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health, a stream of water running through it from end to the rule of St Benedict, and even ignorant that they were
end. A second smaller dormitory runs from east to west bound by any rule at all. (Robertson's Church History,
for the accommodation of the conventual officers, who were ii. p. 538.) These alternations are reflected in the monastio
bound to sleep in the dormitory. Close to the refectory, buildings and the arrangements of the establishment.
but outside the cloisters, are the domestic offices connected
with it; to the north, the kitchen, 47 feet square, su

Bearnas BAR
mounted by a lofty pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court;
to the west, the butteries, pantries, &c. The infirmary had
a small kitchen of its own. Opposite the refectory door in
the cloister are two lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a
monastic dining-hall, at which the monks washed before and
after taking food.

The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into
three groups. The prior's group “entered at the south-east
angle of the green court, placed near the most sacred part
of the cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or
nobility who were assigned to him.” The cellarer's buildings,
were near the west end of the nave, in which ordinary
visitors of the middle class were hospitably entertained.

The inferior pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the
north hall or almonry, just within the gate, as far as possible
from the other two.

Westminster Abbey is another example of a great Bene-
dictine abbey, identical in its general arrangements, so far as
they can be traced, with those described above. The clois-
ter and monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church.
Parallel to the nave, on the south side of the cloister, was
the refectory, with its lavatory at the door. On the eastern
side we find the remains of the dormitory, raised on a
vaulted substructure, and communicating with the south
transept. The chapter-house opens out of the same alley
of the cloister. The small cloister lies to the south-east of
the larger cloister, and still farther to the east we have the
remains of the infirmary, with the table hall, the refectory
of those who were able to leave their chambers. The
abbot's house formed a small court-yard at the west
entrance, close to the inner gateway. Considerable por-
tions of this remain, including the abbot's parlour, cele-
brated as “the Jerusalem Chamber,” his hall, now used
for the Westminster King's scholars, and the kitchen

St Mary's Abbey, York (Benedictine).--Churton's Monastic Ruins.
and butteries beyond.

B. Chapter-house.
St Mary's Abbey, York, of which the ground-plan is

E. Library or Scriptorium.
annexed, exhibits the usual Benedictine arrangements. The F. Calefactory.

8. Passage to Common House. precincts are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three

G, Necessary.

T. Hospitium. sides, the river Ouse being sufficient protection on the I. Refectory.

V. Porter's Lodge.

W. Church of St Olaf.
fourth side. The entrance was by a strong gateway (U)
to the north. Close to the entrance was a chapel, where is

Y, Entrance from Bootham

N. Passage to Cloister. now the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new comers paid their devotions immediately on their arrival. Near the The reformation of these prevalent abuses generally took gate to the south was the guest's-hall or hospitium (T). the form of the establishment of new monastic orders, with The buildings are completely ruined, but enough remains new and more stringent rules, requiring a modification of to enable us to identify the grand cruciform church (A), the architectural arrangements. One of the earliest of the cloister-court with the chapter-house (B), the refectory these reformed orders was the Cluniac. This order took Clugny. (I), the kitchen-court with its offices (K, 'O, O), and the its name from the little village of Clugny, 12 miles N.W. other principal apartments. The infirmary has perished of Macon, near which, about A.D. 909, a reformed Benecompletely.

dictine abbey was founded by William, Duke of Auvergne, Some Benedictine houses display exceptional arrange- under Berno, abbot of Beaume. He was succeeded by ments, dependent upon local circumstances, e.g., the dormi- Odo, who is often regarded as the founder of the order. tory of Worcester runs from east to west, from the west | The fame of Clugny spread far and wide. Its rigid rule walk of the cloister, and that of Durham is built over the was adopted by a vast number of the old Benedictine abwest, instead of as usual, over the east walk; but, as a beys, who placed themselves in affiliation to the mother general rule, the arrangements deduced from the examples society, while new foundations sprang up in large numdescribed may be regarded as invariable.

bers, all owing allegiance to the archabbot," established The history of Monasticism is one of alternate periods at Clugny. By the end of the 12th century the number of decay and revival. With growth in popular esteem of monasteries affiliated to Clugny in the various councame increase in material wealth, leading to luxury and tries of Western Europe amounted to 2000. The monasworldliness. The first religious ardour cooled, the strict- tic establishment of Clugny was one of the most extensive ness of the rule was relaxed, until by the 10th century the and magnificent in France. We may form some idea of decay of discipline was so complete in France that the its enormous dimensions from the fact recorded, that when, monks are said to have been frequently unacquainted with | A.D. 1245, Pope, Innocent IV., accompanied by twelve



A. Church.

0. Omces
P. Cellars.
Q. Uncertain
R. Passage to Abbot's House.?


C. Vestibule to do.

H. Parlour.

U. Great Gate.

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cardinals, a patriarch, three archbishops, the two generals | (M), also remaining, is a detached puiding of immense
of the Carthusians and Cistercians, the king (St Louis), size. The first English house of the Cluniac order was that English
and three of his sons, the queen mother, Baldwin, Count of Lewes, founded by the Earl of Warren, cir. A.D. 1077. Cluniac.
of Flanders and Emperor of Constantinople, the Duke of Of this only a few fragments of the domestic buildings exist.
Burgundy, and six lords, visited the abbey, the whole The best preserved Cluniac houses in England are Castle
party, with their attendants, were lodged within the Acre, Norfolk, and Wenlock, in Shropshire. Ground-plans
monastery without disarranging the monks, 400 in num of both are given in Britton's Architectural Antiquities.
ber. Nearly the whole of the abbey buildings, including They show several departures from the Benedictine arrange-
the magnificent church, were swept away at the close of the ment. In each the prior's house is remarkably perfect.
last century. When the annexed ground-plan was taken, All Cluniac houses in England were French colonies, go-
shortly before its destruction, nearly all the monastery, with verned by priors of that nation. They did not secure their
the exception of the church, had been rebuilt. The church, independence nor become “abbeys” till the reign of Henry
the ground-plan of which bears a remarkable resemblance VI. The Cluniac revival, with all its brilliancy, was but
to that of Lincoln Cathedral, was of vast dimensions. It short lived. The celebrity of this, as of other orders,
was 656 feet by 130 feet wide. The nave was 102 feet, worked its moral ruin. With their growth in wealth and
and the aisles 60 feet high. The nave (G) had double dignity the Cluniac foundations became as worldly in life

and as relaxed in discipline as their predecessors, and a
fresh reform was needed. The next great monastic re-
vival, the Cistercian, arising in the last years of the 11th
century, had a wider diffusion, and a longer and more
honourable existence. Owing its real origin, as a distinct
foundation of reformed Benedictines, in the year 1098,
to a countryman of our own, Stephen Harding (a native of
Dorsetshire, educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and
deriving its name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate
and almost inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of
Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide
celebrity of the order is undoubtedly to be attributed to
the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of
the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick
succession by the first Cistercian houses, the far-famed
abbey of Clairvaux (de Clara Valle), A.D. 1116.

The rigid self-abnegation, which was the ruling principle Cistercian.
of this reformed congregation of the Benedictine order,
extended itself to the churches and other buildings erected
by them. The characteristic of the Cistercian abbeys was
the extremest simplicity and a studied plainness. Only one
tower—a centralone—was permitted, and that was to be very
low. Unnecessary pinnacles and turrets were prohibited.

The triforium was omitted. The windows were to be plain

and undivided, and it was forbidden to decorate them with
stained glass. All needless ornament was proscribed. The
crosses must be of wood; the candlesticks of iron. The
renunciation of the world was to be evidenced in all that

met the eye. The same spirit manifested itself in the
Abbey of Clugny, from Viollet le Duc.

choice of the sites of their monasteries. The more dismal, A. Gateway. F. Tomb of St IIagh. M. Bakehouse.

the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared, the B. Narthex.

N. Abbey Buildings. C. Choir.

more did it please their rigid mood. But they came not D. High-Altar.

P. Refectory.

merely as ascetics, but as improvers. The Cistercian E Retro-Altar. L. Guest House.

monasteries are, as a rule, found placed in deep wellvaulted aisles on either side. Like Lincoln, it had an watered valleys. They always stand on the border of a eastern as well as a western transept, each furnished with stream; not rarely, as at Fountains, the buildings extend apsidal chapels to the east. The western transept was 213 over it. These valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a feet long, and the eastern 123 feet. The choir terminated very different aspect when the brethren first chose them as in a semicircular apse (F), surrounded by five chapels, also the place of their retirement. Wide swamps, deep mosemicircular. The western entrance was approached by an rasses, tangled thickets, wild impassable forests, were their ante-church, or narthex (B), itself an aisled church of no mean prevailing features. The “Bright Valley,Clara Vallis of dimensions, flanked by two towers, rising from a stately St Bernard, was known as the “ Valley of Wormwood," flight of steps bearing a large stone cross. To the south infamous as a den of robbers. “It was a savage dreary of the church lay the cloister-court (H), of immense size, solitude, so utterly barren that at first Bernard and his placed much further to the west than is usually the case. companions were reduced to live on beech leaves." (MilOn the south side of the cloister stood the refectory (P), an man's Lat. Christ. vol. iii. p. 335.) immense building, 100 feet long and 60 feet wide, accommo All Cistercian monasteries, unless the circumstances of dating six longitudinal and three transverse rows of tables. the locality forbade it, were arranged according to one plan. It was adorned with the portraits of the chief benefactors The general arrangement and distribution of the various of the abbey, and with Scriptural subjects. The end wall buildings, which went to make up one of these vast estadisplayed the Last Judgment. We are unhappily unable to blishments, may be gathered from that of St Bernard's identify any other of the principal buildings (N). The abbot's own Abbey of Člairvaux, which is here given.

Clairvaux. residence (K), still partly standing, adjoined the entrance It will be observed that the abbey precincts aresurrounded gate. The guest-house (L) was close by. The bakehouse by a strong wall, furnished at intervals with watch

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G. Nave.
H. Cloister.
K: Abbot's House.

0. Garden.

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Clairvaux. towers and other defensive works. The wall is nearly large fish-ponds, an indispensable adjunct to any ecclesias

encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the tical foundation, on the formation of which the monks
small rivulets which flow through the precincts, furnishing lavished extreme care and pains, and which often remain
the establishment with an abundant supply in every part, as almost the only visible traces of these vast establish-
for the irrigation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary ments, were placed outside the abbey walls.
requirements of the brotherhood, and for the use of the The Plan No. 2 furnishes the ichnography of the dis-
offices and workshops. The precincts are divided across tinctly monastic buildings on a larger scale. The usually
the centre by a wall, running from N. to S., into an unvarying arrangement of the Cistercian houses allows us
outer and inner ward,--the former containing the menial, to accept this as a type of the monasteries of this order.
the latter the monastic buildings. The precincts are The church (A) is the chief feature. It consists of a vast
entered by a gateway (P), at the extreme western ex nave of eleven bays, entered by a narthex, with a transept
tremity, giving admission to the lower ward. Here the and short apsidal choir. (It may be remarked that the eastern
barns, granaries, stables, shambles, workshops, and work-limb in all unaltered Cistercian churches is remarkably
men's lodgings were placed, without any regard to sym- short, and usually square.) To the east of each limb of

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Clairvaux, No. 1 (Cistercian), General Plan.
A. Cloisters.
H. Stables.

0. Public Presse
B Ovens, and Corn and I. Wine-press and Hay P. Gateway


R. Remains of Old
C. St Bernard's Cel. K. Parlour.

D. Chief Entrance. L. Workshops and work s. Oratory.
E. Tanks for Fish.

men's Lodgings. V. Tile-works.
F. Guest House.
M, Slaughter-house. X. Tile-kiln.

Clairvaux, No. 2 (Cistercian), Monastic Buildings.
G. Abbot's House. N. Barns and Stables, Y, Water-courses.

A. Church.
K. Infirmary.

S. Cellars and Store-
B. Cloister.

L. Lodgings of Novices. houses. metry, convenience being the only consideration. Ad C. Chapter-House. M. Old Guest-House. T. Water-course.

D. Monks' Parlour N. Old Abbot's Lodgings. U. Saw-mill and Oil-mill. vancing eastwards, we have before us the wall separating

E. Calefactory.

0. Cloister of Supernu- V. Currier's Workshops. the outer and inner ward, and the gatehouse (D) affording

F. Kitchen and Court.

merary Monks,

X. Sacristy.
G. Refectory.
P. Abbot's Hall.

Y. Little Library communication between the two. On passing through the H. Cemetery

Q. Cell of St Bernard. Z. Undercroft of Dor-
I. Little Cloister.
R. Stables,

gateway, the outer court of the inner ward was entered,
with the western facade of the monastic church in front. the transept are two square chapels, divided according to
Immediately on the right of entrance was the abbot's Cistercian rule by solid walls. Nine radiating chapels,
house (G), in close proximity to the guest-house (F). On similarly divided, surround the apse. The stalls of the
the other side of the court were the stables, for the accommo- monks, forming the ritual choir, occupy the four eastern
dation of the horses of the guests and their attendants (H). bays of the nave. There was a second range of stalls in
The church occupied a central position. To the south the extreme western bays of the nave for the fratres conversi,
were the great cloister (A), surrounded by the chief monas or lay brothers. To the south of the church, so as to
tic buildings, and further to the east the smaller cloister, secure as much sun as possible, the cloister was invariably
opening out of which were the infirmary, novices' lodgings, placed, except when local reasons forbade it. Round the
and quarters for the aged monks. Still further to the east, cloister (B) were ranged the buildings connected with the
divided from the monastic buildings by a wall, were the monks' daily life. The chapter-house (C) always opened
vegetable gardens and orchards, and tank for fish. The out of the east walk of the cloister in a line with the



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who had

The cemetery, the

Wadman- the whole establishment should be con airvau.. south transept. In Cistercian houses this was

who stood the most in need of his wat
were training for the monastic life, and

a fourth cloister where the brothers deposited the volumes borrow au from (O), with annexed buildings, devoted to the aged and eastern verge of the vast group of buildings we find the novices' lodgings (L), with a third cloister

II Abbot's House,

S. Door to the Chineet

for the Lay Brain
novices' quarters and the original guest ro Ise (M). De-
tached from the great mass of the monastic

1. Staircaseto Dormitory. T. Base Court.

Inner Gatellovje.
SA), with its dining.ball (P),

gular, and was divided by pillars and arches in
three aisles. Between it and the transept we
sacristy (X), and a small book room (Y), arm

worn themselves out in its duties, was the library. On the other side of the chapter-ho use, to infirm members of the establishment. the south, is a passage (D) communicating with the courts last resting-place of the brethren, lay to the north side of and buildings beyond. This was sometimes known as the the nave of the church (H). parlour, colloquii locus, the monks having the privilege of It will be seen that the arrangement of a Cistercian conversation here. Here also, when discipline became monastery was in accordance with a clearly-defined system, relaxed, traders, who had the liberty of admission, were and admirably adapted to its purpose. allowed to display their goods. Beyond this we often find The base court nearest to the outer wall contained the the calefactorium or day-room—an apartment warmed buildings belonging to the functions of the body as agriby flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half-culturalists and employers of labour. Advancing into the frozen during the night offices, betook themselves after the inner court, the buildings devoted to hospitality are found conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease their close to the entrance ; while those connected with the sandals, and get themselves ready for the work of the day. supply of the material wants of the brethren,—the kitchen, In the plan before us this apartment (E) opens from the cellars, &c., -form a court of themselves outside the cloister, south cloister walk, adjoining the refectory. The place and quite detached from the church. The church refecusually assigned to it is occupied by the vaulted substruc- tory, dormitory, and other buildings belonging to the ture of the dormitory (Z). The dormitory, as a rule, was professional life of the brethren, surround the great placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the cloister. The small cloister beyond, with its scribes' cal efactory and chapter-house, and joined the south transept, cells, library, hall for disputations, &c., is the centre of the where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the literary life of the community. The requirements of sickchurch for nocturnal services. Opening out of the dor- ness and old age are carefully provided for in the infirmary mitory was always the necessarium, planned with the cloister, and that for the aged and infirm members of the greatest regard to health and cleanliness, a water-course establishment. The same group contains the earters of invariably running from end to end. The refectory opens the novices. out of the south cloister at (G). The position of the refec This stereotyped arrangement is further illustrated by Citeaux, tory is usually a marked point of difference between Bene- the accompanying bird's eye view of the mother establishdictine and Cistercian abbeys. In the former, as at Canterbury, the refectory ran east and west parallel to the nave of the church, on the side of the cloister furthest removed from it. In the Cistercian monasteries, to keep the noise and sound of dinner still further away from the sacred building, the refectory was built north and south, at right angles to the axis of the church. It was often divided, sometimes into two, sometimes, as here, into three aisles. Outside the refectory door, in the cloister, was the lavatory, where the monks washed their hands at dinner time. The buildings belonging to the material life of the monks lay near the refectory, as far as possible from the church, to

the S.W. With a distinct entrance from the outer court
was the kitchen court (F), with its buttery, scullery, and
larder, and the important adjunct of a stream of running

water. Further to the west, projecting beyond the line of
the west front of the church, were vast vaulted apartments
(SS), serving as cellars and storehouses, above which was the
dormitory of the conversi. Detached from these, and sepa-
rated entirely from the monastic buildings, were various
workshops, which convenience required to be banished to
the outer precincts, a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned
by water, and a currier's shop (V), where the sandals and
leathern girdles of the monks were made and repaired.

Returning to the cloister, a vaulted passage admitted to
the small cloister (I), opening from the north side of which
were eight small cells, assigned to the scribes employed in
copying works for the library, which was placed in the
upper story, accessible by a turret staircase. To the
south of the small cloister a long hall will be noticed.
This was a lecture-hall, or rather a hall for the religious
disputations customary among the Cistercians. From this
cloister opened the infirmary (K), with its hall, chapel,

's eye View of Citeaux.
cells, blood-letting house, and other dependencies. At the

R. Infirmary.

the original abbot's house

Closely adjoining to this,

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7. Great Cloister. W.Small Cloister. X. Boundary Wa

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Citeaux À CROSS

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Citeaux. directs travellers to the gate of the monastery, reached by | buttery. The arches of the lavatory are to be seen near

an avenue of trees. On one side of the gate-house (B) the refectory entrance. The western side of the cloister is a long building (C), probably the almonry, with a is, as usual, occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the dornitory above for the lower class of guests. On the other upper story the dormitory of the lay brothers (8). Exside is a chapel (D). As soon as the porter heard a stranger tending from the south-east angle of the main group of knock at the gate, he rose, saying, Deo gratias, the oppor buildings are the walls and foundations of a secondary tunity for the exercise of hospitality being regarded as a group of considerable extent.

group of considerable extent. These have been identified
cause for thankfulness. On opening the door he welcomed either with the hospitium or with the abbot's house, but
the new arrival with a blessing--Benedicite. He fell on they occupy the position in which the infirmary is more
his knees before him, and then went to inform the abbot. usually found. The hall was a very spacious apartment,
However important the abbot's occupations might be, he measuring 83 feet in length by 48 feet 9 inches in breadth
at once hastened to receive him whom heaven had sent.
He also threw himself at his guest's feet, and conducted
him to the chapel (D) purposely built close to the gate.
After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest to
the care of the brother hospitaller, whose duty it was to
provide for his wants, and conduct the beast on which he
might be riding to the stable (F), built adjacent to the
inner gate-house (E). This inner gate conducted into
the base court (T), round which were placed the barns,
stables, cow-sheds, &c. On the eastern side stood the
dormitory of the lay brothers, fratres conversi (G), detached
from the cloister, with cellars and storehouses below. At
(H), also outside the monastic buildings proper, was the
abbot's house, and annexed to it the guest house. For
these buildings there was a separate door of entrance into
the church (S). The large cloister, with its surrounding
arcades, is seen at V. On the south end projects the
refectory (K), with its kitchen at (I), accessible from the
base court. The long gabled building on the east side of
the cloister contained on the ground floor the chapter-
house and calefactory, with the monks' dormitory above

(M), communicating with the south transept of the church.
At (L) was the staircase to the dormitory. The small
cloister is at (W), where were the carols or cells of the scribes,
with the library (P) over, reached by a turret staircase.
At (R) we see a portion of the infirmary. The whole pre-
cinct is surrounded by a strong buttressed wall (XXX),
pierced with arches, through which streams of water are
introduced. It will be noticed that the choir of the church
is short, and has a square end instead of the usual apse.
The tower, in accordance with the Cistercian rule, is very

Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire (Cistercian).
low. The windows throughout accord with the studied

10. Common Room. 2. Chapels.

11. Old Refectory. simplicity of the order.

3. Sacristy.

12. New Rcfcctory. The English Cistercian houses, of which there are such England.

5. Chapter-House.

14. Calefactory or Day-Room.
extensive and beautiful remains at Fountains, Rievaulx,
Kukstall, Tintern, Netley, &c., were mainly arranged after

16-19. Uncertain; perhaps Omces con

nected with the Infirmary. the same plan, with slight local variations. As an example,

20. Infirmary or Abbot's House. we give the ground-plan of Kirkstall Abbey, which is one

of the best preserved and least altered. The church here and was divided by two rows of columns. The fish-ponds Kirkstall. is of the Cistercian type, with a short chancel of two lay between the monastery and the river to the south. The

squares, and transepts with three eastward chapels to each, abbey mill was situated about 80 yards to the north-west.
divided by solid walls (2 2 2). The whole is of the most The mill-pool may be distinctly traced, together with the
studied plainness. The windows are unornamented, and gowt or mill stream.
the nave has no triforium. The cloister to the south (4) Fountains Abbey, first founded A.D. 1132, deserves Four
occupies the whole length of the nave. On the east side special notice, as one of the largest and best preserved
stands the two-aisled chapter house (5), between which and Cistercian houses in England. But the earlier buildings
the south transept is a small sacristy (3), and on the other received considerable additions and alterations in the later
side two small apartments, one of which was probably period of the order, causing deviations from the strict
the parlour (6). Beyond this stretches southward the Cistercian type. The church stands a short distance to
calefactory or day-room of the monks (14). Above this the north of the river Skell, the buildings of the abbey
whole range of building runs the monks' dormitory, opening stretching down to and even across the stream. We have
by stairs into the south transept of the church. At the the cloister (H) to the south, with the three-aisled chapter-
other end were the necessaries. On the south side of the house (I) and calefactory (L) opening from its eastern walk,
cloister we have the remains of the old refectory (11), and the refectory (S), with the kitchen (Q) and buttery (T)
running, as in Benedictine houses, from east to west, and attached, at right angles to its southern walk. Parallel
the new refectory (12), which, with the increase of the with the western walk is an immense vaulted substructure
inmates of the house, superseded it, stretching, as is usual (U), incorrectly styled the cloisters, serving as cellars and
in Cistercian houses, from north to south. Adjacent to store-rooms, and supporting the dormitory of the conversi
this apartment are the remains of the kitchen, pantry, and I above. This building extended across the river. At its

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1. Church.

4. Cloister.

13. Kitchen Court.

15. Kitchen and Offices,

6. Parlour.
7. Punishment Cell (?)
8. Cellars, with Dormitories for con-

versi over.
9. Guest-House.

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