thought analogous to it, which, in the essays “On the Plea- | closed soon after the death of Queen Anne, which occurred sures of the Imagination," Addison prosecuted, not, indeed, in August 1714, when he had lately completed his 42d with much of philosophical depth, but with a sagacity and year. His own life extended only five years longer; and comprehensiveness which we shall undervalue much unless this closing portion of it offers little that is pleasing or we remember how little of philosophy was to be found in instructive. We see him attaining the summit of his any critical views previously propounded in England. To ambition, only to totter for a little and sink into an early Addison, further, belong those essays which (most fre- grave. We are reminded of his more vigorous days by quently introduced in regular alternation in the papers of nothing but a few happy inventions interspersed in political Saturday) rise into the region of moral and religious medi- pamphlets, and the gay fancy of a trifling poem on Kneller's tation, and tread the elevated ground with a step so grace- portrait of George I. ful as to allure the reader irresistibly to follow; sometimes, The lord justices who, previously chosen secretly by the as in the “Walk through Westminster Abbey,” enlivening Elector of Hanover, assumed the government on the Queen's solemn thought by gentle sportiveness; sometimes flowing demise, were, as a matter of course, the leading Whigs. on with an uninterrupted sedateness of didactic eloquence; They appointed Addison to act as their secretary. He and sometimes shrouding sacred truths in the veil of in. next held, for a very short time, his former office under genious allegory, as in the majestic “Vision of Mirza.” the Irish lord-lieutenant; and, early in 1715, he was While, in a word, the Spectator, if Addison had not taken made one of the lords of trade. In the course of the part in it, would probably have been as lively and humorous same year occurred the first of the only two quarrels with as it was, and not less popular in its own day, it would have friends, into which the prudent, good-tempered, and modest wanted some of its strongest claims on the respect of pos- Addison is said to have ever been betrayed. His adversary terity, by being at once lower in its moral tone, far less on this occasion was Pope, who, only three years before, abundant in literary knowledge, and much less vigorous had received, with an appearance of humble thankfulness, and expanded in thinking. In point of style, again, the Addison's friendly remarks on his Essay on Criticism; but two friends resemble each other so closely as to be hardly who, though still very young, was already very famous, distinguishable, when both are dealing with familiar objects, and beginning to show incessantly his literary jealousies, and writing in a key not rising above that of conversation and his personal and party hatreds. Several little misBut in the higher tones of thought and composition, Addi- understandings had paved the way for a breach, when, at son showed a mastery of language raising him very de- the same time with the first volume of Pope's Iliad, there cisively, not above Steele only, but above all his contem- appeared a translation of the first book of the poem, bearporaries. Indeed, it may safely be said, that no one, in ing the name of Thomas Tickell. Tickell, in his preface, any age of our literature, has united, so strikingly as he did, disclaimed all rivalry with Pope, and declared that he wished the colloquial grace and ease which mark the style of an only to bespeak favourable attention for his contemplated accomplished gentleman, with the power of soaring into a version of the Odyssey. But the simultaneous publication strain of expression nobly and eloquently dignified. was awkward; and Tickell, though not so good a versifier

On the cessation of the Spectator, Steele set on foot the as Pope, was a dangerous rival, as being a good Greek Guardian, which, started in March 1713, came to an end scholar. Further, he was Addison's under-secretary and in October, with its 175th number. To this series Addison confidential friend; and Addison, cautious though he was, gave 53 papers, being a very frequent writer during the does appear to have said (quite truly) that Tickell's translatter half of its progress. None of his essays here aim lation was more faithful than the other. Pope's anger so high as the best of those in the Spectator; but he often could not be restrained. He wrote those famous lines in exhibits both his cheerful and well-balanced humour, and which he describes Addison under the name of Atticus; his earnest desire to inculcate sound principles of literary and, as if to make reconciliation impossible, he not only judgment. In the last six months of the year 1714, the circulated these among his friends, but sent a copy to Spectator received its eighth and last volume; for which Addison himself. Afterwards, he went so far as to profess Steele appears not to have written at all, and Addison to a belief that the rival translation was really Addison's own. have contributed 24 of the 80 papers. Most of these form, It is pleasant to observe that, after the insult had been in the unbroken seriousness both of their topics and of perpetrated, Addison was at the pains, in his Freeholder, their manner, a contrast to the majority of his essays in to express hearty approbation of the Iliad of Pope; who, the earlier volumes; but several of them, both in this vein on the contrary, after Addison's death, deliberately printed and in one less lofty, are among the best known, if not the the striking but malignant lines in the Epistle to Dr finest, of all his essays. Such are the “ - Mountain of Arbuthnot. In 1715 there was acted, with little success, Miseries;” the antediluvian novel of "Shallum and Hilpa;" the comedy of The Drummer, or the Haunted House, which, the “Reflections by Moonlight on the Divine Perfections." though it appeared under the name of Steele, was certainly

In April 1713 Addison brought on the stage, very reluc- not his, and was probably written in whole or chiefly by tantly, as we are assured, and can easily believe, his tragedy Addison. It contributes very little to his fame. From of Cato. Its success was dazzling; but this issue was September 1715 to June 1716, he defended the Hanomainly owing to the concern which the politicians took in verian succ

ccession, and the proceedings of the Government the exhibition. The Whigs hailed it as a brilliant mani- in regard to the rebellion, in a paper called the Freeholder, festo in favour of constitutional freedom. The Tories which he wrote entirely himself, dropping it with the fiftyechoed the applause, to show themselves enemies of despot- fifth number. It is much better tempered, not less spirited, ism, and professed to find in Julius Cæsar a parallel to the and much more able in thinking, than his Examiner. The formidable Marlborough. Even with such extrinsic aid , finical man of taste does indeed show himself to be someand the advantage derived from the established fame of the times weary of discussing constitutional questions; but he author, Cato could never have been esteemed a good aims many enlivening thrusts at weak points of social life dramatic work, unless in an age in which dramatic power and manners; and the character of the Fox-hunting Squire, and insight were almost extinct. It is poor even in its who is introduced as the representative of the Jacobites, is poetical elements, and is redeemed only by the finely drawn with so much humour and force that we regret not solemn tone of its moral reflections, and the singular refine- being allowed to see more of him. ment and equable smoothness of its diction.

In August 1716, when he had completed his 44th year, The literary career of Addison might almost be held as Addison married the Countess-Dowager of Warwick, a

widow of fifteen years' standing. She seems to have ror- | Steele charged Addison with being so old a Whig as to feited her jointure by the marriage, and to have brought have forgotten his principles; and Addison sneered at Grub her husband nothing but the occupancy of Holland Houle Street, and called his friend “Little Dicky.”l How Addiat Kensington. We know hardly anything positively in son felt after this painful quarrel we are not told directly; regard to the affair, or as to the origin or duration of his but the Old Whig was excluded from that posthumous acquaintance with the lady or her family. But the current collection of his works for which his executor Tickell had assertion that the courtship was a long one is very probably received from him authority and directions. In that collecerroneous. There are better grounds for believing the tion was inserted a treatise on the evidences of the faith, assertion, transmitted from Addison's own time, that the entitled Of the Christian Religion. Its theological value is marriage was unhappy. The countess is said to have been very small; but it is pleasant to regard it as the last effort proud as well as violent, and to have supposed that, in con- of one who, amidst all weaknesses, was a man of real good tracting the alliance, she conferred honour instead of receiv ness as well as of eminent genius. ing it. To the uneasiness caused by domestic discomfort, The disease under which Addison laboured appears to the most friendly critics of Addison's character have attri- have been asthma. It became more violent after his retirebuted those habits of intemperance, which are said to have ment from office, and was now accompanied by dropsy. grown on him in his later years to such an extent as to have His deathbed was placid and resigned, and comforted by broken his health and accelerated his death. His bio- those religious hopes which he had so often suggested to grapher, Miss Aikin, who disbelieves his alleged want of others, and the value of which he is said, in an anecdote matrimonial quiet, has called in question, with much in- of doubtful authority, to have now inculcated in a parting genuity, the whole story of his sottishness; and it must at interview with his stepson. He died at Holland House on any rate be allowed that all the assertions which tend to fix the 17th day of June 1719, six weeks after having comsuch charges on him in the earlier parts of his life, rest on pleted his 47th year. His body, after lying in state, was no evidence that is worthy of credit, and are in themselves interred in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey. highly improbable. Sobriety was not the virtue of the The Biographia Britannica gives an elaborate memoir day; and the constant frequenting of coffee-houses, which of him; particulars are well collected in the article under figures so often in the Spectator and elsewhere, and which his name in the Biographical Dictionary of the Society for was really practised among literary men as well as others, the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; and a good many new cannot have had good effects. Addison, however, really materials, especially letters, will be found in The Life of appears to have had no genuine relish for this mode of life; Joseph Addison, by Lucy Aikin, 1843. (w. s.) and there are curious notices, especially in Steele's corre An edition of Addison's works, in four volumes quarto, was pub. spondence, of his having lodgings out of town, to which he lished by Baskerville at Birmingham in 1761. Dibdin characteriscs retired for study and composition. But, whatever the cause

this as a “glorious performance. A complete edition in six volumes,

with notes, by Richard Hurd, appeared in 1811. An American may have been, his health was shattered before he took that

edition (New York, 1854), in six volumes, with notes, by G. W. which was the last, and certainly the most unwise step, in Greene, contains several pieces collected for the first time. An edi. his ascent to political power,

tion of the Spectator, with valuable notes by Henry Morley, appeared For a considerable time dissensions had existed in the in 1871. ministry; and these came to a crisis in April 1717, when ADEL or SOMAULI, an extensive tract of country, stretchthose who had been the real chiefs passed into the ranks of ing eastward from the neighbourhood of Tajurrah to Cape the opposition. Townshend was dismissed, and Walpole Guardafui, between 43° and 51° E. long., with a breadth anticipated dismissal by resignation. There was now

not accurately ascertained. Zeila and Berbera are the formed, under the leadership of General Stanhope and Lord chief ports on the coast, and have some trade with the Sunderland, an administration which, as resting on court-opposite shores of Arabia, exporting spices, ivory, gold influence, was nicknamed the “German ministry.” Sun- dust, cattle, and horses, and receiving Indian commodities derland, Addison's former superior, became one of the two in exchange. The country, which is marshy and unhealthy, principal secretaries of state; and Addison himself was is inhabited by the Somauli, who are governed by an Iman, appointed as the other. His elevation to such a post had and are Mahometans. been contemplated on the accession of George I., and pre ADELAAR, CORT SIVARTSEN, surnamed the Eagle, a vented, we are told, by his own refusal; and it is asserted, famous naval commander, was born at Brevig in Norway on the authority of Pope, that his acceptance now was in 1622. At the age of fifteen he became a cadet in the owing only to the influence of his wife. Even if there is Dutch fleet under Van Tromp, and after a few years no ground, as there probably is not, for the allegation of entered the service of the Venetian Republic, which was Addison's inefficiency in the details of business, his unfit- engaged at the time in a war with Turkey. In 1645 he ness for such an office in such circumstances was undeni- had risen to the rank of captain; and after sharing in able and glaring. It was impossible that a Government, various victories as commander of a squadron, he achieved whose secretary of state could not open his lips in debate, his most brilliant success at the Dardanelles, on the 13th should long face an opposition headed by Robert Walpole. May 1654, when, with his own vessel alone, he broke The decay of Addison's health, too, was going on rapidly, through a line of 37 Turkish ships, sank 15 of them, and being, we may readily conjecture, precipitated by anxiety, burned others, causing a loss to the enemy of 5000 men. if no worse causes were at work. Ill health was the reason The following day he entered Tenedos, and compelled the assigned for retirement, in the letter of resignation which complete surrender of the Turks. On returning to Venice he laid before the king in March 1718, eleven months he was crowned with honours, and became admiral-lieuafter his appointment. He received a pension of £1500 tenant in 1660. Numerous tempting offers were made to a year.

him by other naval powers, and in 1661 he left Venice to Not long afterwards the divisions in the Whig party return to the Netherlands. Next year he was induced, by alienated him from his oldest friend. The Peerage Bill, the offer of a title and an enormous salary, to accept the introduced in February 1719, was attacked, on behalf of command of the Danish fleet from Frederick III. Under the opposition, in a weekly paper, which was called the Christian V. he took the command of the combined Danish Plebeian, and written by Steele. Addison answered it fleets against Sweden, but died suddenly (5th November temperately enough in the Old Whig; provocation from

1 On this point, however, see Macaulay's Essay on The Life and the Plebeian brought forth angry retort from the Whig; | Writings of Addison.

1675) at Copenhagen, before the expedition set out. When | Stettin on the 25th February 1768. After studying philoin thé Venetian service, Adelaar was known by the name sophy and jurisprudence at Leipsic he accompanied a of Curzio Suffrido Adelborst.

family to Italy, where he remained for several years. At ADELAIDE, the capital of the British colony of South Rome he obtained access to the Vatican library, a privilege Australia and of the county of the same name, situated on which he utilised by collating and editing some valuable the Torrens, seven miles from Port Adelaide, with which it old German MSS. that had been taken from Heidelberg. is connected by railway. The river, which is spanned at On his return he became private secretary to Count Pahlen, this point by several bridges, divides the city into two parts whom he accompanied from Riga to St Petersburg. In -North Adelaide, the smaller of the two, but containing 1803 he became instructor to the younger brothers of the the chief private houses, occupying a gentle slope on the Czar, the arch-dukes Nicholas and Michael, and gave such right bank; and South Adelaide, the commercial centre of satisfaction to the empress-mother that she entrusted him the town, lying on a very level plain on the left. The with the care of her private library. In 1824 he became streets of Adelaide are broad, and regularly laid out. director of the Oriental Institute in connection with the Among its public buildings are the Government offices and foreign office, and in the year following president of the the governor's house, the post office, the jail, five banks, Academy of Sciences. He died on the 30th January 1843. the railway station, and a theatre. It is the seat of a Adelung's chief literary works were—a Biography of Baron Protestant Episcopal and also of a Roman Catholic bishop, Herberstein (St Petersburg, 1817), a Biography of Baron and contains places of worship belonging to these bodies, de Meyerberg (1827), a treatise on the Relations between the as well as to the Presbyterians, the Methodists, the Uni- Sanscrit and the Russian Languages (1815), and an Essay tarians, the Baptists, and other denominations. Adelaide on Sanscrit Literature (1830), a second edition of which possesses a botanical garden, and is surrounded by exten- appeared in 1837, under the title Bibliotheca Sanscrita. sive public grounds, known as the “Park Lands," contain ADELUNG, JOHANN CHRISTOPII, a very eminent Gering over 1900 acres. It is lighted with gas, and is sup man grammarian, philologist, and general scholar, was born plied with water from a reservoir some miles up the Torrens. at Spantekow, in Pomerania, on the 8th August 1732, and The corporation consists of a mayor and eight councillors, educated at the public schools of Anclam and Clostertwo from each of the four wards; and there are also two bergen, and the university of Halle. In the year 1759 he auditors, a town clerk, and other officials. The chief was appointed professor at the gymnasium of Erfurt, but manufactures are woollen, starch, soap, beer, flour, leather, relinquished this situation two years after, and went to earthenware, and iron goods. There is a good retail trade in reside in a private capacity at Leipsic, where he continued European produce; and in the vicinity are iron and copper to devote himself for a long period to the cultivation of mines. Adelaide was founded in 1836, and incorporated letters, and particularly to those extensive and laborious in 1842. It received its name in honour of Queen Adelaide. philological researches which proved so useful to the Population, 27,208. Lat. 34° 55' S., long. 138° 38' E language and literature of his native country. In 1787 he

Port ADELAIDE is situated in a low marshy position, on received the appointment of principal librarian to the & small inlet of the Gulf of St Vincent. Its harbour is elector of Saxony at Dresden, with the honorary title of safe and commodious; but a bar at the mouth, where the Aulic Counsellor. Here he continued to reside during the depth of water varies with the tide from 8 to 16 feet, pre- remainder of his life, discharging with diligence and invents large vessels from entering. It is a free port, and has tegrity the duties of his situation, and prosecuting his good wharfs and warehouse accommodation. In 1867, laborious studies to the last with indefatigable industry 364 vessels of 119,654 tons arrived at, and 376 of 125,559 and unabated zeal. Possessing a naturally robust constitons departed from, Port Adelaide. The chief imports tution, he was able to devote, it has been said, fourteen were drapery, iron goods and machinery, beer, wine, spirits, hours daily to literary toil, down even to the period of his and paper; and the exports, grain, copper and lead ores, death. He died at Dresden on the 10th of September wool, tallow, and other native products. Population, 2482. 1806. The life of a mere scholar is generally destitute of

ADELSBERG, a market town of Austria, in the pro- interest; and that of Adelung, which was spent entirely vince of Carniola, 26 miles SW. of Laibach, and about the in literary seclusion, presents no variety of incident to the same distance E. of Trieste. About a mile from the town pen of the biographer. Of his private character and is the entrance to the famous stalactite cavern of Adelsberg, habits few memorials have been preserved, but in these the largest and most magnificent in Europe. The cavern few he is represented as the man of an amiable disposition. is divided into four grottoes, with two lateral ramifications He was a lover of good cheer, and spared neither pains which reach to the distance of about a mile and a half nor expense in procuring a variety of foreign wines, of from the entrance. The river Poik enters the cavern 60 which his cellar, which he facetiously denominated his feet below its mouth, and is heard murmuring in its Bibliotheca Selectissima, is said to have contained no less than recesses. In the Kaiser-Ferdinand grotto, the third of the forty different kinds. His manners were easy and affable, chain, a great ball is annually held on Whitmonday, when and the habitual cheerfulness of his disposition rendered the chamber is brilliantly illuminated. The Franz-Joseph- his society most acceptable to a numerous circle of friends. Elisabeth grotto, the largest of the four, and the farthest The writings of Adelung are very voluminous, and there from the entrance, is 665 feet in length, 640 feet in breadth, is not one of them, perhaps, which does not exhibit some and more than 100 feet high. Besides the imposing pro- proofs of the genius, industry, and erudition of the author. portions of its chambers, the cavern is remarkable for the But although his pen was usefully employed upon & variegated beauty of its stalactite formations, some resem- variety of subjects in different departments of literature bling transparent drapery, others waterfalls, trees, animals, and science, it is to his philological labours that he is or human beings, the more grotesque being called by principally indebted for his great reputation; and no man various fanciful appellations. These subterranean wonders ever devoted himself with more zeal and assiduity, or with were known in the Middle Ages, but the cavern remained greater success, to the improvement of his native language. undiscovered in modern times until 1816, and it is only in In a country subdivided into so many distinct sovereign still more recent times that its vast extent has been fully states, possessing no common political centre, and no ascertained and explored.

national institution whose authority could command deADELUNG, FRIEDRICH von, a distinguished philo- ference in matters of taste, in a country whose indigenous logist, nephew of John Christoph Adelung, was born at literature was but of recent growth, and where the dialect

of the people was lield in contempt at the several courts, ADEN, a town and seaport of Yemen in Arabia, belongit was no easy task for a single writer to undertake to fix ing to Britain, situated on a peninsula of the same name, the standard of a language which had branched out into a 100 miles east of the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. The peninvariety of idioms, depending in a great measure upon prin- sula of Aden consists chiefly of a mass of barren and desociples altogether arbitrary. Adelung effected as much in late volcanic rocks, extending five miles from east to west, this respect as could well be accomplished by the persever- and three from its northern shore to Ras Sanailah or Cape ing labours of an individual. By means of his excellent Aden, its most southerly point; it is connected with the grammars, dictionary, and various works on German style, mainland by a neck of flat sandy ground only a few feet he contributed greatly towards rectifying the orthography, high; and its greatest elevation is Jebel Shamshan, 1776 refining the idiom, and fixing the standard of his native feet above the level of the sea. The town is built on the tongue. Of all the different dialects he gave a decided eastern coast, in what is probably the crater of an extinct preference to that of the margraviate of Misnia, in Upper volcano, and is surrounded by precipitous rocks that form Saxony, and positively rejected everything that was con an admirable natural defence. There are two harbours, an trary to the phraseology in use among the best society of outer, facing the town, protected by the island of Sirah, that province, and in the writings of those authors whom but now partially choked with mud; and an inner, called it had produced. In adopting this narrow principle he is Aden Back-bay, or, by the Arabs, Bander Tuwayyi, on the generally thought to have been too fastidious. The dialect western side of the peninsula, which, at all periods of the of Misnia was undoubtedly the richest, as it was the year, admits vessels drawing less than 20 feet. On the whole, earliest cultivated of any in Germany; but Adelung pro- Aden is a healthy place, although it suffers considerably from bably went too far in restraining the language within the the want of good water, and the heat is often very intense. limits of this single idiom, to the exclusion of others from From its admirable commercial and military position, which it might have, and really has, acquired additional Aden early became the chief entrepôt of the trade between richness, flexibility, and force. His German dictionary has Europe and Asia. It was known to the Romans as Arabia been generally regarded as superior to the English one of Felix and Attanæ, ard was captured by them, probably in Johnson, and certainly far surpasses it in etymology. In the year 24 B.C. At the commencement of the 16th century deed, the patient spirit of investigation which Adelung pos- it fell into the hands of the Portuguese, who, however, were sessed in so remarkable a degree, together with his intimate expelled by the Turks in 1538. In the following century knowledge of the ancient history and progressive revolutions the Turks themselves relinquished their conquests in Yemen, of the different dialects on which the modern German is and the Sultan of Senna established a supremacy over Aden, based, peculiarly qualified him for the duties of a lexico- which was maintained until the year 1730, when the Sheik grapher. No man before Jacob Grimm did so much for the of Lahej, throwing off his allegiance, founded a line of language of Germany. Shortly before his death he issued independent sultans. In 1837 a ship under British colours the very learned work, at which he had been labouring was wrecked near Aden, and the crew and passengers quietly for years, entitled Mithridates; or, a General History grievously maltreated by the Arabs. An explanation of of Languages, with the Lord's Prayer, as a specimen, in the outrage being demanded by the Bombay Government, nearly five hundred languages and dialects. The hint of the Sultan undertook to make compensation for the plunder this work appears to have been taken from a publication, of the vessel, and also agreed to sell his town and port to with a similar title, published by the celebrated Conrad the English. Captain Haines of the Indian navy was sent Gesner in 1555 ; but the plan of Adelung is much more to complete these arrangements, but the Sultan's son,

who extensive. Unfortunately he did not live to finish what now exercised the powers of government, refused to fulfil he had undertaken. The first volume, which contains the the promises that his father had made. A combined Asiatic languages, was published immediately after his naval and military force was thereupon despatched, and death ; the other three were issued under the superin- the place was captured on the 16th January 1839. It tendence of Professor Vater (1809–17). Of the very became an outlying portion of the Presidency of Bombay. numerous works by Adelung, in addition to translations, The withdrawal of the trade between Europe and the the following are of greatest importance :--

East, caused by the discovery of the passage round the Geschichte der Streitigkeiten zwischen Dänemark und den Herzogen Cape of Good Hope, and the misgovernment of the native von Holstein-Gottorp. Frankf., Leipsic, 1762, 4to.— Pragmatische rulers, had gradually reduced Aden to a state of comparaStaatsgeschichte Europens von dem Ableben Kaiser Karls des Glen an. tive insignificance; but about the time of its capture by the Vols. i.-ix. Gotha, 1762-9, 4to. ---Mineralogische Belustigungen. British, the Red Sea route to India was re-opened, and Vols. i.-vi. Copenhagen and Leipsic, 1767-71, 8vo.Glossarium Manuale ad Scriptores medic et infimae Latinitatis, ex magnis Glos

commerce soon began to flow in its former channel. Aden sariis Caroli du Fresne Domini Ducange et Carpentarii, in com

was made a free port, and was chosen as one of the coaling pendium redaclum. Tomi vi. Halle, 1772-84. -Versuch eincs stations of the Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company; vollständigen grammatisch-kritischen Wörterbuchs der Hoch, Trut- and at present its most valuable import is coal for the use schen Mundart. 1774-86, 5 vols. 4to.-Ueber die Geschichte der Teutschen Sprache, über Teutsche Mundarten und Teutsche Sprach

of the steamers. It has, however, a considerable trade in lehre. Leipsic, 1781, 8vo. -- Ueber den Ursprung der Sprache und the products of Arabia-coffee, gum, feathers, dyes, pearls, den Bau der Wörter. Ibid. 1781, 8vo.-Teutsche Sprachlehre, zum and ivory; and in return receives silk and cotton goods, Gebrauch der Schulen in den Königl. Preuss. Landen. Berlin, 1781. grain, and provisions. In 1871-72 the value of its im--Lehrgebäude der Teutschen Sprache.- Versuch einer Geschichte ports was £1,404,169; and of its exports, £885,919... In der Cuitur des Menschlichen Geschlechts. 1782, 8vo.Beyträge zur Bürgerlichen Geschichte, zur Geschichte der Cultur, zur Natur. the same year 535 steamers (643,982 tons), 94 sailing geschichte, Naturlehre, und dem Feldbaue. Leipsic, 1783, 8vo. vessels (90,516 tons), and 898 native craft visited the port. Fortsetzung und Ergänzungen zu Christ. Gottl. Jöchers allgemeinem The town has been fortified and garrisoned by the British; Gelehrten Lexico. Leipsic, 1784, 2 vols. 4to. ---Ueber den Teutschen and its magnificent water-tanks, which had been permitted Styl. Berlin, 1785, 3 vols. 8vo.- Vollständige Anweisung zur Teutschen Orthographie. Leipsic, 1786, 2 vols.-Auszug aus dem

to fall into ruins, have been partially restored. It contains Grammatisch-kritischen Wörterbuch der Hohen Teutschen Mundart. j nearly 30,000 inhabitants, as compared with less than Leipsic, 1793, 1 vol.; 1795, 2 vols. 8vo.-Mithridates, oder Allge- | 1000 in 1839. Lat. 12° 46' N.; long. 45° 10' E. meine Sprachenkunde. 3 vols. Berlin, 1806-1812.

ADERNO, a city of Sicily, in the province of Catania, 1 The period in which High German as a written language ap; It is built on the site of the ancient Adranum, portions of

near the foot of Mount Etna, 17 miles N.W. of Catania. proached nearest perfection is, according to him, the short interval between 1740 and 1760.

the massive walls of which are still visible, and numerous

Roman sepulchres have been found in the vicinity. The from moving smoothly on the surface of another, we give modern city has a clean appearance, but the situation is the name of friction. The force of this increases with unhealthy. It is remarkable for the number of its con pressure, which may be the effect of gravitation or the vents and nunneries, and has several churches, the chief of result of mechanical appliances. If it be desired that which is supported by beautiful pillars of polished lava. solids should adhere permanently, this is commonly effected On the river Simeto, near the town, there is a series of by the intervention of other substances—the cements, beautiful cascades. Population, 12,999.

mortars, and solders—in a liquid or viscid state, which, ADERSBACH ROCKS, a remarkable group of isolated when they “set” or become solid, adhere closely to the columnar rocks in a valley of the Riesengebirge, on the bodies united by means of them. The principle of the frontier of Bohemia and Prussian Silesia, 9 miles W.N.W. of processes of plating, gilding, &c., is similar to this. The Braunau. The mountain, for several miles, appears divided adhesive force of cements, &c., is sometimes very great. The into detached masses by perpendicular gaps, varying in common experiment of splitting a thin sheet of paper into depth from 600 to 1200 feet. These masses are from a two is an illustration of it. The paper is pasted carefully few feet to several hundred yards in diameter. The part between two pieces of cloth, which are pulled asunder called the labyrinth consists of smaller masses of columnar after the paste has dried. The adhesion of the paste to form, confusedly piled on one another, and rising to heights the paper and to the cloth is so strong that the paper is of from 100 to 200 feet. From their fantastic shapes the thus separated into two sheets, which can easily be derocks have received various fanciful appellations. Some tached from the cloth by wetting it. Again, air and other geologists have supposed that their remarkable structure is gases adhere to solids. A dry needle, placed carefully on the result of subterranean commotion; but the generally- the surface of still water, will float, resting on a cushion received opinion is, that the whole area had once been a of air; and when thermometers are filled with mercury, tabular mass of sandstone of unequal hardness, and that the liquid has to be boiled in them to expel the air that the soft parts, which formed perpendicular seams, have adheres to the glass. been worn away by water and atmospheric changes, leaving ADIAPHORISTS (ádiáspopos, indifferent), a name apthe harder portions in their natural position. The recesses plied to Melancthon and his supporters in a controversy of this wild region frequently afforded a place of refuge to which arose out of the so-called Leipsic Interim (1548), the distressed inhabitants of the district during the Thirty and raged until 1555. In 1547 Charles V. had drawn up Years' War.

the Augsburg Interim, with a view to provide for the temADHESION, a term used to denote the physical force porary government of the Church until a general council in virtue of which one body or substance remains attached could be called. This gave great dissatisfaction both to to the surface of another with which it has been brought the more advanced and to the more moderate reformers; into contact. It is to be distinguished from cohesion, and the object of Melancthon's Leipsic Interim was to which is the mutual attraction that the particles of the same reconcile all parties, if possible, by declaring that certain body exert on each other; and it differs from chemical rites and observances of the Roman Catholic Church and attraction or affinity, since the properties of the substances the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic bishops being it affects remain unchanged after it takes place. It is a adiaphora (things indifferent), might be lawfully recognised. force that the molecules of the adhering bodies exert on On the other hand, the Catholics were required to accept each other, and must not be confounded with a contact the Protestant formula of the doctrine of justification, which is due to mere mechanical pressure, such as that leaving out the words sola fide, which, it was said, might which a piece of caoutchouc tubing exerts by its elasticity belong to the adiaphora. In the controversy that folon a body that distends it. A very familiar instance of lowed, Melancthon's chief opponent was his former coladhesion occurs in the wetting of solid bodies. It often, league, Matth. Flacius, on whose removal from Wittenburg indeed generally, happens that, when a solid and a liquid to Magdeburg the latter place became the head-quarters of touch each other, a film of the latter adheres to the the extreme Lutherans. former, and neither falls nor can be shaken off. This ADIGE (German, Etsch), the ancient Athesis, a large arises from the adhesion of the liquid to the solid being a river of Italy, formed by several rivulets which rise in the stronger force than the cohesion of the particles of the Rhætian Alps, and unite near Glarus. After flowing liquid. It is also stronger than the force of gravitation; eastward to the neighbourhood of Botzen, it receives the and the liquid can only be removed by being forcibly Eisach, and becomes navigable. It then turns to the rubbed off, or by the process of evaporation. The force of south, and leaving the Tyrol, enters Lombardy 13 miles S. adhesion may be determined by poising a plate of metal of Roveredo. After traversing Northern Italy in a cours : on a balance, and afterwards ascertaining what additional first southerly, but then easterly, it falls into the Adriatic force will be required to detach it from the surface of a at Porto-Fossone, a few miles N. of the Po. The most liquid. But this can only be done in the few cases in considerable towns on its banks are Trent and Roveredo which the liquid does not wet the solid (otherwise the in the Tyrol, and Verona and Legnago in Italy. It is measurement would be that of the cohesive force of the navigable from the heart of the Tyrol to the sea, and has in liquid), and does not act on it chemically. The phenomena Lombardy a breadth of 200 yards and a depth of from 10 of CAPILLARY ATTRACTION (q.v.) depend on adhesion. to 16 feet, but the strength of the current renders its naviSometimes, when a solid and a liquid are brought into gation very difficult, and lessens its value as a means of contact, the adhesive force overcomes the cohesion of the transit between Germany and Northern Italy. The Adige particles of the solid, so that it loses its solid form, and is has a course of about 220 miles. dissolved or held in solution. Solid bodies, too, as well as ADIPOCERE (from adeps, fat, and cera, wax), a subliquids, adhere to solids. Smooth surfaces (of lead, for stance into which animal matter is sometimes converted, instance, or of dissimilar metals) will adhere; and if two deriving its name from the resemblance it bears to both fat plates of polished glass be laid together, it will scarcely be and wax. When the Cemetery of the Innocents at Paris possible to separate them without breaking them. If the was removed in 1786–87, great masses of this substance solids are pressed together, the adhesive force is generally were found where the coffins containing the dead bodies greater; but it has been shown to be dependent to a very had been placed very closely together. At the bottom of slight extent only on the pressure of the atmosphere. To the coffin, in these cases, there appeared, loosely enveloped a looser kind of adhesion, whereby one body is prevented in linen, a shapeless mass, of a dingy white colour,

1. - 20

« ElőzőTovább »