S.W. corner were the necessaries (V), also built, as usual, | eastern transept, the work of Abbot John of Kent, 1220– above the swiftly flowing stream. The monks' dormitory 1247, and to the tower (D), added not long before the diswas in its usual position above the chapter-house, to the solution by Abbot Huby, 1494–1526, in a very unusual south of the transept. As peculiarities of arrangement position at the northern end of the north transept. The may be noticed the position of the kitchen (Q), between the abbot's house, the largest and most remarkable example of refectory and calefactory, and of the infirmary (W) (unless this class of buildings in the kingdom, stands south to there is some error in its designation) above the river to the east of the church and cloister, from which it is divided

by the kitchen court(K), surrounded by the ordinary domestic offices. A considerable portion of this house was erected on arches over the Skell. The size and character of this house, probably, at the time of its erection, the most spacious house of a subject in the kingdom, not a castle, bespeaks the wide departure of the Cistercian order from the stern simplicity of the original foundation. The hall (2) was one of the most spacious and magnificent apartments in medieval times, measuring 170 feet by 70 feet. Like the hall in the castle at Winchester, and Westminster Hall, as originally built, it was divided by 18 pillars and arches, with 3 aisles. Among other apartments, for the designation of which we must refer to the ground-plan, was a domestic oratory or chapel, 464 feet by 23 feet, and a kitchen (7), 50 feet by 38 feet. The whole arrangements and character of the building bespeak the rich and powerful feudal lord, not the humble father of a body of hardworking brethren, bound by vows to a life of poverty and self-denying toil. In the words of Dean Milman, " the superior, once a man bowed to the earth with humility, care-worn, pale, emaciated, with a coarse habit bound with a cord, with naked feet, had become an abbot on his curvetting palfrey, in rich attire, with his silver cross before him, travelling to take his place amid the lordliest of the realm."-(Lat. Christ., vol. ii. p. 330.)

The buildings of the Austin Canons or Black Canons Black or (so called from the colour of their habit) present few Austin distinctive peculiarities. This order had its first seat in Canons. England at Colchester, where a house for Austin Canons was founded about A.D. 1105, and it very soon spread widely. As an order of regular clergy, holding a middle position between monks and secular canons, almost resembling a community of parish priests living under rule, they adopted naves of great length to accommodate large congregations. The choir is usually long, and is sometimes, as at Llanthony and Christ Church (Twynham), shut off from the aisles, or, as at Bolton, Kirkham, &c., is destitute of aisles altogether. The nave in the northern houses, not unfrequently, had only a north aisle, as at Bolton, Brinkburn, and Lanercost. The arrangement of the monastic buildings followed the ordinary type. The prior's lodge was almost invariably attached to the S.W. angle of the nave. The annexed plan of the Abbey of St Augustine's at Bristol, now the cathedral church of Bristol.

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Ground Plan of Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire. A Xare of the Church. N. Cellar.

2. Gate-House.
B Transept.
0. Brew House.

C. Chapels.
P. Prisons.

1. Passage.
D. Tower.
Q. Kitchen.

2. Great Hall. E Sacristy. R. Offices

3. Refectory. F. Choir. S. Refectory.

4. Buttery. G. Chapel of Nino T. Buttery

5. Storehouse. Altars.

U. Cellars and Store 6. Chapel H. Cloister,


7. Kitchen, L Chapter-House. V. Necessary.

8. Ashpit. K. Base Court. W. Infirmary ?)

9. Yard. L. Calefactory. X. Guest Houses.

10. Kitchen Tank. M. Water Course. Y. Mill Bridge. the west, adjoining the guest-houses (XX). We may also call attention to the greatly lengthened choir, commenced by Abbot John of York, 1203-1211, and carried on by his successor, terminating, like Durham Cathedral, in an

St Augustine's Abbey, Bristol (Bristol Cathedral).
A. Church.
II. Kitchen.

S. Friars' Lodging.
B. Great Cloister.
1. Kitchen Court.

T. King's Hall
C. Little Cloister.
K. Cellars.

V. Guest House.
D. Chapter-Hlouse. L. Abbot's llall

W. Abbey Gateway.
E. Calefactory.

P. Abbot's Gateway. X. Barns, Stables, so
F. Refectory.
R. Infirmary,

Y. Lavatory.
G. Parlour,






Q. Barns and

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S. Little Cloister

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that city, shows the arrangement of the buildings, which the plan of that of Clermont, from Viollet le Duc. The Clermont.
departs very little from the ordinary Benedictine type. | whole establishment is surrounded with a wall, furnished
The Austin Canons' house at Thornton, in Lincolnshire, is at intervals with watch towers (R). The enclosure is
remarkable for the size and magnificence of its gate-house, divided into two courts, of which the eastern court, sur-
the upper floors of which formed the guest house of the rounded by a cloister, from which the cottages of the
establishment, and for possessing an octagonal chapter- monks (I) open, is much the larger. The two courts are

house of Decorated date.
Premons The Premonstratensian regular canons, or White Canons,
tratensian. had as many as 35 houses in England, of which the most

A. Church.
perfect remaining are those of Easby, Yorkshire, and

B. Monks' Choir.
Bayham, Sussex. The head house of the order in England

C. Prior's Garden
was Welbeck. This order was a reformed branch of the

D. Great Cloister,
Austin canons, founded, A.D. 1119, by Norbert (born at

E. Chapter-House.
Xanten, on the Lower Rhine, c. 1080) at Prémontré, a

P. Passage.
secluded marshy valley in the forest of Coucy, in the

G. Prior's Lodge diocese of Laon. The order spread dely. Even in the

H. Dovecot founder's lifetime it possessed houses in Syria and Pales

I. Cells. tine. It long maintained its rigid austerity, till in the


K. Chapel of Pond course of years wealth impaired its discipline, and its

gibaud. members sank into indolence and luxury. The Premon

L. Sacristy. stratensians were brought to England shortly after A.D.

M. Chapel 1140, and were first settled at Newhouse, in Lincolnshire,

N. Stables. near the Humber. The ground-plan of Easby Abbey,

0. Gateway.
owing to its situation on the edge of the steeply-sloping

P. Guest-Cham-
banks of a river, is singularly irregular. The cloister is
duly placed on the south side of the church, and the

chief buildings occupy their usual positions round it.

R. Watch Towers
But the cloister garth, as at Chichester, is not rectangu-
lar, and all the surrounding buildings are thus made to

T. Bakelious
sprawl in a very awkward fashion. The church follows

V. Kitchen. the plan adopted by the Austin canons in their northern

X. Refectory. abbeys, and has only one aisle to the nave—that to the

Y. Cemetery.

Z. Prison.
north ; while the choir is long, narrow, and aisleless.
Each transept has an aisle to the east, forming three


a.Cell of Sub-prior.

b. Garden of do.
The church at Bayham was destitute of aisle either to

nave or choir. The latter terminated in a three-sided apse.
This church is remarkable for its exceeding narrowness in

Carthusian Monastery of Clermont.
proportion to its length. Extending in longitudinal dimen-
sions 257 feet, it is not more than 25 feet broad. To divided by the main buildings of the monastery, including
adopt the words of Mr Beresford Hope—“Stern Premon- the church, the sanctuary (A), divided from (B), the monks'
stratensian canons wanted no congregations, and cared choir, by a screen with two altars, the smaller cloister to
for no processions; therefore they built their church like a the south (S) surrounded by the chapter-house (E), the
long room.”

refectory (X)—these buildings occupying their normal Carthusian.

The Carthusian order, on its establishment by St Bruno, position—and the chapel of Pontgibaud (K). The kitchen about A.D. 1084, developed a greatly modified form and with its offices (V) lies behind the refectory, accessible arrangement of a monastic institution. The principle of | from the outer court without entering the cloister. To this order, which combined the cænobitic with the solitary | the north of the church, beyond the sacristy (L), and the life, demanded the erection of buildings on a novel plan. side chapels (M), we find the cell of the sub-prior (a), with l'his plan, which was first adopted by St Bruno and his its garden. The lodgings of the prior (G) occupy the twelve companions at the original institution at Chartreux, i centre of the outer court, immediately in front of the west near Grenoble, was maintained in all the Carthusian door of the church, and face the gateway of the convent (O). establishments throughout Europe, even after the ascetic A small raised court with a fountain (C) is before it. This severity of the order had been to some extent relaxed, and outer court also contains the guest-chambers (P), the the primitive simplicity of their buildings had been ex- stables, and lodgings of the lay brothers (N), the barns changed for the magnificence of decoration which charac- and granaries (Q), the dovecot (H), and the bakehouse (T). Gerises such foundations as the Certosas of Pavia and At (Ž) is the prison. (In this outer court, in all the earlier Florence. According to the rule of St Bruno, all the foundations, as at Witham, there was a smaller church in inembers of a Carthusian brotherhood lived in the most addition to the larger church of the monks.) The outer and absolute solitude and silence. Each occupiel a small inner court are connected by a long passage (F), wide detached cottage, standing by itself in a small garden enough to admit a cart laden with wood to supply the surrounded by high walls and connected by a common cells of the brethren with fuel. The number of cells surcorridor or cloister. In these cottages or cells a Carthusian rounding the great cloister is 18. They are all arranged monk passed his time in the strictest asceticism, only on a uniform plan. Each little dwelling contains three leaving his solitary dwelling to attend the services of the rooins : a sitting-room (C), warmed with a stove in winter; Church, except on certain days when the brotherhood a sleeping-room (D), furnished with a bed, a table, a bench, assembled in the refectory.

and a bookcase; and a closet (E). Between the cell and The peculiarity of the arrangements of a Carthusian the cloister gallery (A) is a passage or corridor (B), cutting monastery, or charter-house, as it was called in England, off the inmate of the cell from all sound or movement from a corruption of the French chartreur, is exhibited in which might interrupt his meditations. The superior had

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B. Corridor.

E. Closets.


F. Covered Walk.

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II. Garden.


I. Hatch.

'lermont free access to this corridor, and through open niches was able | public school established on the site by Thomas Sutton

to inspect the garden without being seen. At (I) is the A.D. 1611.
hatch or turn-table, in which the daily allowance of food was An article on monastic arrangements would be incom-
deposited by a brother appointed for that purpose, afford- plete without some account of the convents of the Mendi- Mendicani
ing no view either inwards or outwards. (H) is the garden, cant or Preaching Friars, including the Black Friars or Friars.

Dominicans, the Grey or Franciscans, the White or Carmel.
ites, the Eremite or Austin Friars. These orders arose at

the beginning of the 13th century, when the Benedictines,
A. Cloister Gallery. together with their various reformed branches, had termi-

nated their active mission, and Christian Europe was ready

for a new religious revival. Planting themselves, as a rule, I

C. Living Room. in large towns, and by preference in the poorest and most

densely populated districts, the Preaching Friars were
D. Sleeping Room.

obliged to adapt their buildings to the requirements of the
site. Regularity of arrangement, therefore, was not pos-
sible, even if they had studied it. Their churches, built

for the reception of large congregations of hearers rather
G. Necessary

than worshippers, form a class by themselves, totally unlike
those of the elder orders in ground-plan and character.
They were usually long parallelograms unbroken by tran-
septs. The nave very usually consisted of two equal bodies,

one containing the stalls of the brotherhood, the other left

K. Wood-house.

entirely free for the congregation. The constructional
choir is often wanting, the whole church forming one unin-

terrupted structure, with a continuous range of windows.
Carthusian Cell, Clermont.

The east end was usually square, but the Friars Church at
Winchelsea had a polygonal apse.

We not unfrequently
cultivated by the occupant of the cell. At (K) is the find a single transept, sometimes of great size, rivalling or
wood-house. (F) is a covered walk, with the necessary at exceeding the nave. This arrangement is frequent in
the end. These arrangements are found with scarcely any Ireland, where the numerous small friaries afford admirable
variation in all the charter-houses of Western Europe. exemplifications of these peculiarities of ground-plan. The
The Yorkshire Charter-house of Mount Grace, founded by friars churches were at first destitute of towers; but in the
Thomas Holland the young Duke of Surrey, nephew of 14th and 15th centuries, tall, slender towers were com-
Richard II., and Marshal of England, during the revival monly inserted between the nave and the choir. The Grey
of the popularity of the order, about A.D. 1397, is the most | Friars at Lyın, where the tower is hexagonal, is a good
perfect and best preserved English example. It is charac- example. The arrangement of the monastic buildings is
terised by all the simplicity of the order. The church is a cqually peculiar and characteristic. We miss entirely the
modest building, long, narrow, and aisleless. Within the regularity of the buildings of the earlier orders. At the
wall of enclosure are two courts. The smaller of the two, Jacobins at Paris, a cloister lay to the north of the long
the south, presents the usual arrangement of church, refec narrow church of two parallel aisles, while the refectory-
tory, &c., opening out of a cloister. The buildings are a room of immense length, quite detached from the cloister
plain and solid. The northern court contains the cells, 14-stretched across the area before the west front of the
in number. It is surrounded by a double stone wall, the church. At Toulouse the nave also has two parallel aisles,
two walls being about 30 feet or 40 feet apart. Between but the choir is apsidal, with radiating chapels. The refec-
these, each in its own garden, stand the cells; low-built tory stretches northwards at right angles to the cloister, which
two-storied cottages, of two or three rooms on the ground lies to the north of the church, having the chapter-house
floor, lighted with a larger and a smaller window to the and sacristy on the east. As examples of English friaries,
side, and provided with a doorway to the court, and one at the Dominican house at Norwich, and those of the Domini. Horwich.
the back, opposite to one in the outer wall, through which cans and Franciscans at Gloucester, may be mentioned. The Gloucester.
the monk may have conveyed the sweepings of his cell and church of the Black Friars of Norwich departs from the
the refuse of his garden to the “ eremus” beyond. By the original type in the nave (now St Andrew's Hall), in having
side of the door to the court is a little hatch, through which regular aisles. In this it resembles the earlier examples of
the daily pittance of food was supplied, so contrived by the Grey Friars at Reading. The choir is long and aisle-
turning at an angle in the wall that no one could either less; an hexagonal tower between the two, like that exist-
look in or look out. A very perfect example of this hatch ing at Lynn, has perished. The cloister and monastic
—an arrangement belonging to all Carthusian houses, buildings remain tolerably perfect to the north. The
exists at Miraflores, near Burgos, which remains nearly as Dominican convent at Gloucester still exhibits the cloister-
it was completed in 1480.

court, on the north side of which is the desecrated church. There were only nine Carthusian houses in England. The refectory is on the west side, and on the south the Vitham. The earliest was that at Witham in Somersetshire, founded dormitory of the 13th century. This is a remarkably good

by Henry II, by whom the order was first brought into example. There were 18 cells or cubicles on each side,
England. The wealthiest and most magnificent was that divided by partitions, the bases of which remain. On the
of Shene or Richmond in Surrey, founded by Henry V. east side was the prior's house, a building of later date.
about A.D. 1414. The dimensions of the buildings at At the Grey or Franciscan Friars, the church followed the
Shenes are stated to have been remarkably large. The ordinary type in having two equal bodies, each gabled,
great court measured 300 feet by 250 feet; the cloisters with a continuous range of windows. There was a slender
were a square of 500 feet; the hall was 110 feet in length tower between the nave and choir. Of the convents of the
by 60 feet in breadth. The most celebrated historically is Carmelite or White Friars we have a good example in the
the Charter-house of London, founded by Sir Walter Manny Abbey of Hulme, near Alnwick, the first of the order in Hulme.
A.D. 1371, the name of which is preserved by the famous England, founded A.D. 1210. The church is a narrow



Mendicant oblong, destitute of aisles, 123 fect long by only 26 feet ABBON OF Fleury. or ABBO FLORIACENSIS, a learned
Friars. wide. The cloisters are to the south, with the chapter- Frenchman, born near Orleans in 945. He distinguished

house, &c., to the east, with the dormitory over. The himself in the schools of Paris and Rheims, and was a profi-
prior's lodge is placed to the west of the cloister. The cient in science, as known in his time. After spending two
guest-houses adjoin the entrance gateway, to which a chapel years in England, assisting Archbishop Oswald of York in
was annexed on the south side of the conventual area. restoring the monastic system, he returned to France, and
The nave of the church of the Austin Friars or Eremites was made Abbot of Fleury (970). He was twice sent
in London is still standing. It is of Decorated date, and to Rome by Robert the Wise (986, 996), and on each occa-
has wide centre and side aisles, divided by a very light and sion succeeded in warding off a threatened papal interdict.
graceful arcade. Some fragments of the south walk of the He was killed in 1004, in endeavouring to quell a monkish
cloister of the Grey Friars exist among the buildings of revolt. He wrote an epitome of the Lives of the Roman
Christ's Hospital or the Blue-Coat School. Of the Black Pontiffs, besides controversial treatises, letters, &c.
Friars all has perished but the name. Taken as a whole, ABBOT, the head and chief governor of a community
the remains of the establishments of the friars afford little of monks, called also in the East Archimandrita, from
warrant for the bitter invective of the Benedictine of St mandra, “a fold,” or Hegumenos. The name abbot is derived
Alban's, Matthew Paris :-" The friars who have been from the Hebrew -$, Ab, or father, through the Syriac
founded hardly 40 years have built residences as the Abba. It had its origin in the monasteries of Syria,
palaces of kings. These are they who, enlarging day by whence it spread through the East, and soon became
day their sumptuous edifices, encircling them with lofty accepted generally in all languages as the designation of
walls, lay up in them their incalculable treasures, impru- the head of a monastery. At first it was employed as a
dently transgressing the bounds of poverty, and violating respectful title for any monk, as we learn from St Jerome
the very fundamental rules of their profession." Allowance in Epist. ad Gal. iv. 6, in Matt. xxiii. 9), but it was soon
must here be made for jealousy of a rival order just rising restricted to the Superior.
in popularity

The name abbot, though general in the West, was not
Every large monastery had depending upon it one or universal. Among the Dominicians, Carmelites, Aagus-
Cells. more smaller establishments known as cells. These cells tines, &c., the superior was called Præpositus, “ Provost,”.

were monastic colonies, sent forth by the parent house, and and Prior; among the Franciscans, Custos, Guardian ;"
planted on some outlying estate. As an example, we may and by the monks of Camaldoli, Major.
refer to the small religious house of St Mary Magdalene's, Monks, as a rule, were laymen, nor at the outset was
a cell of the great Benedictine house of St Mary's, York, in the abbot any exception. All orders of clergy, therefore,
the valley of the Witham, to the south-east of the city of even the “ doorkeeper,” took precedence of him. For
Lincoln. This consists of one long narrow range of build the reception of the sacraments, and for other religious
ing, of which the eastern part formed the chapel, and offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to
the western contained the apartments of the handful of attend the nearest church.—(Novellæ, 133, c. ii.) This rule
monks of which it was the home. To the east may be naturally proved inconvenient when a monastery was
traced the site of the abbey mill, with its dam and mill- situated in a desert, or at a distance from a city, and
lead. These cells, when belonging to a Cluniac house, necessity compelled the ordination of abbots. This innova-
were called Obedientiæ.

tion was not introduced without a struggle, ecclesiastical
The plan given by Viollet le Duc of the Priory of St dignity being regarded as inconsistent with the higher
Jean des Bons Hommes, a Cluniac cell, situated between spiritual life, but, before the close of the 5th century, at least
the town of Avallon and the village of Savigny, shows that in the East, abbots seem almost universally to have become
these diminutive establishments comprised every essential deacons, if not presbyters. The change spread more
feature of a monastery,--chapel, cloister, chapter-room, slowly in the West, where the office of abbot was commonly
refectory, dormitory, all grouped according to the recog-filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century, and
nised arrangement.

partially so up to the 11th. Ecclesiastical Councils were,
These Cluniac obcdientiæ differed from the ordinary | however, attended by abbots. Thus, at that held at Con-
Benedictine cells in being also places of punishment, to stantinople, A.D. 448, for the condemnation of Eutyches,
which monks who had been guilty of any grave infringe- 23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops, and,
ment of the rules were relegated as to a kind of penitencir. A.D. 690, Archbishop Theodore promulgated a canon,
tiary. Here they were placed under the authority of a inhibiting bishops from compelling abbots to attend
prior, and were condemned to severe manual labour, ful councils. Examples are not uncommon in Spain and
filling the duties usually executed by the lay brothers, who in England in Saxon times. Abbots were permitted
acted as farm-servants.

by the Second Council of Nicæa, A.D. 787, to ordain
The outlying farming establishments belonging to the their monks to the inferior orders. This rule was
monastic foundations were known as villæ or granges. adopted in the West, and the strong prejudice against
They gave employment to a body of conversi and labourers clerical monks having gradually broken down, eventually
under the management of a monk, who bore the title of monks, almost without exception, belonged to some grade
Brother Hospitaller— the granges, like their parent in- of the ministry.
stitutions, affording shelter and hospitality to belated Originally no abbot was permitted to rule over more

than one monastic community, though, in some exceptional
Authorities :-Dugdale, Monasticon; Fosbrooke, British cases, Gregory the Great allowed the rule to be broken.
Monachism; Helyot, Dictionnaire des Ordres Religieux; As time went on, violations of the rule became increasingly
Lenoir, Architecture Monastique; Viollet le Duc, Diction- frequent, as is proved by repeated enactments against it.
naire Raisonnée de l'Architecture Francaise ; Walcott, The cases of Wilfrid of York, cir. A.D. 675, who held the
Conventual Arrangement; Willis, Abbey of St Gall; Archæo- abbacy of the monasteries he had founded at Hexham and
logical Journal, vol. v., Conventual Buildings of Canter- Ripon, and of Aldhelm, who, at the same date, stood in
bury; Curzon, Monasteries of the Levant. (E. v.) the same double relation to those of Malmesbury, Frome,

ABBIATE GRASSO, a town in the north of Italy, near and Bradford, are only apparent transgressions of the rule. the Ticino, 14 miles W.S.W. of Milan. It has silk manu We find more decided instances of plurality in Hugh of factures, and contains about 5000 inhabitants.

the royal Carlovingian house, cir. 720, who was at the same

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time Bishop of Rouen, Paris, Bayeux, and Abbot of Fonte-, if in priests' orders, with the consent of the bishop, were, nelle and Jumiéges; and Sidonius, Bishop of Constance, as we have seen, permitted by the Second Nicene Council, who, being already Abbot of Reichenau, took the abbacy of A.D. 787, to confer the tonsure and admit to the order of St Gall also. Hatto of Mentz, cir. 912, annexed to his reader; but they gradually advanced higher claims, until see no less than 12 abbacies.

we find them authorised by Bellarmine to be associated In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, we find abbots with a single bishop in episcopal consecrations, and perin chief or archimandrites exercising jurisdiction over a mitted by Innocent IV., A.D. 1489, to confer both the large number of communities, each of which had its own subdiaconate and diaconate. Of course, they always and abbot. Thus, Cassian speaks of an abbot in the Thebaid everywhere had the power of admitting their own monks, who had 500 monks under him, a number exceeded in and vesting them with the religious habit. In the first other cases. In later times also, general jurisdiction was instance, when a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese exercised over the houses of their order by the abbots of chose the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but Monte Cassino, St Dalmatius, Clugny, &c. The abbot of the right of election was transferred by jurisdiction to Cassino was styled Abbas Abbatum. The chiefs of other the monks themselves, reserving to the bishop the conorders had the titles of Abbas Generalis, or Magister, or firmation of the election and the benediction of the new Minister Generalis.

abbot. In abbeys exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the Abbots were originally subject to episcopal jurisdiction, confirmation and benediction had to be conferred by the and continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the Pope in person, the house being taxed with the expenses 11th century. The Codex of Justinian (lib. i. tit. iii. de of the new abbot's journey to Rome. By the rule of St Ep. leg. xl.), expressly subordinates the abbot to epis. Benedict, the consent of the laity was in some undecopal oversight. The first case recorded of the partial fined way required; but this seems never to have been exemption of an abbot from episcopal control is that of practically enforced. It was necessary that an abbot Faustus, Abbot of Lerins, at the Council of Arles, A.D. should be at least 25 years of age, of legitimate birth, a 456; but the oppressive conduct, and exorbitant claims monk of the house, unless it furnished no suitable canand exactions of bishops, to which this repugnance to didate, when a liberty was allowed of electing from another episcopal control is to be traced, far more than to the convent, well instructed himself, and able to instruct others, arrogance of abbots, rendered it increasingly frequent, one also who had learned how to command by having pracand, in the 6th century, the practice of exempting religious tised obedience. In some exceptional cases an abbot was houses partly or altogether from episcopal control, and allowed to name his own successor. Cassian speaks of an making them responsible to the Pope alone, received an abbot in Egypt doing this; and in later times we have impulse from Gregory the Great. These exceptions, another example in the case of St Bruno. Popes and though introduced with a good object, had grown into a sovereigns gradually encroached on the rights of the wide-spread and crying evil by the 12th century, virtually monks, until in Italy the Pope had usurped the nominacreating an imperium in imperio, and entirely depriving tion of all abbots, and the king in France, with the exthe bishop of all authority over the chief centres of power ception of Clugny, Prémontré, and other houses, chiefs of and influence in his diocese. In the 12th century the their order. The election was for life, unless the abbot abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the Archbishop of was canonically deprived by the chiefs of his order, or, Cologne. Abbots more and more aped episcopal state, when he was directly subject to them, by the Pope or the and in defiance of the express prohibition of early councils, bishop. and the protests of St Bernard and others, adopted the The ceremony of the formal admission of a Benedictine episcopal insignia of mitre, ring, gloves, and sandals. A abbot in mediæval times is thus prescribed by the consuetumitre is said to have been granted to the Abbot of Bobbio dinary of Abingdon. The newly elected abbot was to by Pope Theodorus I., A.D. 643, and to the Abbot of St put off his shoes at the door of the church, and proceed Savianus by Sylvester II., A.D. 1000. Ducange asserts barefoot to meet the members of the house advancing in that pontifical insignia were first assigned to abbots by .a procession. After proceeding up the nave, he was to John XVIII., A.D. 1004–1009; but the first undoubted kneel and pray at the topmost step of the entrance of the grant is said to be that to the Abbot of St Maximinian at choir, into which he was to be introduced by the bishop Treves, by Gregory VII. (Hildebrand), A.D. 1073–1085. or his commissary, and placed in his stall. The monks, The mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, then kneeling, gave him the kiss of peace on the hand, St Alban's, Bardney, Battle, Bury St Edmund's, St Augus- and rising, on the mouth, the abbot holding his staff of tine's Canterbury, Colchester, Croyland, Evesham, Glas- office. He then put on his shoes in the vestry, and a tonbury, Gloucester, St Benet's Hulme, Hyde, Malmes- chapter was held, and the bishop or his commissary bury, Peterborough, Ramsey, Reading, Selby, Shrewsbury, preached a suitable sermon. Tavistock, Thorney, Westminster, Winchcombe, St Mary's The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, York. Of these the precedence was originally yielded to limited, however, by the canons of the church, and, until the Abbot of Glastonbury, until in A.D. 1154 Adrian IV. the general establishment of exemptions, by episcopal (Nicholas Breakspear) granted it to the Abbot of St control. As a rule, however, implicit obedience was enAlban's, in which monastery he had been brought up. forced ; to act without his orders was culpable ; whilo it Next after the Abbot of St Alban's ranked the Abbot of was a sacred duty to execute his orders, however unreaWestminster.

sonable, until they were withdrawn. Examples among the To distinguish abbots from bishops, it was ordained that Egyptian monks of this blind submission to the commands their mitre should be made of less costly materials, and of the superiors, exalted into a virtue by those who reshould not be ornamented with gold, a rule which was garded the entire crushing of the individual will as the soon entirely disregarded, and that the crook of their highest excellence, are detailed by Cassian and others, ---.9., pastoral staff should turn inwards instead of outwards, a monk watering a dry stick, day after day, for months, or indicating that their jurisdiction was limited to their own endeavouring to remove a huge rock immensely exceeding house. The adoption of episcopal insignia by abbots his


St Jerome, indeed, lays down, as the principle was followed by an encroachment on episcopal functions, of the compact between the abbot and his monks, that they which had to be specially but ineffectually guarded against should obey their superiors in all things, and perform whatby the Lateran Council, A.D. 1123. In the East, abbots, ever they commanded. (Ep. 2, ad Eustoch. de custod,

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