tion often erroneous. The style is clear and interesting, visited the Continent, and spent three years in Italy for though somewhat prolix. It was first published from MSS. the purpose of examining the ruins of Roman architecture. at Copenhagen in 1579. The best edition is that of The magnificence of the public baths erected at Rome in Lappenberg in Pertz's Monumenta Germanio. A supple- the time of Diocletian having impressed him with the idea ment to the Gesta, a geographical work of considerable that there had been a marked revival of architectural art Talue, entitled De Situ Danice et Reliquarum quae trans during that emperor's reign, he resolved to visit the ruins Daniam sunt Regionum Natura, was published at Stock- of the private palace Diocletian had erected at Spalatro in holm in 1615, and at Leyden in 1629.

Dalmatia. In company with Clerisseau, a French architect, ADAM, ALEXANDER, Rector of the High School, Edin- he sailed from Venice in July 1754, and in a few weeks, burgh, was born on the 24th of June 1741, near Forres, in with the help of two experienced draughtsmen, had comMorayshire. From his earliest years he showed uncommon pleted plans and views of the fragments, from which he diligence and perseverence in classical studies, notwith was afterwards able to execute a design of the entire buildstanding many difficulties and privations. In 1757 he ing. The results were published in the Ruins of the Palace went to Edinburgh, where he studied at the University of Diocletian, &c. (1764). After his return to England he with such success that in eighteen months he was appointed rose to the highest eminence in his profession, and was head-master of Watson's Hospital, being at the time only appointed architect to the king in 1762. Six years later nineteen. He was confirmed in the office of Rector of the he entered Parliament as representative of the county of High School on the 8th of June 1768, on the retirement of Kinross, but he still continued to devote himself to the Mr Matheson, whose substitute he had been for some time duties of his profession, resigning only his court appointbefore. From this period he devoted himself entirely to ment. In 1773–78 he and his brother James, also an the duties of his office, and to the preparation of the architect of considerable note, published from time to time numerous works he published in classical literature. His large folio engravings with letterpress description of their popularity and success as a teacher are strikingly illustrated designs, the most important being,-Lord Mansfield's in the facts that his class increased more than fourfold dur- house at Caenwood; Luton House, Bedfordshire; the ing his incumbency, and that an unusually large proportion Register House, Edinburgh, &c. Among their later works of his pupils attained to eminence, among them being Sir may be mentioned the buildings erected in London by the Walter Scott, Lord Brougham, and Jeffrey. He succeeded two brothers, and hence called the Adelphi (adelpoi), which in introducing the study of Greek into the curriculum of proved an unsuccessful speculation; Portland Place, London; the school, notwithstanding the opposition of the University and the Infirmary of Glasgow. The leading characteristics headed by Principal Robertson. In 1780 the University of all these designs are lightness and elegance; and, though of Edinburgh conferred upon Mr Adam the honorary degree grave faults may be found with his style, it cannot be denied of Doctor of Laws. He died on the 18th December 1809, that English architecture, especially that of the streets of after an illness of five days, during which he occasionally London, owes very much to Robert Adam. He continued imagined himself still at work, his last words being, actively engaged in his profession until his death in 1792. “But it grows dark; you may go.” Dr Adam's first pub James, his brother and associate in labour, died in 1794. lication was his Principles of Latin and English Grammar ADAM, RIGHT Hon. WILLIAM, nephew of the preced(1772). This was followed by his Roman Antiquities (1791), ing, eldest son of John Adam, Esq. of Blair-Adam, Kinhis Summary of Geography and History (1794), and his ross-shire, was born on the 20 August 1751, studied at Latin Dictionary (1805). The MS. of a projected larger the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and passed at Latin dictionary, which he did not live to complete, lies in the Scotch bar in 1773. Soon after he removed to England, the library of the High School.

where he entered Parliament in 1774, and in 1782 was ADAM, MELCHIOR, German divine and biographer, was called to the Common-law bar. He withdrew from Parliaborn at Grottkaw in Silesia after 1550, and educated in ment in 1795, entered it again in 1806 as representative the college of Brieg, where he became a Protestant. He of the united counties of Clackmannan and Kinross, and was enabled to pursue his studies there by the liberality of continued a member, though with some interruptions, till a person of quality, who had left several exhibitions for

A popular though not an eloquent speaker, Mr young students. In 1598 he went to Heidelberg, where, Adam soon took a prominent place in the House, making after holding various scholastic appointments, he became himself of importance by his sound judgment and firm conrector of the gymnasium. In 1615 he published the general adherence to the Whig party. A duel in 1779 first volume of his Vitoe Germanorum Philosophorum, &c. between him and Mr Fox, in which the latter was slightly This volume was followed by three others; that which wounded, did not interrupt their close and steady friendtreated of divines was printed in 1619; his lives of lawyers ship. They both belonged to the small but noble band and of physicians were published in 1620. All the learned that opposed the encroachments of the Government on the men whose history is contained in these four volumes lived Constitution during the period of the French Revolution. in the 16th or beginning of the 17th century, and are One of Mr Adam's most valuable parliamentary efforts was either Germans or Flemings; but he published in 1618 the the agitation which he successfully raised, in March 1794, lives of twenty divines of other countries in a separate against the severe punishment awarded in the Scotch volume, entitled Decades duce continentes Vitas Theologorum criminal court to certain persons who had been convicted Exterorum Principum. All his divines are Protestants. of sedition. At the English bar he was as successful as His industry as a biographer is commended by Bayle, who any one can be who does not devote bimself entirely to the acknowledges his obligations to Adam's labours. Lutherans profession. Though known to be much engaged in Parliaand Catholics accuse him of unfairness, but the charge is ment, and with the management of the pecuniary affairs of at least exaggerated. He died in 1622.

the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York, he obtained a ADAM, ROBERT, architect, the second son of William very considerable practice. He was successively Attorney Adam of Maryburgh, in Fife, was born in 1728. He and Solicitor General to the Prince of Wales, one of the studied at the University of Edinburgh, and probably managers of the impeachment of Warren Hastings, and received his first instruction in architecture from his father, one of the counsel who defended the first Lord Melville who, whether a professional architect or not, gave proofs of when impeached (as Mr Dundas). During his party's his skill and taste in the designs of Hopetoun House and brief tenure of office in 1806 hé was Chancellor of the the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. In 1754 young Adam Duchy of Cornwall, and was afterwards a privy councillor

and lord-lieutenant of Kinross-shire. In 1814 he became ceros is met with, and the rivers swarm with crocodiles, a baron of Exchequer in Scotland, and in the following and with a curious mammal called the ayu, bearing some year was appointed chief commissioner of the newly resemblance to the seal. Yolla, the capital of Adamawa, established Jury-Court for the trial of civil causes, over is situated, in N. lat. 9° 28', E. long. 12° 13, in the fertile which he presided with much ability and acceptance till plain between the Benuwe and the Faro. The houses are 1830, when it ceased to exist as a separate court, and built of clay, and surrounded by court-yards, in which became merged in the permanent supreme tribunal. grain is grown; so that the town, though containing only Though little versed in the technicalities of law, he was in about 12,000 inhabitants, is spread over a large extent of all practical matters an able manager; he was a shrewd ground, and is 3 miles long from east to west. Turkedi observer of all that passed around him, and a most agree- (a dark-coloured cotton cloth), beads, salt, and calico are able companion. He died at Edinburgh on the 17th the principal articies exposed in the markets. Here and February 1839.

throughout Adamawa cotton is generally used as a medium ADAM'S BRIDGE, or Rama's Bridge, a chain of sand- of barter. A very large proportion of the population are banks, extending from the island of Manaar, near the N.W. slaves, many private individuals holding as many as 1000, coast of Ceylon to the island of Rameseram, off the Indian while the governor is said to receive annually about 5000 in coast, and lying between the Gulf of Manaar on the S.W. tribute. The government of Adamawa is in the hands of a and Palk Strait on the N.E. It is more than 30 miles Mahometan ruler, who owns a nominal allegiance to the long, and offers a serious impediment to navigation. Some Sultan of Sokoto, but is in reality an independent soveof the sandbanks are dry; and no part of the shoal has a reign. Formerly the country was called Fumbina, and greater depth than 3 or 4 feet at high water, except three was possessed by various African tribes, until it was overtortuous and intricate channels, a few feet deep, which in run by the Fulbe, a Mahometan people. It has not been calm weather permit the passage of boats and small vessels. entirely subjected by them, but they have detached settle

ADAM'S PEAK, a lofty mountain in Ceylon, about 45 ments at various places; and numerous governors, as well miles E. from Colombo, in N. lat. 6° 55', E. long. 80° 30'. of the Fulbe as of outlying pagan tribes, are in subjection It rises steeply to a height of 7240 feet, and commands a to the ruler of Yolla. (See Barth's Travels in Central magnificent prospect. Its conical summit terminates in an Africa, vol. i.) oblong platform, 74 feet by 24, on which there is a hollow, ADAMITES, or ADAMIANS, a sect of heretics that resembling the form of a human foot, 5 feet 4 inches by 2 flourished in North Africa in the 2d and 3d centuries. feet 6 inches; and this has been consecrated as the foot Basing itself probably on a union of certain gnostic and print of Buddha. The margin of this supposed footprint ascetic doctrines, this sect pretended that its members were is ornamented with gems, and a wooden canopy protects it re-established in Adam's state of original innocency. They from the weather. It is held in high veneration by the accordingly rejected the form of marriage, which, they Cingalese, and numerous pilgrims ascend to the sacred said, would never have existed but for sin, and lived in spot, where a priest resides to receive their offerings, and absolute lawlessness, holding that, whatever they did, their bless them on their departure. By the Mahometans the actions could be neither good nor bad. During the Middle impression is regarded as that of the foot of Adam, who Ages the doctrines of this obscure sect, which did not at here, according to their tradition, fulfilled a penance of one first exist long, were revived in Europe by the Brethren thousand years, while the Hindoos claim it as that of their and Sisters of the Free Spirit, who in the 14th century

were better known throughout Germany as Beghards. This ADAMAWA, a country of Central Africa, lies between name was originally borne by a religious party that was 7° and 11° N. lat., and 11° and 16° E. long., about mid formed in the Netherlands a century earlier. The two way on the map between the Bight of Biafra and Lake sects came into contact on the Rhine frontier, associated Chad. Its boundaries cannot be strictly defined; but it with each other, gradually approximated in doctrine, and stretches from S.W. to N.E. a distance of 200 miles, with were at last identified by the application to both of the one a width of from 70 to 80 miles. This region is watered name; though a distinct sect of Beghards, free from the by the Benuwe and the Faro. The former, which ulti excesses of the brethren, continued to exist in the Nethermately unites with the Niger, flows through Adamawa, lands. Picard is simply another form which Beghard first in a northerly, then in a westerly direction; and is assumed in the harsh pronunciation of the Bohemians, and joined by the Faro, which rises in the south, 22 miles from the common method of accounting for it by supposing a Yolla, the capital of the country. Near their confluence leader Picard has no sufficient warrant. The principal the Benuwe is 800 yards wide, with a depth of about 11 seat of the Picards in Bohemia was a small island in the feet; the Faro has a breadth of 600 yards, but is generally river Luschnitz, where they lived in a state of nature, and very shallow. Both rivers are subject to extraordinary had wives in common. In 1421 they were almost exterfloods, beginning in the end of September, and lasting forty minated by Ziska, the leader of the Hussites, who comdays, during which the swamps of the adjacent country are mitted many of them to the flames. In 1849 it appeared covered for a great distance on both sides, and the Benuwe that the sect existed in a district of Austria, though small rises at least 30 feet. The most fertile parts of the country in number, and not ostentatious of its peculiar practices. are the plains near the Benuwe, about 800 feet above the (Rüdinger de Eccl. Frat. in Bohem., &c.; Bossuet's Varialevel of the sea. Further from that river the land rises to tions of Protestant Churches.) an elevation of 1500 feet, and is diversified by numerous ADAMNAN or ADOMNAN, SAINT, born in Ireland about hills and groups of mountains. Mount Alantika, about 25 the year 624, was elected Abbot of Iona in 679, on the miles S.S.E. of Yolla, is the loftiest mountain in Adamawa, death of Failbhe. While on a mission to the court of King and rises from the plain, an isolated mass, to the height of Aldfrid of Northumberland (700-1), he was led to adopt 9000 feet. The country, which is exceedingly rich, and is the Roman rule in regard to the time for the observance of covered with luxuriant herbage, has many villages, and a Easter; and on his return to Iona he tried to enforce the considerable population. The grain known as Holcus change upon the monks, but without success. It is said sorghum or durra, ground-nuts, yams, and cotton are the that the disappointment caused his death, which occurred principal products; and the palm and banana abound. in 703 or 704. Adamnan wrote a Life of St Columba, Elephants are very numerous, and ivory is largely ex- which, though abounding in fabulous matter, is of great ported. In the eastern part of the country the rhino- interest and value. The best edition is that of Reeves,

god Siva.

published by the Irish Archäological and Celtic Society in | The resolutions he proposed were not only carried unani1857. Adamnan's other well-known work, De Situ Terræ mously, but were afterwards adopted verbatim by moro Sancte, was based, according to Bede, on information than forty other towns. In 1768 he found it necessary received from Arculf, a French bishop, who, on his return to remove to Boston, owing to the increase of his legal from the Holy Land, was wrecked on the west coast of practice. Britain, and was entertained for a time at Iona. This was His professional integrity was soon after exhibited in the first published by Gretser at Ingolstadt in 1619. (Kalen- defence of Captain Preston and some soldiers, who were dars of the Scottish Saints, by Bishop Forbes, 1872.) tried before a Boston jury on a charge of murder, April

ADAMS, JOHN, a distinguished statesman of the United | 1770. In this case Adams was counsel for the defence; States of North America. He was born on the 19th or (new and being considered by the people, then in an inflamed style) 30th of October 1735, in that part of the township of state against the troops, as a determined friend of liberty, Braintree, in Massachusetts, which on a subsequent division his eloquence obtained a verdict of acquittal without lessenwas called Quincy. His parents were of that class, then ing his popularity. abounding in New England, who united the profession of When it was determined, in 1774, to assemble a general agriculture with that of some one of the mechavic arts. His congress from the several colonies, Mr Adams was one of ancestor Henry had emigrated from Devonshire in the year those solicited for the purpose by the people of Massa1632, and had established himself at Braintree with six chusetts. Before departing for Philadelphia to join the sons, all of whom married: from one descended the subject congress, he parted with the friend of his youth, his fellowof this memoir, and from another that Samuel Adams who, student and associate at the bar, Jonathan Sewall, who had with John Hancock, was by name proscribed by an Act of attained the rank of attorney-general, and was necessarily the British Parliament, for the conspicuous part he acted in opposed to his political views. Sewall made a powerful the early stages of the opposition to the measures of the effort to change his determination, and to deter him from mother country. When about fifteen years of age, his going to the congress. He urged, that Britain was deterfather proposed to his son John either to follow the family mined on her system, and was irresistible, and would be pursuits, and to receive in due time, as his portion, a part destructive to him and all those who should persevere in of the estate which they had cultivated, or to have the ex- opposition to her designs.

opposition to her designs. To this Adams replied: "I pense of a learned education bestowed upon him, with which, know that Great Britain has determined on her system, instead of any fortune, he was to make his way in future and that very fact determines me on mine. You know I life. The son chose the latter alternative; and having have been constant and uniform in opposition to her meareceived some preparatory instruction, was admitted a sures; the die is now cast; I have passed the Rubicon; to student at Harvard College in the year 1751. After swim or sink, live or die, survive or perish with my country, graduating in 1755, he removed to the town of Worcester, is my unalterable determination.” The conversation was where, according to the economical practice of that day in then terminated by Adams saying to his friend, "I see we New England, he became a tutor in a grammar school, and must part; and with a bleeding heart, I say, I fear for ever. at the same time was initiated into the practice of the law But you may depend upon it, this adieu is the sharpest thorn in the office of Mr Putnam, then an attorney and a colonel on which I ever set my foot." of militia, and subsequently a general of some celebrity in When the continental congress was assembled Mr Adams the revolutionary war. A letter he wrote at the early age became one of its most active and energetic leaders. Не of nineteen, shows a degree of foresight which, like many was a member of that committee which framed the Declaraother predictions, may have led to its own accomplishment. tion of Independence, and one of the most powerful advoIt is dated 12th October 1754, and says—“Soon after the cates for its adoption by the general body; and by his eloReformation, a few people came over to this New World for quence obtained the unanimous suffrages of that assembly. conscience' sake. Perhaps this apparently trivial incident Though he was appointed chief-justice in 1776, he declined may transfer the great seat of empire to America. It looks the office, in order to dedicate his talents to the general likely to me; for if we can remove the turbulent Gallic purpose of the defence of the country. (the French in Canada), our people, according to the In 1777 he, with three other members, was appointed a exactest computation, will in another century become more commissioner to France. He remained in Paris about a numerous than England itself. Should this be the case, year and a half, when, in consequence of disagreements since we have, I may say, all the naval stores of the nation among themselves, in which Adams was not implicated, all in our hands, it will be easy to obtain the mastery of the but Franklin were recalled. In the end of 1779 he was seas, and then the united force of all Europe will not be charged with two commissions,—one as a plenipotentiary to able to subdue us. The only way to keep us from setting treat for peace, the other empowering him to form a commerup for ourselves is to disunite us."

cial treaty with Great Britain. When he arrived in Paris, He was admitted to practice in the year 1758, and the French Government viewed with jealousy the purpose of gradually rose to the degree of eminence which a local court the second commission; and Count de Vergennes advised can confer; and obtained distinction by some essays on the him to keep it secret, with a view to prevail on the congress subject of the canon and feudal law, which were directed to revoke it. Mr Adams refused to communicate to the to point to the rising difference which commenced between count his instructions on that subject; and an altercation the mother country and the colonies, soon after the peace arose, from a claim made by France for a discrimination in of 1763 had delivered the latter from all disquietude re favour of French holders of American paper money in the specting the establishments of France in the adjoining pro- liquidation of it. The count complained to Congress, transvince of Canada. His character rose, both as a lawyer and mitted copies of Mr Adams's letters, and instructed the a patriot, so as to induce Governor Barnard, who wished French minister at Philadelphia to demand his recall. The to gain him over to the royal party, to offer him the office demand was rejected, but afterwards four others were joined of advocate-general in the Admiralty Court, which was with him in the commission. Whilst these negotiations deemed a sure step to the highest honours of the bench. were in progress he went to Holland, and there, in oppoTwo years after, he was chosen one of the representatives sition to the influence and talents of the British minister, of his native town to the congress of the province. His Sir Joseph Yorke, succeeded both in negotiating a loan, and first prominent interference in political affairs was at a in procuring the assistance of that country in the defence meeting at Braintree in 1765, to oppose the Stamp Act. against Great Britain. He formed a commercial treaty with

that republic, and joined in the ephemeral association called | 1788; and, after spending three years in a lawyer's office, the armed neutrality.”

was admitted to the bar in 1791. Three successive series In 1785 Mr Adams was appointed ambassador to the of letters, on political subjects, contributed to a Boston court of his former sovereign, where his conduct was such newspaper, attracted much attention, and Washington as to secure the approbation of his own country, and the appointed him ambassador to the Hague in 1794. An respect of that to which he was commissioned. Whilst in appointment to a similar post in Portugal, made just before London, he published his work entitled Defence of the the expiry of Washington's presidency, was set aside by American Constitution, in which he combated ably the his father, who sent him instead to Prussia, giving him the opinions of Turgot, Mably, and Price, in favour of a single promotion by the express advice of Washington. During legislative assembly; and thus perhaps contributed to the his residence as ambassador at Berlin, he succeeded in negodivision of power and the checks on its exercise, which tiating a commercial treaty with Prussia. On Jefferson became established in the United States. At the close of becoming President (1801), Adams was recalled, and 1787 he returned, after ten years devoted to the public resumed the practice of law in Boston. In 1802 Suffolk service, to America. He received the thanks of Congress, county returned him a member of the Massachusetts and was elected soon after, under the presidency of Wash Senate, and in the following year he was elected to Conington, to the office of Vice-President. In 1790 Mr Adams


Indebted for his position to the Federal party, gave to the public his Discourses on Davila, in which he Adams supported their views for four years, but separated exposed the revolutionary doctrines propagated by France from them by voting for Jefferson's proposed embargo. and her emissaries in other countries. On the retirement This course involved him in much controversy, and cost of Washington, the choice of President fell on Mr Adams, him his seat in the Senate. During his retirement he who entered on that office in May 1797. At that time the added to the employment arising from his profession the Government was entangled by the insolent pretensions of the duties of the professorship of rhetoric and belles lettres French demagogues, and by their partisans in many of the at Harvard University, which he held for three years states. Great differences of opinion arose between the (1806–9). His lectures—the first ever read in an American individuals at the head of affairs: one party, with Mr university—were published in 1810, and were much thought Hamilton at their head, was disposed to resist the preten- of at the time, though now almost forgotten. In the sions of France by open hostilities; whilst Mr Adams was winter following the resignation of his professorship, he disinclined to war, so long as there was a possibility of visited Washington; and, in an interview with Jefferson, avoiding it with honour. Owing to this division of his brought a charge against some of the Federal leaders of a own friends, rather than to a want of public confidence, at design to dissolve the union, and form a separate confederathe conclusion of the four years for which the President is tion for the north. The charge was afterwards repeated chosen, Mr Adams was not re-elected. Perhaps this was in the newspapers; and, though resting on slender grounds, in some measure owing to the preponderance of the slave greatly affected the confidence of the other states in the states, in which Mr Jefferson, his rival, and a proprietor of New England representatives. In 1809 Madison, having slaves, had a fellow-feeling among the chief of the people. obtained after some delay the concurrence of the Senate,

He retired with dignity, at 65 years of age, to his native entrusted Adams with the embassy to St Petersburg, -an place, formed no political factions against those in power, appointment which the latter accepted against the wishes but publicly expressed his approbation of the measures of his father, and continued to hold, though offered a seat which were pursued by him who had been his rival, who on the judicial bench of New England some time after had become his successor in power, but had never ceased his arrival in Russia. When war broke out between to be his firmly-attached friend.

England and the United States, Adams induced the The last public occasion on which Mr Adams appeared, Czar to make an offer of intervention, which, however, was as a member of the convention for the revision of the the English Government declined to accept. Independent constitution of Massachusetts, in which some slight altera- negotiations were thereupon carried on for six months at tions were requisite, in consequence of the province of Ghent (the representatives of America being Adams, Maine being separated from it.

Russell, and Clay), and resulted in the treaty of peace He seems to have enjoyed his mental faculties to the which was signed 24th December 1814. After serving for close of his protracted life; and even on the last day of it, two years (1815–17) as minister in London, he again two hours only before its final close, on the 4th July 1826, entered the arena of home politics as secretary of state the fiftieth anniversary of the Act of Independence, he under Monroe. In this office he distinguished himself dictated to a friend, as a sentiment to be given at the specially by his arrangement of the treaty with Spain, which public dinner of the day, “ Independence for ever.” By a defined the boundaries of the ceded territories of Florida very singular coincidence Jefferson, his rival and friend, and Louisiana. An elaborate report on weights and meadied a few hours earlier on the same day.

sures gained for him also a name for scientific acquirements. Mr Adams was considered a sound scholar, well versed In 1825 the election of a President fell, according to the in the ancient languages, and in many branches of general constitution of the States, to the House of Representatives, literature. His style in writing was forcible and perspicu- since no one of the candidates had secured an absolute ous, and, in the latter years of his life, remarkably elegant. majority of the electors chosen by the States, and Adams, In person

he was of middling stature; his manners spoke who had stood second to Jackson in the electoral vote, was the courtesy of the old school; and his address, at least when chosen in preference to Jackson, Clay, and Crawford. The he was in England, was dignified and manly.

administration of Adams was marked by the imposition of ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY, eldest son of the preceding, a high tariff on foreign goods, with the view of promoting was born at Braintree on the 11th July 1767. The greater internal industry, and by the unsuccessful attempt to purpart of his education was received in Europe, which he chase Cuba from Spain. Notwithstanding the efforts of visited in company with his father in 1778, and again in Clay, and the special claim he himself made on the voters 1780, when he attended for a time the university of Ley- of Virginia on account of his discovery of the so-called den. When only fifteen years old he went, as secretary, New England “ plot” twenty years before, Adams failed with Francis Dana on bis unsuccessful mission to St to secure his re-election in 1829. Deseated by Jackson, Petersburg. Returning home after an interval spent in who had 178 votes to his 83, he retired o Quincy, where Holland, London, and Paris, he graduated at Harvard in his father's fortune, increased by his own efforts, afforded


him an ample competency. Two years later he was re collector for the city of Boston, whence he was called by turned to Congress by the district in which he lived, and his political opponents,“ Samuel the publican.” In all the which he continued to represent until his death. Having proceedings which issued at last in the declaration of been chosen merely on account of his determined resistance independence Adams was a conspicuous actor. He took to secret societies, his position was independent of party part in the numerous town meetings, drafted the protest politics, and correspondingly strong. He stood for the which was sent up by Boston against the taxation schemo office of governor, and then for that of senator, of Massa- of Grenville (May 1764); and, being chosen next year a chusetts, but was on both occasions defeated by Davis. As member of the general court of Massachusetts, soon became chairman of the committee on manufactures, he strove to one of the leaders in debate. Upon his entry into the devise a middle policy in regard to tariffs, but his greatest House he was appointed clerk, and had thus much influeffort at this period-perhaps the greatest service of his ence in arranging the order of business and in drawing up whole political life—was in connection with the abolition papers. Attempts were more than once made by the of slavery. In every form which the question took, he English governor to win him over by the offer of a place, was the bold and determined advocate of abolition, gradually but Adams proved inflexible. His uncompromising resistgathering an influential party around him, and so preparing ance to the British Government co inued; he was a for the triumphs, most of which have been won since his prominent member of the continental Congress at Philadeath. He himself witnessed, in 1845, the abolition of delphia, and was one of those who signed the Declaration the "gag-rule," restricting the right of petition to Congress of Independence in 1776. He was a member of the conon the subject of slavery, which he had persistently opposed vention which settled the constitution of Massachusetts, during the nine years it was in force. He died of paralysis and became president of its Senate. From 1789 to 1794 on 23d February 1848, having been seized two days pre- he was lieutenant-governor of the State, and governor viously while attending the debates of Congress. Adams from 1794 to 1797, retiring in the latter year partly on wrote a number of works, which are now of little import- account of age, but partly also because the Federalists were

The style is fluent, but has none of the vigour and then in the ascendant, and he himself was inclined to the elegance of his father's. During his whole lifetime he Jefferson or Republican party. He died on the 3d Oct. kept a very voluminous journal, some portions of which 1803. In an oration on American independence, delivered have been published.

in Philadelphia, 1st Aug. 1776, Adams characterises the ADAMS, RICHARD, M.A., divine. Two contemporaries English as “a nation of shopkeepers." The oration was of the same name are frequently confounded with each other. translated into French, and published at Paris; and it is The more eminent was son of the Rev. Richard Adams, therefore not unlikely that Napoleon's use of this phrase rector of Worrall, in Cheshire. The family records seven was not original. clergymen of the Church of England in succession. The ADAMS, THOMAS—"the prose Shakspeare of Puritan present worthy was born at Worrall, but the loss of the theologians," as Southey named him—has left as few personal registers leaves the date uncertain. It is usually, but erro memorials behind him as the poet himself. The only facts neously, stated that he studied at Cambridge University. regarding the commonplaces of his biography are furnished He was admitted a student of Brazenose College, Oxford, by epistles-dedicatory and epistles to the reader, and titleMarch 24, 1646, and became a fellow, having proceeded pages. From these we learn that he was, in 1612, “ a through the usual degrees. It was at Brazenose he formed preacher of the gospel at Willington,” in Bedfordshire, his life-long friendship with John Howe, who had a pro- where he is found on to 1614, and whence issued his found veneration for Adams. In 1655 he was appointed Heaven and Earth Reconciled, The Devil's Banquet, and to the rectory of St Mildred's, Bread Street, London-John other works; that in 1614-15 he was at Wingrave, in Milton being a parishioner. From this he was ejected by Buckinghamshire, probably as vicar, and. whence a number the Act of Uniformity of 1662. Thereupon he continued of his works went forth in quick succession; that in 1618 his ministry as opportunity offered, and at length was he held the preachership at St Gregory's, under St Paul's settled as pastor of a congregation in Southwark. This Cathedral, and was “observant chaplain” to Sir Henrie Richard Adams is a typical example of the consistent and Montague, the Lord Chief-Justice of England; that during meek labourers of the early and struggling period of Non these years his epistles show him to have been on the conformity. His holy and beautiful life inspired Howe's most friendly terms with some of the foremost men in noblest eloquence in his funeral sermon. He died in a state and church; and that he must have died before the ripe old age, on 7th Feb. 1698. His principal literary Restoration of 1660. His “occasionally” printed sermons, work is his contribution of annotations on Philippians and in small quartos, when collected in 1630, placed him beyond Colossians to Pool's celebrated Annotations. Along with all comparison in the van of the preachers of England. Veal he edited the works of Charnock. (A. B. G.) Jeremy Taylor does not surpass him in brilliance of fancies,

ADAMS, SAMUEL, American statesman, born at Boston, nor Thomas Fuller in wit. His numerous works display Sept. 27, 1722, was second cousin to John Adams. He great learning, classical and patristic, and are unique in studied at Harvard, but, owing to his father's misfortunes their abundance of stories, anecdotes, apborisms, and puns. in business in connection with a banking speculation, the He was a Puritan in the church, in distinction from the "manufactory scheme,"—he had to leave before complet- Nonconformist Puritans, and is evangelically, not drying his course, and to relinquish his intention of becoming doctrinally, Calvinistic in his theology. His works have a Congregational clergyman. He received his degree, been recently collected by Drs Joseph Angus and Thomas however, and it is worthy of note, as showing the tendency Smith (3 vols. 8vo, 1862).

(A. B. G.) of his political opinions, that his thesis was a defence of ADAMSON, PATRICK, a Scottish prelate, Archbishop of the affirmative reply to the question, “Whether it be law- St Andrews, was born in the year 1543, in the town of ful to resist the supreme magistrate, if the commonwealth Perth, where he received the rudiments of his education. cannot otherwise be preserved ?" The failure of the bank. He afterwards studied philosophy, and took his degree of ing scheme above referred to, in consequence of the limita- master of arts at the University of St Andrews. In 1564 tions imposed by English law, made Adams still more he set out for Paris as tutor to the eldest son of Sir Wildecided in his assertion of the rights of American citizens, liam Macgill. In the month of June of the same year, and in his opposition to Parliament. He gave up his Mary Queen of Scots being delivered of a son, afterwards business, in which he had little success, and became tax- James VI. of Scotland and I. of England, Mr Adamson

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