alteration, Ætolia conVenice in 1534; various other parts have been frequently tinued under the emperors till the reign of Constantine the published ; and a Latin translation of the whole, by Cor- Great, who, in his new partition of the provinces of the narius, appeared at Basle in 1542.

empire, divided the western parts of Greece from the rest, ÆTNA. See ETNA.

calling them New Epirus, and subjecting the whole country ÆTOLIA, a country of ancient Greece, bounded on the to the præfectus prætorio for Illyricum. Under the succesN. by Epirus and Thessaly, on the E. by the provinces of sors of Constantine Greece was parcelled out into several Doris and Locris, on the s. by the Gulf of Corinth, and principalities, especially after the taking of Constantinople separated on the W. from Acarnania by the river Achelous. by the western princes. About the beginning of the 13th The part which lay westward of the river Evenus, and century Theodorus Angelus, a noble Grecian of the imsouth of a line joining Thermum and Stratus in Acar- perial family, seized on Ætolia and Epirus. The former nania, was called old Ætolia, the rest of the country new he left to Michael his son, who maintained it against or acquired Ætolia. The country is in general mountainous Michael Palæologus, the first emperor of the Greeks, after and woody, but along the coast from the Achelous to the the expulsion of the Latins. Charles, the last prince of Evenus, and northward to Mount Aracynthus, is a plain this family, dying in 1430 without lawful issue, bequeathed of great fertility; while another extensive and fertile plain Ætolia to his brother's son, named also Charles; and stretches north from this mountain along the east bank of Acarnania to his natural sons Memnon, Turnus, and Herthe Achelous as far as the northern limit of old Ætolia. cules. But great disputes arising about this division, The Ætolians were a restless and turbulent people, Amurath II., after the reduction of Thessalonica, laid hold strangers to friendship or principles of honour, and they of so favourable an opportunity, and expelled all the conwere consequently regarded by the other states of Greece tending heirs in 1432. The Mahometans were afteras outlaws and public robbers. On the other hand, they wards dispossessed of this country by the famous prince of were bold and enterprising in war, undaunted in the Epirus, George Castriot, commonly called Scanderbeg, who greatest dangers, and jealous defenders of their liberties. with a small army opposed the whole power of the Ottoman They distinguished themselves above all the other nations empire, and was victorious in twenty-two pitched battles. of Greece in opposing the ambitious designs of the Mace- That hero at his death left great part of Ætolia to the donian princes, who, after having reduced most of the Venetians; but they not being able to make head against other states, were forced to grant them a peace upon very such a mighty power, the whole country was soon reduced by honourable terms. The constitution of the Ætolian league Mahommed II. It is now included in the kingdom of Greece. was copied from that of the Achæans, and with a view AFANASIEF, ALEKSANDR NIKOLAEVICH, a Russian to form, as it were, a counter alliance. The Cleomenic scholar, distinguished for his researches in Slavonic litera. war, and that of the allies, called the Social War, were ture and archaeology, was born about 1825. He contrikindled by the Ætolians with the express purpose of buted inany valuable articles to the serial literature of humbling the Achans. In the latter they held out, with his country, but his reputation rests chiefly on two works the assistance only of the Eleans and Lacedemonians, for of more permanent interest. The first was an extensive the space of three years, against the united forces of collection, in eight parts, of Russian Popular Stories ; Achaia and Macedon, but were obliged at last to purchase the other a treatise, in three volumes, on the Poetical a peace by yielding up to Philip all Acarnania. În order views of the Old Slavonians about Nature, completed to regain this province they entered into an alliance with just before the author's death, which occurred in the Rome against Philip, and proved of great service to the autumn of 1871. Romans in their war with him; but being dissatisfied with AFER, DOMITIUS, orator, born at Nismes, flourished the terms of peace granted by Flaminius, they made war under Tiberius and the three succeeding emperors. Quinupon the Romans themselves. They were speedily over- tilian makes frequent mention of him, and commends his come, and only obtained peace on very humiliating terms. pleadings. But he disgraced his talents by acting as public After the conquest of Macedon by Æmilius Paullus the accuser in behalf of the emperors against some of the most Ætolians were reduced to a much worse condition; for not distinguished personages in Rome. Quintilian, in his only those among them who had openly declared for youth, assiduously cultivated the friendship of Domitius. Perseus, but those who were only suspected to have secretly He tells us that his pleadings were superior in point of favoured him, were sent to Rome to clear themselves eloquence to any he had ever heard, and that there were before the senate. There they were detained, and never public collections of his witty sayings (dicta), some of afterwards permitted to return to their native country. I which he quotes. He also mentions two books of his, Ona

Witnesses. Domitius erected a statue in honour of Cali- eighteenth chapter of Leviticus. Formerly by law in Eng. gula, on which there was an inscription to the effect that land, marriages within the degrees of affinity were not this prince was a second time consul at the age of 27. absolutely null, but they were liable to be annulled by This he intended as an encomium; but Caligula regarding ecclesiastical process during the lives of both parties; in it as a sarcasm upon his youth and his infringement of the other words, the incapacity was only a canonical, not a civil, laws, raised a process against him, and pleaded himself in disability. By an Act passed in 1835 (5 and 6 Will. person. Domitius, instead of making a defence, repeated IV. c. 54), all marriages of this kind not disputed before part of the emperor's speech with the highest marks of the passing of the Act are declared absolutely valid, while admiration; after which he fell upon his knees, begged all subsequent to it are declared null. This renders null pardon, and declared that he dreaded Caligula's eloquence in England, and not merely voidable, a marriage with a more than his imperial power. This piece of flattery deceased wife's sister or niece. The Act does not extend succeeded so well, that the emperor not only pardoned to Scotland; but it was made quite clear by a leading him, but raised him to the consulship. Afer died in the decision in 1861 (Fenton v. Livingston) that, as "the reign of Nero, A.D. 60.

degrees forbidden in consanguinity are also forbidden in AFFIDAVIT means a solemn assurance of a matter of affinity,” the marriage of a sister-in-law with a brother-infact known to the person who states it, and attested as his law is absolutely null in that country. Nor can a man statement by some person in authority. Evidence is chiefly contract a marriage with his wife's sister so as to be valid taken by means of affidavits in the practice of the Court in Great Britain, by celebrating his marriage with her in a of Chancery in England. By 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 42, country where such marriages are lawful (Brook v. Brook, s. 42, provision is made for appointing commissioners in 9 H. L. Cases, 193). Scotland and Ireland to take affidavits. The term is AFFINITY, CHEMICAL, the property or relation in virtue generally applied to a statement certified by a justice of of which dissimilar substances are capable of entering into peace or other magistrate. Affidavits are sometimes neces chemical combination with each other. Substances that sary as certificates that certain formalities have been duly are so related combine always in fixed and definite proporand legally performed. They are extensively used in the tions; the resulting compound differs from its components practice of bankruptcy, and in the administration of the in its physical properties, with the exception that its weight revenue. At one time they were invariably taken on oath, is exactly the sum of their weights; and the combination but this practice has been much narrowed. Quakers, Mora- is always accompanied with the evolution of heat. In these vians, and Separatists have long been privileged in all cases respects it differs from a mere mechanical mixture; in the to make a solemn declaration or affirmation; and now, if any latter there is contact without combination, and its propersons called as witnesses, or required or desiring to make perties are a mean or average of those of the substances an affidavit or deposition, shall refuse or be unwilling from that compose it. That effect may be given to chemical alleged conscientious motives to be sworn, the court or affinity, the substances must be placed in contact; but justice may, on being satisfied of the sincerity of such mere contact is often insufficient, and combination only objection, allow such person to make a solemn affirmation takes place on the application of heat, light, electric agency, or declaration—by 17 and 18 Vict. c. 125, s. 20, extended &c., or through the interposition of some foreign substance. to all counties in England, Ireland, and Scotland by sub- Generally speaking, the affinity is less between substances sequent statutes. An Act of 1835 (5 and 6 Will. IV. that closely resemble each other than between those whose c. 62) substituted declarations for oaths in certain cases; properties are altogether dissimilar. The term elective and this statute is extensively observed. The same Act affinity, now generally disused, has been employed to indiprohibited justices of peace from administering oaths in any cate the greater affinity which a substance, when brought matter in which they had not jurisdiction as judges, except into contact with other substances, often has for one in when an oath was specially authorised by statute, as in the preference to another. Advantage is frequently taken of bankrupt law, and excepting criminal inquiries, Parliamen- this greater affinity to decompose compound substances. tary proceedings, and instances where oaths are required to For a full treatment of chemical affinity and combination, give validity to documents abroad. But justices are per see CHEMISTRY. mitted to take affidavits in any matter by declaration, and AFFIRMATION. See AFFIDAVIT. a person making a false affidavit in this way is liable to AFFRE, DENIS AUGUSTE, Archbishop of Paris, was punishment. Affidavits may be made abroad before any born at St Rome, in the department of Tarn, on the 27th British ambassador, envoy, minister, chargé d'affaires, secre- Sept. 1793. When fourteen years of age, having extary of embassy or legation, consul, or consular agent (18 pressed his desire to enter the church, he became a student and 19 Vict. c. 42, s. 1).

at the seminary of St Sulpice, of which his maternal uncle, AFFINITY, in Law, as distinguished from consan Denis Boyer, was director. His studies being completed guinity, is applied to the relation which each party to a before he had reached the age necessary for ordination, he marriage, the husband and the wife, bears to the kindred was occupied for some time as professor of philosophy in of the other. The marriage having made them one person, the seminary at Nantes. He was ordained a priest in 1818, the blood relations of each are held as related by affinity in and held his first charge in connection with the church of the same degree to the one spouse as by consanguinity to St Sulpice. After filling a number of ecclesiastical offices, the other. But the relation is only with the married parties he was elevated to the Archbishopric of Paris in 1840. themselves, and does not bring those in affinity with them His tenure of this office, though it was marked by great in affinity with each other; so a wife's sister has no affinity zeal and faithfulness, will be chiefly remembered by its to her husband's brother. The subject is chiefly important tragic close. During the insurrection of 1848 the archfrom the matrimonial prohibitions by which the canon law bishop was led to believe that by his personal interference has restricted relations by affinity. Taking the table of peace might be restored between the soldiery and the degrees within which marriage is prohibited on account of insurgents. He accordingly applied to General Cavaignac, consanguinity, the rule has been thus extended to affinity, so who warned him of the risk he incurred. “My life,” the that wherever relationship to a man himself would be a bar archbishop answered, “is of little importance.” Soon to marriage, relationship to his deceased wife will be the afterwards, the firing having ceased at his request, he same bar, and vice versa on the husband's decease. This appeared on the barricade at the entrance to the Faubourg St rule has been founded chiefly on interpretations of the Antoine, accompanied by M. Albert, of the national guard,

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