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wrote a Latin poem, in which he gave the prince the title | the Turks in 1832. After the defeat of the Turkish army of king of France and England. This proof of his loyalty at Konieh, it was taken possession of by Ibrahim Pacha, involved him in difficulties. The French court was offended, and continued to be held by the Egyptians till the treaty and ordered him to be arrested; and he was confined for six of July 1840 restored it to the Porte. In the streets of months. He was released only through the intercession of the town there are numerous beautiful fountains, supplied Queen Mary and some of the principal nobility, who inte- with water from the river, which is here spanned by a rested themselves in his behalf. As soon as he recovered stately bridge of fifteen arches, said to have been erected his liberty, he retired with his pupil to Bourges. He was in by Justinian. In winter the climate is mild and healthy, this city during the massacre at Paris; and the same perse- but in summer the heat is so great that the principal cuting spirit prevailing among the Catholics at Bourges as inhabitants betake themselves to various cool retreats in at the metropolis, he lived concealed for seven months in a the neighbouring mountains. The adjoining plain of public-house, the aged master of which, in reward for his Adana is rich and fertile. The chief productions of the charity to heretics, was thrown from the roof, and had his province are cotton, corn, sesame, and wool, which are brains dashed out. Whilst Mr Adamson lay thus in his largely exported. The population of the town is 20,000. sepulchre, as he called it, he wrote his Latin poetical version ADANSON, MICHEL, a celebrated French naturalist, of the book of Job, and his tragedy of Herod in the same descended from a Scottish family which had at the Revolulanguage. In the year 1573 he returned to Scotland, and, tion attached itself to the fortunes of the house of Stuart, having entered into holy orders, became minister of Paisley. was born the 7th of April 1727, at Aix, in Provence, where In the year 1575 he was appointed one of the commis- his father was in the service of M. de Vintimille, archsioners, by the General Assembly, to settle the jurisdiction | bishop of that province. On the translation of this preiate and policy of the church; and the following year he was to the archbishopric of Paris, about the year 1730, the named, with Mr David Lindsay, to report their proceedings elder Adanson repaired thither with his five children, who to the Earl of Morton, then regent. About this time the were all provided for by their father's patron. A small earl appointed him one of his chaplains; and, on the death canonry fell to the lot of Michel, the revenue of which of Archbishop Douglas, promoted him to the archiepiscopal defrayed the expenses of his education at the college of see of St Andrews. This gave rise to a protracted con Plessis. While there he was distinguished for great quickflict with the Presbyterian party in the Assembly. Soon ness of apprehension, strength of memory, and mental after his promotion, he published a catechism in Latin verse, ardour; but his genius took no particular bent, until he dedicated to the king, a work highly approved even by his received a microscope from the celebrated Tuberville Needenemies, who nevertheless still continued to persecute him ham, who was struck with admiration of the talents and with great violence. In 1578 he submitted himself to the acquirements he displayed at a public examination. From General Assembly, which procured him peace but for a very that time to the last hour of his life he persevered with a little time; for, the year following, fresh accusations were zeal almost unexampled in the observation and study of brought against him. A Provincial Synod was held at St nature. On leaving college, his youthful ardour was well Andrews in April 1586; the archbishop was here accused employed in the cabinets of Reaumur and Bernard de and excommunicated. He appealed to the king and the Jussieu, as well as in the Jardin des Plantes. Such was states, but this availed him little. At the next General his zeal, that he ropeated the instructions of the professors Assembly, a paper being produced containing the arch- to his less apt fellow-students; and before completing his bishop's submission, he was absolved from the excommuni- nineteenth year he had actually described (for his own cation. In 1588 fresh accusations were brought against improvement) 4000 species of the three kingdoms of him. The year following he published the Lamentations nature. In this way he soon exhausted the rich stores of of the prophet Jeremiah in Latin verse, which he dedicated accumulated knowledge in Europe; and having obtained a to the king, complaining of his hard usage. Towards the small appointment in the colony of Senegal, he resigned end of the same year he published a translation of the his canonry, and embarked on the 20th of December 1748 Apocalypse in Latin verse, and a copy of Latin verses. for Africa. Senegal, from the unhealthiness of its climate, The king was unmoved by his application, and granted the was a terra incognita to naturalists; and this determined revenue of his see to the Duke of Lennox, so that the his choice of that country as a field for exploration. His prelate and his family were literally reduced to the want of ardour remained unabated during the five years of his bread. During the remaining part of his unfortunate life residence in Africa. He collected and described, in greater he was supported by charitable contributions, and died in or less detail, an immense number of animals and plants; 1592. He had previously made a written recantation of collected specimens of every object of commerce; delineated his alleged errors in regard to Episcopacy, though the maps of the country; made systematic meteorological and genuineness of this is doubted by Spottiswoode. (See astronomical observations; and prepared grammars and Cunningham's Church History of Scotland, vol. i.) The dictionaries of the languages spoken on the banks of the character of this prelate has been variously represented, Senegal. On his return to Paris in February 1754 he according to the sentiments of religion and politics which found himself without resources, but fortunately secured prevailed. But there is little doubt that he encouraged the patronage of M. de Bombarde, who encouraged him in and supported, under the authority of the king, oppressive the publication of the scientific results of his travels. In and injurious measures. The panegyric of the editor of his Histoire Naturelle du Sénégal (Paris, 1757) he made his works, Mr Wilson, is extravagant and absurd. He use of a small portion of the materials at his disposal; and says that "he was a miracle of nature, and rather seemed the work has a special interest from the essay on Shells, to be the immediate production of God Almighty than printed at the end of it, where Adanson proposed his born of a woman.”

universal method, a system of classification distinct from ADANA, a city of Asia Minor, the capital of the pro- those of Buffon and Linnæus. He founded his classificavince of the same name, on the right bank of the Sihun, tion of all organised beings on the consideration of each about 30 miles from the sea, in N. lat. 37° 1', E. long individual organ. As each organ gave birth to new rela35° 18'. It is built on the site of the ancient Antiochia tions, so he established a corresponding number of arbitrary ad Sarum. Its position, commanding the passage of the arrangements. Those beings possessing the greatest nummountains to the north of Syria, rendered it important as ber of similar organs were referred to one great division, a military station in the contest between the Egyptians and and the relationsbip was considered more remote in pro

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portion to the dissimilarity of organs. The chief defect of directed patriotism he refused to present them to the this method consists in presupposing a knowledge of species Abolitionists of England. A similar feeling led him to and their organisation altogether beyond the existing stage refuse to settle in Austria, Russia, or Spain, on the invitaof knowledge. It gives, however, distinct ideas of the tion of the sovereigns of those countries. His most imdegree of affinity subsisting between organised beings, portant works are his Natural History of Senegal and his independent of all physiological science. Until the appear- Families of Plants. He contributed a number of papers to ance of this work, the Testacea had scarcely been made the the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, on the Ship-worm, subject of serious study. Adanson's methodical distribu- the Baobab tree (the largest tree known, to which, in hontion, founded on not less than twenty of the partial classi our of Adanson, Linnæus gave the name Adansonia digitata), fications already alluded to, is decidedly superior to that of the origin of the varieties of cultivated plants, gum-producing any of his predecessors. For the first time there was pre- trees, and the Oscillatoria Adansonia, an animal regarded sented in this department of natural history a classification by him as a spontaneously moving plant. Besides these of the animals themselves, and not merely of the shells essays, he contributed several valuable articles in natural which contain them. Like every first attempt, however, it history to the earlier part of the Supplement to the first had its imperfections, which arose chiefly from ignorance of Encyclopédie; and he is also the reputed author of an essay the anatomical structure of the animals. It was owing to on the Electricity of the Tourmaline (Paris, 1757), which this that he omitted, in his arrangement of the Mollusca, all bears the name of the Duke of Noya Caraffa. molluscous animals without shells. He abandoned his ADAPTATION, in Biology, is the process by which an original plan of publishing his Senegal observations in eight organism or species of organisms becomes modified to suit volumes, and applied himself entirely to his Familles des the conditions of its life. Every change in a living organPlantes, which he published in 1763. Here he developed ism involves adaptation; for in all cases life consists in a the principle of arrangement above mentioned, which, in continuous adjustment of internal to external relations. its adherence to natural botanical relations, was based on The term is usually restricted, however, to imply such the system of Tournefort, and had been anticipated to modifications as arise during the life of an individual, when some extent nearly a century before by Ray. The success an external change directly generates some change of funcof this work was hindered by its innovations in the use of tion and structure. Thus, since the adjustments of organterms, which were ridiculed by the defenders of the popular isms arise partly in direct response to causes acting on the sexual system of Linnæus; but it did much to open the individual, and partly in response to causes acting not. way for the establishment, by means principally of Jussieu's directly on the individual but on the species as a whole, Genera Plantarum (1789), of the natural method of the adaptation is to be regarded as the complement of natural classification of plants. In 1774 Adanson submitted to the selection. While natural selection acts primarily on the consideration of the Academy of Sciences an immense work, species, adaptation acts only indirectly, through the incontaining what may be called the universal application of heritance of modifications directly generated in the indihis universal method; for it extended to all known beings vidual. All adaptation is limited, since an organ can only and substances. This work consisted of 27 large volumes vary to a certain limited extent from its congenital strucof manuscript, employed in displaying the general relations ture. Adaptations are sometimes distinguished as indirect of all these matters, and their distribution; 150 volumes (for instance, by Haeckel, Generelle Morphologie, vol. ii.), more, occupied with the alphabetical arrangement of 40,000 which are directly generated in an organism, but only species; a vocabulary, containing 200,000 words, with become apparent in its offspring. These form an imtheir explanations; and a number of detached memoirs, portant class, and seem to suggest that the phenomena 40,000 figures, and 30,000 specimens of the three king of adaptation, thoroughly understood, would go far to doms of nature. The committee to which the inspection explain all the difficult cases of so-called spontaneous of this enormous mass was intrusted strongly recommended variation. Adanson to separate and publish all that was peculiarly his ADDA, the ancient Addua, a river of Northern Italy, own, leaving out what was merely compilation. He obsti- formed by the union of several small streams, near the town nately rejected this advice; and the huge work, at which of Bormio, in the Rhætian Alps, flows westward through he continued to labour, was never published. He had been the Valtellina into the Lake of Como, near its northern elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1759, and he extremity. Issuing from the Lecco arm of the lake, it latterly subsisted on a small pension it had conferred on him. crosses the plain of Lombardy, and finally, after a course Of this he was deprived on the dissolution of the Academy of about 150 miles, joins the Po, 8 miles above Cremona. by the Constituent Assembly, and was consequently reduced The Adda was formerly the boundary between the territo such a depth of poverty as to be unable to appear before tories of Venice and Milan; and on its banks several im the French Institute when it invited him to take his place portant battles have been fought, notably that of Lodi, among its members.

Government afterwards conferred where Napoleon defeated the Austrians in 1796. upon him a pension sufficient to relieve the simple wants ADDER, the common viper (Vipera communis). The of the great naturalist. He died, after months of severe death adder (Acanthopis tortor) of Australia, and the puff suffering, on the 3d of August 1806, requesting, as the only adder (Clotho arietans) of South Africa, are both highly decoration of his grave, a garland of flowers gathered from poisonous. the 58 families he had differentiated—“a touching though ADDINGTON, HENRY, VISCOUNT SIDMOUTH, prime transitory image,” says Cuvier, “of the more durable minister of England, eldest son of Dr Anthony Addington, monument which he has erected to himself in his works.” was born at Reading on the 30th May 1757. He was His zeal for science, his unwearied industry, and his talents educated at Winchester and at Brazenose College, Oxford. as a philosophical observer, are conspicuous in all his writ-In 1784 he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, but ings. The serenity of his temper, and the unaffected good being elected about the same time member of Parliament ness of his heart, endeared him to the few who knew him for Devizes, he did not enter on legal practice. He was intimately. On his return from Africa in 1754, he laid already on terms of intimacy with the younger Pitt, his before the French Indian Company a scheme for the settle-father having been Lord Chatham's medical adviser (a ment of a colony in Senegal, where articles of African circumstance that secured for young Addington the nickproduce might be cultivated by free negroes. His proposi- name in Parliament of “the Doctor"); and he attached tions were inheeded by his countrymen, and by a mis- I himself, as was natural, to the party of the great commoner.

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His fidelity to Pitt received a speedy and ample acknow- | speedily diverted from his earlier views by the countenance ledgment when he was elected, in May 1789, speaker of which these men bestowed on him. His first patron (to the House, in succession to Grenville. For a period of whom he seems to have been introduced by Congreve) was twelve years he discharged the duties of the chair to the Charles Montague, afterwards Earl of Halifax, who was general satisfaction of all parties, if with no very marked himself a dabbler in literature, and a protector of literary ability. In 1801, when Pitt resigned on the question of men; and he became known afterwards to the accomplished Catholic emancipation, Addington succeeded him in the and excellent Somers. While both of them were quite able offices of prime minister and chancellor of the exchequer. to estimate justly his literary merits, they had regard mainly He was head of the party that had come to be known as to the services which they believed him capable of render "the king's friends, and took office, it is said, on the ing to the nation or the party; and accordingly they urgent personal solicitation of his majesty. The most encouraged him to regulate his pursuits with a view to memorable event of his brief administration was the nego- public and official employment. For a considerable time, tiation of the peace of Amiens, which was concluded on however, he was left to his own resources, which cannot terms that were considered very favourable. It proved, have been otherwise than scanty. however, but a short-lived truce, the ambition of the First His first literary efforts were poetical In 1693 a short Consul necessitating a renewal of hostilities in May 1803. poem of his, addressed to Dryden, was inserted in the third From this period Pitt assumed a critical attitude towards volume of that veteran writer's Miscellanies. The next the ministry, and at length he joined Fox and the opposi- volume of this collection contained his translation, in tolertion in demanding more vigorous measures for the defence able heroic couplets, of “all Virgil's Fourth Georgic, except of the country. The result was that Addington was com the story of Aristæus." Two and a half books of Ovid pelled to resign, and Pitt was restored to power in May were afterwards attempted; and to his years of early man1804. Addington abstained from all factious opposition, hood belonged also his prose Essay on Virgil's Georgics, a and indeed gave a general support to the Government. performance which hardly deserved, either for its style or In January 1805 he joined the cabinet as president of the for its critical excellence, the compliment paid it by Dryden, council, accepting at the same time the dignity of a peer- in prefixing it to his own translation of the poem. The most age, which he had previously declined. He resigned office, ambitious of those poetical assay-pieces is the Account of however, in July of the same year, in consequence of the the Greatest English Poets, dated April 1694, and addressed share he took in the prosecution of Lord Melville having affectionately to Sacheverell, the poet's fellow-collegian, who estranged him from Pitt. After the death of the latter in afterwards became so notorious in the party-quarrels of the 1806, he became lord privy seal, and subsequently lord time. This piece, spirited both in language and in versipresident in the cabinet of Fox and Grenville, but resigned fication, is chiefly noticeable as showing that ignorance of office in 1807. He became a third time lord president old English poetry which was then universal. Addison under Mr Perceval in 1812, and in June of the same year | next, in 1695, published one of those compositions, celebratreceived the seals of the Home Office under the adminis- ing contemporary events, and lauding contemporary great tration of Lord Liverpool. He held this position for ten men, on which, during the half-century that succeeded the eventful years, during which he received his full share of Revolution, there was wasted so much of good writing and the hostile criticism to which home secretaries are pecu- of fair poetical ability. His piece, not very meritorious even liarly exposed. His administration had the merit of being in its own class, was addressed “To the King,” and comvigorous, fearless, and consistent; but it frequently occa memorates the campaign which was distinguished by Wilsioned great irritation, and all but provoked rebellion. liam's taking of Namur. Much better than the poem itself The policy of repression which he pursued in regard to the are the introductory verses to Somers, then lord keeper. reform meeting at Manchester in 1819, was not justifiable This production, perhaps intended as a remembrancer to even according to the limited ideas of liberty prevalent at the writer's patrons, did not at once produce any obvious that time. Lord Sidmouth resigned office in 1822, retain effect: and we are left in considerable uncertainty as to the ing his seat in the cabinet, however, until 1824. He died manner in which about this time Addison contrived to on the 15th Feb. 1844, at the advanced age of 87. (Life support himself. He corresponded with Tonson the bookand Correspondence of Lord Sidmouth, by Dean Pellew, seller about projected works, one of these being a Trans3 vols. 8vo, 1847; Life of William Pitt by Lord Stan- lation of Herodotus. It was probably at some later time hope, 4 vols. p. 8vo, 1867.)

that he purposed compiling a Dictionary of the English ADDISON, JOSEPH, was the eldest son of Lancelot Language. In 1699 a considerable collection of his Latin Addison, Dean of Lichfield, and was born at his father's verses was published at Oxford, in the Musæ Anglicanæ. rectory of Milston in Wiltshire, on the 1st day of May These appear to have interested some foreign scholars; 1672. After having passed through several schools, the and several of them show curious symptoms of his characlast of which was the Charter-house, he went to Oxford teristic humour. when he was about fifteen

years

old. He was first entered In the same year, his patrons, either having still no office of Queen's College, but after two years was elected a scholar to spare for him, or desiring him to gain peculiarly high of Magdalen College, having, it is said, been recommended qualifications for diplomatic or other important business, by his skill in Latin versification. He took his master's provided for him temporarily by a grant, which, though degree in 1693, and held a fellowship from 1699 till 1711. | bestowed on a man of great merit and promise, would not

The eleven years extending from 1693, or his twenty-first pass unquestioned in the present century. He obtained, year, to 1704, when he was in his thirty-second, may be on the recommendation of Lord Somers, a pension of £300 set down as the first stage of his life as a man of letters. a year, designed (as Addison himself afterwards said in a During this period, embracing no profession, and not as yet memorial addressed to the crown) to enable him “to travel, entangled in official business, he was a student, an observer, and qualify himself to serve His Majesty." In the summer and an author; and though the literary works which he of 1699 he crossed into France, where, chiefly for the purthen produced are not those on which his permanent cele- pose of learning the language, he remained till the end of brity rests, they gained for him in his own day a high 1700; and after this he spent a year in Italy. In Switzreputation. He had at first intended to become a clergy-erland, on his way home, he was stopped by receiving man; but his talents having attracted the attention of notice that he was to be appointed envoy to Prince Eugene, leading statesmen belonging to the Whig party, he was then engaged in the war in Italy. But his Whig friends

were already tottering in their places; and, in March 1702, | Whig party. Although all accounts agree in representing the death of King William at once drove them from power him as a shy man, he was at least saved from all risk of and put an end to the pension. Indeed Addison asserted making himself disagreeable in society, by his unassuming that he never received but one year's payment of it, and manners, his extreme caution, and that sedulous desire to that all the other expenses of his travels were defrayed by oblige, which his satirist Pope exaggerated into a positive himself. He was able, however, to visit a great part of fault. His knowledge and ability were esteemed so highly, Germany, and did not reach Holland till the spring of as to confirm the expectations formerly entertained of his 1703. His prospects were now sufficiently gloomy: he usefulness in public business; and the literary fame he had entered into treaty, oftener than once, for an engagement already acquired soon furnished an occasion for recommendas a travelling tutor; and the correspondence in one of ing him to public employment. Though the Whigs were these negotiations has been preserved. Tonson had recom out of office, the administration which succeeded them was, mended him as the best person to attend in this character in all its earlier changes, of a complexion so mixed and unthe son of the Duke of Somerset, commonly called “The certain, that the influence of their leaders was not entirely Proud.” The duke, a profuse man in matters of pomp, lost. Not long after Marlborough's great victory at Blenwas economical in questions of education. He wished heim, it is said that Godolphin, the lord treasurer, expressed Addison to name the salary he expected; this being to Lord Halifax a desire to have the great duke's famo declined, he announced, with great dignity, that he would extended by a poetical tribute. Halifax seized the opporgive a hundred guineas a year; Addison accepted the tunity of recommending Addison as the fittest man for the munificent offer, saying, however, that he could not find duty; stipulating, we are told, that the service should not his account in it otherwise than by relying on his Grace's be unrewarded, and doubtless satisfying the minister that future patronage; and his Grace immediately intimated his protegé possessed other qualifications for office besides that he would look out for some one else. Towards the dexterity in framing heroic verse. The Campaign, the end of 1703 Addison returned to England.

poem thus written to order, was received with extraordinary Works which he composed during his residence on the applause; and it is probably as good as any that ever was Continent were the earliest that showed him to have attained prompted by no more worthy inspiration. It has, indeed, maturity of skill and genius. There is good reason for be- neither the fiery spirit which Dryden threw into occasional lieving that his tragedy of Cato, whatever changes it may 1 pieces of the sort, nor the exquisite polish that would have afterwards have suffered, was in great part written while he | been given by Pope, if he had stooped to make such uses lived in France, that is, when he was about twenty-eight of his genius; but many of the details are pleasing; and in years of age. In the winter of 1701, amidst the stoppages the famous passage of the Angel, as well as in several others, and discomforts of a journey across the Mount Cenis, he there is even something of force and imagination. composed, wholly or partly, his Letter from Italy, which is The consideration covenanted for by the poet's friends by far the best of his poems, if it is not rather the only one was faithfully paid. A vacancy occurred by the death of among them that at all justifies his claim to the poetical another celebrated man, John Locke; and in November character. It contains some fine touches of description, 1704, Addison was appointed one of the five commissioners and is animated by a noble tone of classical enthusiasm of appeal in Excise. The duties of the place must have been While in Germany he wrote his Dialogues on Medals, which, as light for him as they had been for his predecessor; for he however, were not published till after his death. These continued to hold it with all the appointments he subsehave much liveliness of style, and something of the gay quently received from the same ministry. But there is no humour which the author was afterwards to exhibit more reason for believing that he was more careless than other strongly; but they show little either of antiquarian learning public servants in his time; and the charge of incompetency or of critical ingenuity. In tracing out parallels between as a man of business, which has been brought so positively passages of the Roman poets and figures or scenes which against him, cannot possibly be true as to this first period appear in ancient sculptures, Addison opened the easy course of his official career. Indeed, the specific allegations refer of inquiry which was afterwards prosecuted by Spence; and exclusively to the last years of his life; and, if he had not this, with the apparatus of spirited metrical translations from really shown practical ability in the period now in question, the classics, gave the work a likeness to his account of his it is not easy to see how he, a man destitute alike of wealth, travels. This account, entitled Remarks on Several Parts of social or fashionable liveliness, and of family interest, of Italy, &c., he sent home for publication before his own could have been promoted, for several years, from office to return. It wants altogether the interest of personal narra- office, as he was, till the fall of the administration to which tive: the author hardly ever appears. The task in which he was attached. In 1706 he became one of the underhe chiefly busies himself is that of exhibiting the illustra- secretaries of state, serving first under Hedges, who belonged tions which the writings of the Latin poets, and the anti- to the Tory section of the Government, and afterwards under quities and scenery of Italy, mutually give and receive. Lord Sunderland, Marlborough's son-in-law, and a zealous Many of the landscapes are sketched with great liveliness, follower of Addison's early patron, Somers. The work of and there are not a few strokes of arch humour. The this office, however, like that of the commissionership, must statistical information is very meagre; nor are there many often have admitted of performance by deputy. For in observations on society; and politics are no further 1707, the Whigs having become stronger, Lord Halifax meddled with than to show the moderate liberality of the was sent on a mission to the Elector of Hanover; and, writer's own opinions.

besides taking Vanbrugh the dramatist with him as king, With the year 1704 begins a second era in Addison's life, at-arms, he selected Addison as his secretary. In 1708 he which extends to the summer of 1710, when his age was entered Parliament, sitting at first for Lostwithiel, but thirty-eight. This was the first term of his official career; afterwards for Malmesbury, which, being six times elected, and, though very barren of literary performance, it not only he represented from 1710 till his death. Here unquestionraised him from indigence, but settled definitively his posi- ably he did fail. What part he may have taken in the tion as a public man. His correspondence shows that, while details of business we are not informed; but he was always on the Continent, he had been admitted to confidential inti- a silent member, unless it be true that he once attempted macy by diplomatists and men of rank; immediately on his to speak and sat down in confusion. In 1709 Lord return he was enrolled in the Kitcat Club, and brought thus Wharton, the father of the notorious duke, having been and otherwise into communication with the gentry of the named lord-lieutenant of Ireland, Addison became his

secretary, receiving also an appointment as keeper of records. | friend's authorship only by recognising, in one of the early This event happened only about a year and a half before papers, a critical remark which he remembered having himthe dismissal of the ministry; and the Irish secretary would self communicated to Steele. He began to furnish essays seem to have transacted the business of his office chiefly in in a few weeks, assisted occasionally while he held office, London. But there are letters showing him to have made and afterwards wrote oftener than Steele himself. He thus himself acceptable to some of the best and most distin- | contributed in all, if his literary executor selected his conguished persons in Dublin; and he escaped without having tributions correctly, more than 60 of the 271 essays which any quarrel with Swift, his acquaintance with whom had the work contains. The Tatler exhibited, in more ways begun some time before. In the literary history of than one, symptoms of being an experiment. The proAddison those seven years of official service are almost a jector, imitating the news-sheets in form, thought it prudent blank, till we approach their close. He defended the to give, in each number, news in addition to the essay; and Government in an anonymous pamphlet on The Present there was a want, both of unity and of correct finishing, in State of the War; he united compliments to the all-powerful the putting together of the literary materials. Addison's Marlborough with indifferent attempts at lyrical poetry in contributions, in particular, are in many places as lively as his

opera of Rosamond; and, besides furnishing a prologue anything he ever wrote; and his style, in its more familiar to Steele's comedy of The Tender Husband, he perhaps moods at st, had been fully formed before he returned gave some assistance in the composition of the play. Irish from the Continent. But, as compared with his later pieces, administration, however, allowed it would seem more these are only what the painter's loose studies and sketches leisure than might have been expected. During the last are to the landscapes which he afterwards constructs out of few months of his tenure of office Addison contributed them. In his invention of incidents and characters, one largely to the Tatler. But his entrance on this new field thought after another is hastily used and hastily dismissed, does nearly coincide with the beginning of a new section in as if he were putting his own powers to the test, or trying his history.

the effect of various kinds of objects on his readers; his most Even the coalition-ministry of Godolphin was too Whig- ambitious flights, in the shape of allegories and the like, are gish for the taste of Queen Anne; and the Tories, the stiff and inanimate; and his favourite field of literary criti favourites of the court, gained, both in parliamentary power cism is touched so slightly, as to show that he still wanted and in popularity out of doors, by a combination of lucky confidence in the taste and knowledge of the public. accidents, dexterous management, and divisions and double The Tatler was dropped at the beginning of 1711, but dealing among their adversaries. The real failure of the only to be followed by the Spectator, which was begun on prosecution of Addison's old friend Sacheverell, completed the 1st day of March, and appeared every week-day till the the ruin of the Whigs; and in August 1710 an entire 6th day of December 1712. It had then completed the revolution in the ministry had been completed. The Tory 555 numbers usually collected in its first seven volumes. administration which succeeded kept its place till the Addison, now in London and unemployed, co-operated with queen's death in 1714, and Addison was thus left to devote Steele constantly from the very opening of the series; and four of the best years of his life, from his thirty-ninth year the two, contributing almost equally, seem together to have to his forty-third, to occupations less lucrative than those in written not very much less than five hundred of the papers. which his time had recently been frittered away, but much Emboldened by the success of their former adventure, they more conducive to the extension of his own fame, and to devoted their whole space to the essays. They relied, with the benefit of English literature. Although our information a confidence which the extraordinary popularity of the work as to his pecuniary affairs is very scanty, we are entitled to fully justified, on their power of exciting the interest of a believe that he was now independent of literary labour. He wide audience by pictures and reflections drawn from a speaks, in an extant paper, of having had (but lost) property field which embraced the whole compass of ordinary life in the West Indies; and he is understood to have inherited and ordinary knowledge, no kind of practical themes being several thousand pounds from a younger brother, who was positively excluded except such as were political, and all governor of Madras. In 1711 he purchased, for £10,000, literary topics being held admissible, for which it seemed the estate of Bilton, near Rugby,—the place which after- possible to command attention from persons of average wards became the residence of Mr Apperley, better known taste and information. A seeming unity was given to the by his assumed name of “Nimrod.”

undertaking, and curiosity and interest awakened on behalf During those four years he produced a few political of the conductors, by the happy invention of the Spectator's writings. Soon after the fall of the ministry, he con- Club, in which Steele is believed to have drawn all the tributed five numbers to the Whig Examiner, a paper set characters. The figure of Sir Roger de Coverley, however, up in opposition to the Tory periodical of the same name, the best even in the opening group, is the only one that which was then conducted by the poet Prior, and after was afterwards elaborately depicted; and Addison was the wards became the vehicle of Swift's most vehement invec-author of all the papers in which his oddities and amiatives against the party he had once belonged to. These are bilities are so admirably delineated. To him, also, the certainly the most ill-natured of Addison's writings, but Spectator owed a very large share of its highest excellences. they are neither lively nor vigorous. There is more spirit His were many, and these the most natural and elegant, if in his allegorical pamphlet, the Trial and Conviction of not the most original, of its humorous sketches of human Count Tariff

character and social eccentricities, its good-humoured satires But from the autumn of 1710 till the end of 1714 his on ridiculous features in manners, and on corrupt symptoms principal employment was the composition of his celebrated in public taste; these topics, however, making up a departPeriodical Essays. The honour of inventing the plan of ment in which Steele was fairly on a level with his more such compositions, as well as that of first carrying the idea famous coadjutor. But Steele had neither learning, nor into execution, belongs to Richard Steele, who had been a taste, nor critical acuteness sufficient to qualify him for school-fellow of Addison at the Charter-house, continued to enriching the series with such literary disquisitions as those be on intimate terms with him afterwards, and attached which Addison insinuated so often into the lighter matter himself with his characteristic ardour to the same political of his essays, and of which he gave an elaborate specimen party. When, in April 1709, Steele published the first in his celebrated and agreeable criticism on Paradise Lost. number of the Tatler, Addison was in Dublin, and knew Still further beyond the powers of Steele were those specunothing of the design. He is said to have detected his lations on the theory of literature and of the processes of

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