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Westminster.

York.

health, a stream of water running through it from end to end. A second smaller dormitory runs from east to west for the accommodation of the conventual oflicers, who were bound to sleep in the dormitory. Close to the refectory, but outside the cloisters, are the domestic ofiices connected with it; to the north, the kitchen, 47 feet square, surmounted by a lofty pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; to the west, the butteries, pantries, &c. The infirmary had a small kitchen of its own. Opposite the refectory door in the cloister are two lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a monastic dining-hall, at which the monks washed before and after taking food.

The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into three groups. The prior’s group “ entered at the south-east angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished eeclesiastics or nobility who were assigned to him.” The cellarer's buildings, were near the west end of the nave, in which ordinary visitors of the middle class were hospitably entertained. The inferior pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the north hall or almonry, just within the gate, as far as possible from the other two.

Westminster Abbey is another example of a great Benedictine abbey, identical in its general arrangements, so far as they can be traced, with those described above. The cloister and monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church. Parallel to the nave, on the south side of the cloister, was the refectory, with its lavatory at the door. On the eastern side we find the remains of the dormitory, raised on a vaulted substructure, and communicating with the south transept. The chapter-house opens out of the same alley of the cloister. The small cloister lies to the south-east of the larger cloister, and still farther to the east we have the remains of the infirmary, with the table hall, the refectory of those who were able to leave their chambers. The abbot’s house formed a small court-yard at the west entrance, close to the inner gateway. Considerable portions of this remain, including the abbot’s parlour, celebrated as “the Jerusalem Chamber,” his hall, now used for the Westminster King's scholars, and the kitchen and butteries beyond.

St Mary’s Abbey, York, of which the ground-plan is annexed, exhibits the usual Benedictine arrangements. The precincts are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three sides, the river Ouse being sullieient protection on the fourth side. The entrance was by a strong gateway (U) to the north Close to the entrance was a chapel, where is new the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new comers paid their devotions immediately on their arrival Near the gate to the south was the guest’s-hall or hospitium The buildings are completely ruined, but enough remains to enable us to identify the grand cruciform church (A), the cloister-court with the chapter-house (B), the refectory (I), the kitchen-court with its oflices (K, O, O), and the other principal apartments. The infirmary has perished completely.

Some Benedictine houses display exceptional arrangements, dependent upon local circumstances, e.g., the dormitory of Worcester runs from east to west, from the west walk of the cloister, and that of Durham is built over the west, instead of as usual, over the cast walk; but, as a general rule, the arrangements deduced from the examples described may be regarded as invariable.

The history of Monasticism is one of alternate periods of decay and revival. With growth in popular esteem came increase in material wealth, leading to luxury and worldliness. The first religious ardour cooled, the strictness of the rule was relaxed, until by the 10th century the decay ‘of discipline was so complete in France that the monks are said to have been frequently unacquaintcd with

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The reformation of these prevalent abuses generally took the form of the establishment of new monastic orders, with new and more stringent rules, requiring a modification of the architectural arrangements. One of the earliest of these reformed orders was the Cluniae. its name from the little village of Clugny, 12 miles N.W. of Macon, near which, about A.D. 909, a reformed Benedictine abbey was founded by William, Duke of Auvergne, under Berno, abbot 0f Beaumc. He was succeeded by Odo, who is often regarded as the founder of the order. The fame of Clugny spread far and wide. Its rigid rule was adopted by a vast number of the old Benedictine abbeys, who placed themselves in afi‘iliation to the mother society, while new foundations sprang up in large numbers, all owing allegiance to the “archabbot,” established at Clugny. By the end of the 12th century the number of monasteries afliliated to Clugny in the various countries of Western Europe amounted to 2000. The monastic establishment of Clugny was one of the most extensive and magnificent in France. We may form some idea of its enormous dimensions from the fact recorded, that when, an. 1245, Pope Innocent IV ., accompanied by twelve

This order took Clugt,

CLUNIACL]

of the Carthusians and Cistercians, the king 7

' O and three of his sons, the queen mother, Boldwi %ii'elt Oftb. H] i f t fth d es”; ,1” I bole so ya ew ragmen so e om

of Flanders and Emperor of Constantinople, the Burgundy, and six lords, visited the abbey, the'in party, with their attendants, were lodged with the monastery without disarranging the monks, 400 113 Blunber. Nearly the whole of the abbey buildings, inclllfilng the magnificent church, were swept away at the close of the last century. ‘Vhen the annexed ground-plan was taken, shortly before its destruction, nearly all the monastery, with the exception of the church, had been rebuilt. The church, the ground-plan of which bears a remarkable resemblance to that of Lincoln Cathedral, was of vast dimensions. It was 656 feet by 130 feet wide. The nave was 102 feet, and the aisles 60 feet high. The nave (G) had double

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vaulted aisles on either side. Like Lincoln, it had an eastern as well as a western transept, each furnished with apsidal chapels to the east. The western transept was 213 feet long, and the eastern 123 feet. The choir terminated in a semicircular apse (F), surrounded by five chapels, also semicircular. The western entrance was approached by an ante-church, or nartlzex(B), itself an aisled church of no mean dimensions, flanked by two towers, rising from a stately flight of steps bearing a large stone cross. To the south of the church lay the cloister-court (H), of immense size, placed much further to the west than is usually the case. On the south side of the cloister stood the refectory (P), an immense building, 100 feet long and 60 feet wide, accommm dating 51.! longitudinal and three transverse rows of tablesIt was adorned with the portraits i th chief b t 01.5 of the abbey, and with Script ° _ e emf“ Bubjec'fis'8

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The best preserved Clnniac houses in Ellglaad Acre, Norfolk, and Wenlock, in Shropshireof' both are given in Britton’s Architectural ‘hm-9m?!“ They show several departures from the Benedictine arrange. ment. In each the prior’s house is remarkably perfect. All Clum'ac houses in England were French colonies, governed by priors of that nation. They did not secure their independence nor become “ abbeys ” till the reign of Henry VI. The Cluniac revival, with all its brilliancy, was but short lived. The celebrity of this, as of other orders, worked its moral ruin. With their growth in wealth and dignity the Cluniac foundations become as worldly in life and as relaxed in discipline as their predecessors, and a fresh reform was needed. The next great monastic revival, the Cistercian, arising in the last years of the 11th century, had a wider difl'usion, and a longer and more honourable existence. Owing its real origin, as a distinct foundation of reformed Benedictines, in the year 1098, to a countryman of our own, Stephen Harding (a native of Dorsetshire, educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and deriving its name from Citeaux (Cislercium), a desolate and almost inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide celebrity of the order is undoubtedly to be attributed to the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick succession by the first Cistercian houses, the far-famed abbey of Clairvaux (de Clara Valle), AD. 1116.

The rigid self-abnegation, which was the ruling principle Cistercian.

of this reformed congregation of the Benedictine order, extended itself to the churches and other buildings erected by them. The characteristic of the Cistercian abbeys was the extremest simplicity and 9. studied plainness. Only one tower—a central one—was permitted, and that was to be very low. Unnecessary pinnacles and turrets were prohibited. The triforium was omitted. The windows were to be plain and undivided, and it was forbidden to decorate them with stained glass. All needless ornament was proscribed. The crosses must be of wood ,- the candlesticks of iron. The renunciation of the world was to be evidenced in all that met the eye. The same spirit manifested itself in the choice of the sites of their monasteries. The more dismal, the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared, the more did it please their rigid mood. But they came not merely as ascetics, but' as improvcrs. The Cistercian monasteries are, as a rule, found placed in deep wellwatered valleys. They always stand on the border of a stream ,- not rarely, as at Fountains, the buildings extend over it. These valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a very different aspect when the brethren first chose them as the place of their retirement. Wide swamps, deep morasses, tangled thickets, wild impassable forests, were their prevailing features. The “ Bright Valley,” Clara Vail-is of St Bernard, was known as the “ Valley of Wormwood," infamous as a den of robbers. “It was a savage drea

solitude, so utterly barren that at first Bernard and his on beech leavcsP—QI'LL

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towers and other defensive works. The wall is nearly encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the small rivulets which flow through the precincts, furnishing the establishment with an abundant supply in every part, for the irrigation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary requirements of the brotherhood, and for the use of the oflices and workshops. The precincts are divided across the centre by a wall, running from N. to S., into an outer and inner ward,—-the former containing the menial, the latter the monastic buildings. The precincts are entered by a gateway (P), at the extreme western extremity, giving admission to the lower ward. Here the barns, granaries, stables, shambles, workshops, and workmen’s lodgings were placed, without any regard to sym

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metry, convenience being the only consideration. Advancing eastwards, we have before us the wall separating the outer and inner ward, and the gatehouse (D) affording communication between the two. On passing through the gateway, the outer court of the inner ward was entered, with the western fapade of the monastic church in front. Immediately on the right of entrance was the abbot’s house (G), in close proximity to the guest-house On the other side of the court were the stables, for the accommodation of the horses of the guests and their attendants (H). The church occupied a central position. To the south were the great cloister (A), surrounded by the chief monastic buildings, and further to the east the smaller cloister, opening out of which were the infirmary, novices’ lodgings, and quarters for the aged monks. Still further to the east, divided from the monastic buildings by a wall, were the vegetable gardens and orchards. and tank for fish. The

large fish-ponds, an indispensable adjunct to any ecclesiastical foundation, on the formation of which the monks lavished extreme care and pains, and which often remain as almost the only visible traces of these vast establishments, were placed outside the abbey walls.

The Plan No. 2 furnishes the ichnography of the dis‘ tinctly monastic buildings on a larger scale. The usually unvarying arrangement of the Cistercian houses allows us to accept this as a type of the monasteries of this order. The church (A) is the chief feature. It consists of a vast nave of eleven bays, entered by a narthex, with a transept and short apsidal choir. (It mayberemarkedthat the eastern limb in all unaltered Cistercian churches is remarkably short, and usually square.) To the east of each limb of

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the transept are two square chapels, divided according to Cistercian rule by solid walls. Nine radiating chapels, similarly divided, surround the apse. The stalls of the monks, forming the ritual choir, occupy the four eastern bays of the nave. There was a second range of stalls in the extreme western bays of the nave for the f rah-es conversi, or lay brothers. To the south of the church, so as to secure as much sun as possible, the cloister was invariably placed, except when local reasons forbade it. Round the cloister were ranged the buildings connected with the monks’ daily life. The chapter-house (C) always opened out of the cast walk of the cloister in a line with the

\,. \\ // crsrrzncrsm] E Y 5/ . in‘ I #2 ain‘ar17;_ South transept. In Cistercian houses tlns W94 Ali'o or the whole establishment should be voila-file 01?}, ‘We’ 17 gular, and was divided by pillars and arches 1'1, the {V120 stood the most in need of 1-111;- w'flfl Q, 010m \{ 1:5,, three aisles. Between it and the transept “8 flip! n110 were tmmmg for the monastic 11 f6, 51 ’ "8'9

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where the brothers deposited the volumes bon‘Ol/u 01" 0), with annexed buildings, devoted to {be (mad mad the library. On the other side of the chapter-ha 89; to mfirm members of the establishment. T119 Cc-megly' Q1“, the south, is a passage (D) communicating with 12116 courts last resting-place of the brethren, lay to the HOz-tb side of

and buildings beyond. This was sometimes known 118 the
parlour, colloquii locus, the monks having the privilege of
conversation here. Here also, when discipline became
relaxed, traders, who had the liberty of admission, were
allowed to display their goods. Beyond this we often find
the cahfactorium or day-room—an apartment warmed
by flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half-
frozen during the night ofiices, betook themselves after the
conclusion of lands, to gain a little warmth, grease their
sandals, and get themselves ready for the work of the day.
In the plan before us this apartment opens from the
south cloister walk, adjoining the refcctory. The place
usually assigned to it is occupied by the vaulted substruc-
ture of the dormitory The dormitory, as a rule, was
placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the
cal efuctorg/ and chapter-house, and joined the south transept,
where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the
church for nocturnal services. Opening out of the dor-
mitory was always the necessarz'um, planned with the
greatest regard to health and cleanliness, a water-course
invariably’ running from end to end. The refectory opens
out of the south cloister at The position of the mice-
tory is usually a marked point of difference between Bene-
dictine and Cistercian abbeys. In the former, as at Can-
terbury, the refectory ran east and west parallel to the nave
of the church, on the side of the cloister furthest removed
from it. In the Cistercian monasteries, to keep the noise
and sound of dinner still further away from the sacred
building, the refectory was built north and south, at right
angles to the axis of the church. It was often divided,
sometimes into two, sometimes, as here, into three aisles.
Outside the refectory door, in the cloister, was the lavatory,
where the monks washed their hands at dinner time. The
buildings belonging to the material life of the monks lay
near the refectory, as far as possible from the church, to
the S.W. With a distinct entrance from the outer court
was the kitchen court (F), with its buttery, scullery, and
larder, and the important adjunct of a stream of running
water. Further to the west, projecting beyond the line of
the west front of the church, were vast vaulted apartments
(SS), serving as cellars and storehouses, above which was the
dormitory of the conversi. Detached from these, and sepa-
rated entirely from the monastic buildings, were various
workshops, which convenience required to be banished to
the outer precincts, a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned
by water, and a carrier's shop (V), where the sandals and

leathcrn girdles of the monks were made and repaired.
Returning to the cloister, a vaulted passage admitted to
the small cloister (I), opening from the north side of which
were eight small cells, assigned to the scribes employed in
copying works for the library, which was placed in the
upper story, accessible by a turret staircase. To the
south of the small cloister a long hall will be noticed.
This was a lectureluzll, or rather a hall for the religious
disputations customary among the Cisterciamr From this
cloister opened the mfirmary (K), with its hall, chapel,
cells, blood-letting house, and other dependencies At the
eastern verge of the rest gm“ .1 dl. - he

novices’ lodgings (L), with p of bul Pigs We find t
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the nave of the church (II).

It will be seen that the arrangement of a Cistercian monastery was in accordance with a clearly-defined system, and admirably adapted to its purpose.

The base court nearest to the outer wall contained the buildings belonging to the functions of the body as agriculturalists and employers of labour. Advancing into the inner court, the buildings devoted to hospitality are found close to the entrance ; while those connected with the supply of the material wants of the brethren,—-thc kitchen, cellars, &c.,——form a court of themselves outside the cloister, and quite detached from the church. The church refeotory, dormitory, and other buildings belonging to the professional life of the brethren, surround the great cloister. The small cloister beyond, with its scribes’ cells, library, hall for disputations, &c., is the centre of the literary life of the community. The requirements of sickness and old age are carefully provided for in the infinnary cloister, and that for the aged and infirm members of the establishment. The same group contains the qvarters of the novices.

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Citeaux .

England.

Kirkstall.

directs travellers to the gate of the monastery, reached by an avenue of trees. On one side of the gate-house (B) is a long building (O), probably the ahnonry, with a dormitory above for the lower class of guests. On the other side is a chapel As soon as the porter heard a stranger knock at the gate, he rose, saying, Dea gratiaa, the oppor— tunity for the exercise of hospitality being regarded as a cause for thankfulness. On opening the door he welcomed the new arrival with a blessing—Benedicite. He fell on his knees before him, and then went to inform the abbot. However important the abbot’s occupations might be, he at once hastened to receive him whom heaven had sent. He also threw himself at his guest’s feet, and conducted him to the chapel (D) purposely built close to the gate. After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest to the care of the brother hospitallcr, whose duty it was to provide for his wants, and conduct the beast on which he might be riding to the stable (F), built adjacent to the inner gate~house This inner gate conducted into the base court (T), round which were placed the barns, stables, cow-sheds, &c. On the eastern side stood the dormitory of the lay brothers, fi‘atres conversi (G), detached from the cloister, with cellars and storehouses below. At (H), also outside the monastic buildings proper, was the abbot’s house, and annexed to it the guesthouse. For these buildings there was a separate door of entrance into the church The large cloister, with its surrounding arcades, is seen at V. On the south end projects the refectory (K), with its kitchen at (I), accessible from the base court. The long gablcd building on the east side of the cloister contained on the ground floor the chapterhouse and calefactory, with the monks’ dormitory above (M), communicating with the south transcpt of the church. At (L) was the staircase to the dormitory. The small cloister is at (W), where were the carols or cells of the scribes, with the library (P) over, reached by a turret staircase. At (R) we see a portion of the infirmary. The whole precinct is surrounded by a strong buttressed wall pierced with arches, through which streams of water are introduced. It will be noticed that the choir of the church is short, and has a square end instcad of the usual apse. The tower, in accordance with the Cistcrcian rule, is very low. The windows throughout accord with the studied simplicity of the order.

The English Cistercian houses, of which there are such extensive and beautiful remains at Fountains, Rievaulx, Kirkstall, Tintern, Netlcy, 620., were mainly arranged after the same plan, with slight local variations. As an example, we give the ground-plan of Kirkstall Abbey, which is one of the best preserved and least altered. The church here is of the Oistercian type, with a short chancel of two squares, and transepts with three eastward chapels to each, divided by solid walls (2 2 2). The whole is of the most studied plainness. The windows are unornamented, and the nave has no triforium. The cloister to the south (4) occupies the whole length of the nave. On the east side stands the two-aisled chapter house (5 , between which and the south transept is a small sacristy 3), and on the other side two small apartments, one of which was probably the parlour Beyond this stretches southward the calefactory or day-room of the monks (14). Above this whole range of building runs the monks’ dormitory, opening by stairs into the south transept of the church. At the other end were the necessaries. On the south side of the cloister we have the remains of the old refectory (11), running, as in Benedictine houses, from east to west, and the new refectory (12), which, with the increase of the inmates of the house, superseded it, stretching, as is usual in Cistcrcian houses, from north to south. Adjacent to this apartment are the remains of the kitchen, pantry, and

buttery. The arches of the lavatory are to be seen near the rcfectory entrance. The western side of the cloister is, as usual, occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the upper story the dormitory of the lay brothers (8). Extending from the south-east angle of the main group of buildings are the walls and foundations of a secondary group of considerable extent. These have been identified either with the hospitium or with the abbot’s house, but they occupy the position in which the infirmary is more usually found. The hall was a very spacious apartment, measuring 83 feet in length by 48 feet 9 inches in breadth

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Fountains Abbey, first founded an. 1132, deserves '

special notice, as one of the largest and best preserved Cistercian houses in England But the earlier buildings received considerable additions and alterations in the later period of the order, causing deviations from the strict Cistercian type. The church stands a short distance to the north of the river Skell, the buildings of the abbey stretching down to and even across the stream. We have the cloister (H) to the south, with the three-aisled chapterhouse (I) and calefactory (L) opening from its eastern walk, and the refectory (S), with the kitchen (Q) and battery (T) attached, at right angles to its southern walk. Parallel with the western walk is an immense vaulted substructure (U), incorrectly styled the cloisters, serving as collars and store-rooms, and supporting the dormitory of the conversi above. This building extended across the river. At'its

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