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S.W. corner were the necessaries (V), also built, as usual, | eastern transept, the work of Abbot John of Kent, 1220– above the swiftly flowing stream. The monks' dormitory 1247, and to the tower (D), added not long before the diswas in its usual position above the chapter-house, to the solution by Abbot Huby, 1494–1526, in a very unusual south of the transept. As peculiarities of arrangement position at the northern end of the north transept. The may be noticed the position of the kitchen (Q), between the abbot's house, the largest and most remarkable example of refectory and calefactory, and of the infirmary (W) (unless this class of buildings in the kingdom, stands south to there is some error in its designation) above the river to the east of the church and cloister, from which it is divided
by the kitchen court(K), surrounded by the ordinary domestic offices. A considerable portion of this house was erected on arches over the Skell. The size and character of this house, probably, at the time of its erection, the most spacious house of a subject in the kingdom, not a castle, bespeaks the wide departure of the Cistercian order from the stern simplicity of the original foundation. The hall (2) was one of the most spacious and magnificent apartments in medieval times, measuring 170 feet by 70 feet. Like the hall in the castle at Winchester, and Westminster Hall, as originally built, it was divided by 18 pillars and arches, with 3 aisles. Among other apartments, for the designation of which we must refer to the ground-plan, was a domestic oratory or chapel, 464 feet by 23 feet, and a kitchen (7), 50 feet by 38 feet. The whole arrangements and character of the building bespeak the rich and powerful feudal lord, not the humble father of a body of hardworking brethren, bound by vows to a life of poverty and self-denying toil. In the words of Dean Milman, " the superior, once a man bowed to the earth with humility, care-worn, pale, emaciated, with a coarse habit bound with a cord, with naked feet, had become an abbot on his curvetting palfrey, in rich attire, with his silver cross before him, travelling to take his place amid the lordliest of the realm."-(Lat. Christ., vol. ii. p. 330.)
The buildings of the Austin Canons or Black Canons Black or (so called from the colour of their habit) present few Austin distinctive peculiarities. This order had its first seat in Canons. England at Colchester, where a house for Austin Canons was founded about A.D. 1105, and it very soon spread widely. As an order of regular clergy, holding a middle position between monks and secular canons, almost resembling a community of parish priests living under rule, they adopted naves of great length to accommodate large congregations. The choir is usually long, and is sometimes, as at Llanthony and Christ Church (Twynham), shut off from the aisles, or, as at Bolton, Kirkham, &c., is destitute of aisles altogether. The nave in the northern houses, not unfrequently, had only a north aisle, as at Bolton, Brinkburn, and Lanercost. The arrangement of the monastic buildings followed the ordinary type. The prior's lodge was almost invariably attached to the S.W. angle of the nave. The annexed plan of the Abbey of St Augustine's at Bristol, now the cathedral church of Bristol.
Ground Plan of Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire. A Xare of the Church. N. Cellar.
2. Great Hall. E Sacristy. R. Offices
3. Refectory. F. Choir. S. Refectory.
4. Buttery. G. Chapel of Nino T. Buttery
5. Storehouse. Altars.
U. Cellars and Store 6. Chapel H. Cloister,
7. Kitchen, L Chapter-House. V. Necessary.
8. Ashpit. K. Base Court. W. Infirmary ?)
9. Yard. L. Calefactory. X. Guest Houses.
10. Kitchen Tank. M. Water Course. Y. Mill Bridge. the west, adjoining the guest-houses (XX). We may also call attention to the greatly lengthened choir, commenced by Abbot John of York, 1203-1211, and carried on by his successor, terminating, like Durham Cathedral, in an
St Augustine's Abbey, Bristol (Bristol Cathedral).
S. Friars' Lodging.
T. King's Hall
V. Guest House.
W. Abbey Gateway.
P. Abbot's Gateway. X. Barns, Stables, so
S. Little Cloister
that city, shows the arrangement of the buildings, which the plan of that of Clermont, from Viollet le Duc. The Clermont.
house of Decorated date.
B. Monks' Choir.
C. Prior's Garden
D. Great Cloister,
G. Prior's Lodge diocese of Laon. The order spread dely. Even in the
H. Dovecot founder's lifetime it possessed houses in Syria and Pales
I. Cells. tine. It long maintained its rigid austerity, till in the
K. Chapel of Pond course of years wealth impaired its discipline, and its
gibaud. members sank into indolence and luxury. The Premon
L. Sacristy. stratensians were brought to England shortly after A.D.
M. Chapel 1140, and were first settled at Newhouse, in Lincolnshire,
N. Stables. near the Humber. The ground-plan of Easby Abbey,
R. Watch Towers
V. Kitchen. the plan adopted by the Austin canons in their northern
X. Refectory. abbeys, and has only one aisle to the nave—that to the
a.Cell of Sub-prior.
b. Garden of do.
Carthusian Monastery of Clermont.
refectory (X)—these buildings occupying their normal Carthusian.
The Carthusian order, on its establishment by St Bruno, position—and the chapel of Pontgibaud (K). The kitchen about A.D. 1084, developed a greatly modified form and with its offices (V) lies behind the refectory, accessible arrangement of a monastic institution. The principle of | from the outer court without entering the cloister. To this order, which combined the cænobitic with the solitary | the north of the church, beyond the sacristy (L), and the life, demanded the erection of buildings on a novel plan. side chapels (M), we find the cell of the sub-prior (a), with l'his plan, which was first adopted by St Bruno and his its garden. The lodgings of the prior (G) occupy the twelve companions at the original institution at Chartreux, i centre of the outer court, immediately in front of the west near Grenoble, was maintained in all the Carthusian door of the church, and face the gateway of the convent (O). establishments throughout Europe, even after the ascetic A small raised court with a fountain (C) is before it. This severity of the order had been to some extent relaxed, and outer court also contains the guest-chambers (P), the the primitive simplicity of their buildings had been ex- stables, and lodgings of the lay brothers (N), the barns changed for the magnificence of decoration which charac- and granaries (Q), the dovecot (H), and the bakehouse (T). Gerises such foundations as the Certosas of Pavia and At (Ž) is the prison. (In this outer court, in all the earlier Florence. According to the rule of St Bruno, all the foundations, as at Witham, there was a smaller church in inembers of a Carthusian brotherhood lived in the most addition to the larger church of the monks.) The outer and absolute solitude and silence. Each occupiel a small inner court are connected by a long passage (F), wide detached cottage, standing by itself in a small garden enough to admit a cart laden with wood to supply the surrounded by high walls and connected by a common cells of the brethren with fuel. The number of cells surcorridor or cloister. In these cottages or cells a Carthusian rounding the great cloister is 18. They are all arranged monk passed his time in the strictest asceticism, only on a uniform plan. Each little dwelling contains three leaving his solitary dwelling to attend the services of the rooins : a sitting-room (C), warmed with a stove in winter; Church, except on certain days when the brotherhood a sleeping-room (D), furnished with a bed, a table, a bench, assembled in the refectory.
and a bookcase; and a closet (E). Between the cell and The peculiarity of the arrangements of a Carthusian the cloister gallery (A) is a passage or corridor (B), cutting monastery, or charter-house, as it was called in England, off the inmate of the cell from all sound or movement from a corruption of the French chartreur, is exhibited in which might interrupt his meditations. The superior had
F. Covered Walk.
'lermont free access to this corridor, and through open niches was able | public school established on the site by Thomas Sutton
to inspect the garden without being seen. At (I) is the A.D. 1611.
Dominicans, the Grey or Franciscans, the White or Carmel.
the beginning of the 13th century, when the Benedictines,
nated their active mission, and Christian Europe was ready
for a new religious revival. Planting themselves, as a rule, I
C. Living Room. in large towns, and by preference in the poorest and most
densely populated districts, the Preaching Friars were
obliged to adapt their buildings to the requirements of the
for the reception of large congregations of hearers rather
than worshippers, form a class by themselves, totally unlike
one containing the stalls of the brotherhood, the other left
entirely free for the congregation. The constructional
terrupted structure, with a continuous range of windows.
The east end was usually square, but the Friars Church at
We not unfrequently
court, on the north side of which is the desecrated church. There were only nine Carthusian houses in England. The refectory is on the west side, and on the south the Vitham. The earliest was that at Witham in Somersetshire, founded dormitory of the 13th century. This is a remarkably good
by Henry II, by whom the order was first brought into example. There were 18 cells or cubicles on each side,
Mendicant oblong, destitute of aisles, 123 fect long by only 26 feet ABBON OF Fleury. or ABBO FLORIACENSIS, a learned
house, &c., to the east, with the dormitory over. The himself in the schools of Paris and Rheims, and was a profi-
The name abbot, though general in the West, was not
were monastic colonies, sent forth by the parent house, and and Prior; among the Franciscans, Custos, Guardian ;"
tion was not introduced without a struggle, ecclesiastical
partially so up to the 11th. Ecclesiastical Councils were,
by the Second Council of Nicæa, A.D. 787, to ordain
than one monastic community, though, in some exceptional
ABBIATE GRASSO, a town in the north of Italy, near and Bradford, are only apparent transgressions of the rule. the Ticino, 14 miles W.S.W. of Milan. It has silk manu We find more decided instances of plurality in Hugh of factures, and contains about 5000 inhabitants.
the royal Carlovingian house, cir. 720, who was at the same
time Bishop of Rouen, Paris, Bayeux, and Abbot of Fonte-, if in priests' orders, with the consent of the bishop, were, nelle and Jumiéges; and Sidonius, Bishop of Constance, as we have seen, permitted by the Second Nicene Council, who, being already Abbot of Reichenau, took the abbacy of A.D. 787, to confer the tonsure and admit to the order of St Gall also. Hatto of Mentz, cir. 912, annexed to his reader; but they gradually advanced higher claims, until see no less than 12 abbacies.
we find them authorised by Bellarmine to be associated In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, we find abbots with a single bishop in episcopal consecrations, and perin chief or archimandrites exercising jurisdiction over a mitted by Innocent IV., A.D. 1489, to confer both the large number of communities, each of which had its own subdiaconate and diaconate. Of course, they always and abbot. Thus, Cassian speaks of an abbot in the Thebaid everywhere had the power of admitting their own monks, who had 500 monks under him, a number exceeded in and vesting them with the religious habit. In the first other cases. In later times also, general jurisdiction was instance, when a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese exercised over the houses of their order by the abbots of chose the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but Monte Cassino, St Dalmatius, Clugny, &c. The abbot of the right of election was transferred by jurisdiction to Cassino was styled Abbas Abbatum. The chiefs of other the monks themselves, reserving to the bishop the conorders had the titles of Abbas Generalis, or Magister, or firmation of the election and the benediction of the new Minister Generalis.
abbot. In abbeys exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the Abbots were originally subject to episcopal jurisdiction, confirmation and benediction had to be conferred by the and continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the Pope in person, the house being taxed with the expenses 11th century. The Codex of Justinian (lib. i. tit. iii. de of the new abbot's journey to Rome. By the rule of St Ep. leg. xl.), expressly subordinates the abbot to epis. Benedict, the consent of the laity was in some undecopal oversight. The first case recorded of the partial fined way required; but this seems never to have been exemption of an abbot from episcopal control is that of practically enforced. It was necessary that an abbot Faustus, Abbot of Lerins, at the Council of Arles, A.D. should be at least 25 years of age, of legitimate birth, a 456; but the oppressive conduct, and exorbitant claims monk of the house, unless it furnished no suitable canand exactions of bishops, to which this repugnance to didate, when a liberty was allowed of electing from another episcopal control is to be traced, far more than to the convent, well instructed himself, and able to instruct others, arrogance of abbots, rendered it increasingly frequent, one also who had learned how to command by having pracand, in the 6th century, the practice of exempting religious tised obedience. In some exceptional cases an abbot was houses partly or altogether from episcopal control, and allowed to name his own successor. Cassian speaks of an making them responsible to the Pope alone, received an abbot in Egypt doing this; and in later times we have impulse from Gregory the Great. These exceptions, another example in the case of St Bruno. Popes and though introduced with a good object, had grown into a sovereigns gradually encroached on the rights of the wide-spread and crying evil by the 12th century, virtually monks, until in Italy the Pope had usurped the nominacreating an imperium in imperio, and entirely depriving tion of all abbots, and the king in France, with the exthe bishop of all authority over the chief centres of power ception of Clugny, Prémontré, and other houses, chiefs of and influence in his diocese. In the 12th century the their order. The election was for life, unless the abbot abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the Archbishop of was canonically deprived by the chiefs of his order, or, Cologne. Abbots more and more aped episcopal state, when he was directly subject to them, by the Pope or the and in defiance of the express prohibition of early councils, bishop. and the protests of St Bernard and others, adopted the The ceremony of the formal admission of a Benedictine episcopal insignia of mitre, ring, gloves, and sandals. A abbot in mediæval times is thus prescribed by the consuetumitre is said to have been granted to the Abbot of Bobbio dinary of Abingdon. The newly elected abbot was to by Pope Theodorus I., A.D. 643, and to the Abbot of St put off his shoes at the door of the church, and proceed Savianus by Sylvester II., A.D. 1000. Ducange asserts barefoot to meet the members of the house advancing in that pontifical insignia were first assigned to abbots by .a procession. After proceeding up the nave, he was to John XVIII., A.D. 1004–1009; but the first undoubted kneel and pray at the topmost step of the entrance of the grant is said to be that to the Abbot of St Maximinian at choir, into which he was to be introduced by the bishop Treves, by Gregory VII. (Hildebrand), A.D. 1073–1085. or his commissary, and placed in his stall. The monks, The mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, then kneeling, gave him the kiss of peace on the hand, St Alban's, Bardney, Battle, Bury St Edmund's, St Augus- and rising, on the mouth, the abbot holding his staff of tine's Canterbury, Colchester, Croyland, Evesham, Glas- office. He then put on his shoes in the vestry, and a tonbury, Gloucester, St Benet's Hulme, Hyde, Malmes- chapter was held, and the bishop or his commissary bury, Peterborough, Ramsey, Reading, Selby, Shrewsbury, preached a suitable sermon. Tavistock, Thorney, Westminster, Winchcombe, St Mary's The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, York. Of these the precedence was originally yielded to limited, however, by the canons of the church, and, until the Abbot of Glastonbury, until in A.D. 1154 Adrian IV. the general establishment of exemptions, by episcopal (Nicholas Breakspear) granted it to the Abbot of St control. As a rule, however, implicit obedience was enAlban's, in which monastery he had been brought up. forced ; to act without his orders was culpable ; whilo it Next after the Abbot of St Alban's ranked the Abbot of was a sacred duty to execute his orders, however unreaWestminster.
sonable, until they were withdrawn. Examples among the To distinguish abbots from bishops, it was ordained that Egyptian monks of this blind submission to the commands their mitre should be made of less costly materials, and of the superiors, exalted into a virtue by those who reshould not be ornamented with gold, a rule which was garded the entire crushing of the individual will as the soon entirely disregarded, and that the crook of their highest excellence, are detailed by Cassian and others, ---.9., pastoral staff should turn inwards instead of outwards, a monk watering a dry stick, day after day, for months, or indicating that their jurisdiction was limited to their own endeavouring to remove a huge rock immensely exceeding house. The adoption of episcopal insignia by abbots his
St Jerome, indeed, lays down, as the principle was followed by an encroachment on episcopal functions, of the compact between the abbot and his monks, that they which had to be specially but ineffectually guarded against should obey their superiors in all things, and perform whatby the Lateran Council, A.D. 1123. In the East, abbots, ever they commanded. (Ep. 2, ad Eustoch. de custod,