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PALACE OF THE STUART
TNE OILY KALLI
THE ABBEY CLOSE
health, a stream of water running through it from end to the rule of St Benedict, and even ignorant that they were
The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into
The inferior pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the
Westminster Abbey is another example of a great Bene-
St Mary's Abbey, York (Benedictine).--Churton's Monastic Ruins.
E. Library or Scriptorium.
8. Passage to Common House. precincts are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three
T. Hospitium. sides, the river Ouse being sufficient protection on the I. Refectory.
V. Porter's Lodge.
W. Church of St Olaf.
Y, Entrance from Bootham
N. Passage to Cloister. now the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new comers paid their devotions immediately on their arrival. Near the The reformation of these prevalent abuses generally took gate to the south was the guest's-hall or hospitium (T). the form of the establishment of new monastic orders, with The buildings are completely ruined, but enough remains new and more stringent rules, requiring a modification of to enable us to identify the grand cruciform church (A), the architectural arrangements. One of the earliest of the cloister-court with the chapter-house (B), the refectory these reformed orders was the Cluniac. This order took Clugny. (I), the kitchen-court with its offices (K, 'O, O), and the its name from the little village of Clugny, 12 miles N.W. other principal apartments. The infirmary has perished of Macon, near which, about A.D. 909, a reformed Benecompletely.
dictine abbey was founded by William, Duke of Auvergne, Some Benedictine houses display exceptional arrange- under Berno, abbot of Beaume. He was succeeded by ments, dependent upon local circumstances, e.g., the dormi- Odo, who is often regarded as the founder of the order. tory of Worcester runs from east to west, from the west | The fame of Clugny spread far and wide. Its rigid rule walk of the cloister, and that of Durham is built over the was adopted by a vast number of the old Benedictine abwest, instead of as usual, over the east walk; but, as a beys, who placed themselves in affiliation to the mother general rule, the arrangements deduced from the examples society, while new foundations sprang up in large numdescribed may be regarded as invariable.
bers, all owing allegiance to the archabbot," established The history of Monasticism is one of alternate periods at Clugny. By the end of the 12th century the number of decay and revival. With growth in popular esteem of monasteries affiliated to Clugny in the various councame increase in material wealth, leading to luxury and tries of Western Europe amounted to 2000. The monasworldliness. The first religious ardour cooled, the strict- tic establishment of Clugny was one of the most extensive ness of the rule was relaxed, until by the 10th century the and magnificent in France. We may form some idea of decay of discipline was so complete in France that the its enormous dimensions from the fact recorded, that when, monks are said to have been frequently unacquainted with | A.D. 1245, Pope, Innocent IV., accompanied by twelve
C. Vestibule to do.
U. Great Gate.
cardinals, a patriarch, three archbishops, the two generals | (M), also remaining, is a detached puiding of immense
and as relaxed in discipline as their predecessors, and a
The rigid self-abnegation, which was the ruling principle Cistercian.
The triforium was omitted. The windows were to be plain
and undivided, and it was forbidden to decorate them with
met the eye. The same spirit manifested itself in the
choice of the sites of their monasteries. The more dismal, A. Gateway. F. Tomb of St IIagh. M. Bakehouse.
the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared, the B. Narthex.
N. Abbey Buildings. C. Choir.
more did it please their rigid mood. But they came not D. High-Altar.
merely as ascetics, but as improvers. The Cistercian E Retro-Altar. L. Guest House.
monasteries are, as a rule, found placed in deep wellvaulted aisles on either side. Like Lincoln, it had an watered valleys. They always stand on the border of a eastern as well as a western transept, each furnished with stream; not rarely, as at Fountains, the buildings extend apsidal chapels to the east. The western transept was 213 over it. These valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a feet long, and the eastern 123 feet. The choir terminated very different aspect when the brethren first chose them as in a semicircular apse (F), surrounded by five chapels, also the place of their retirement. Wide swamps, deep mosemicircular. The western entrance was approached by an rasses, tangled thickets, wild impassable forests, were their ante-church, or narthex (B), itself an aisled church of no mean prevailing features. The “Bright Valley,” Clara Vallis of dimensions, flanked by two towers, rising from a stately St Bernard, was known as the “ Valley of Wormwood," flight of steps bearing a large stone cross. To the south infamous as a den of robbers. “It was a savage dreary of the church lay the cloister-court (H), of immense size, solitude, so utterly barren that at first Bernard and his placed much further to the west than is usually the case. companions were reduced to live on beech leaves." (MilOn the south side of the cloister stood the refectory (P), an man's Lat. Christ. vol. iii. p. 335.) immense building, 100 feet long and 60 feet wide, accommo All Cistercian monasteries, unless the circumstances of dating six longitudinal and three transverse rows of tables. the locality forbade it, were arranged according to one plan. It was adorned with the portraits of the chief benefactors The general arrangement and distribution of the various of the abbey, and with Scriptural subjects. The end wall buildings, which went to make up one of these vast estadisplayed the Last Judgment. We are unhappily unable to blishments, may be gathered from that of St Bernard's identify any other of the principal buildings (N). The abbot's own Abbey of Člairvaux, which is here given.
Clairvaux. residence (K), still partly standing, adjoined the entrance It will be observed that the abbey precincts aresurrounded gate. The guest-house (L) was close by. The bakehouse by a strong wall, furnished at intervals with watch
Clairvaux. towers and other defensive works. The wall is nearly large fish-ponds, an indispensable adjunct to any ecclesias
encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the tical foundation, on the formation of which the monks
Clairvaux, No. 1 (Cistercian), General Plan.
0. Public Presse
R. Remains of Old
men's Lodgings. V. Tile-works.
Clairvaux, No. 2 (Cistercian), Monastic Buildings.
S. Cellars and Store-
L. Lodgings of Novices. houses. metry, convenience being the only consideration. Ad C. Chapter-House. M. Old Guest-House. T. Water-course.
D. Monks' Parlour N. Old Abbot's Lodgings. U. Saw-mill and Oil-mill. vancing eastwards, we have before us the wall separating
0. Cloister of Supernu- V. Currier's Workshops. the outer and inner ward, and the gatehouse (D) affording
F. Kitchen and Court.
Y. Little Library communication between the two. On passing through the H. Cemetery
Q. Cell of St Bernard. Z. Undercroft of Dor-
The cemetery, the
Wadman- the whole establishment should be con airvau.. south transept. In Cistercian houses this was
who stood the most in need of his wat
a fourth cloister where the brothers deposited the volumes borrow au from (O), with annexed buildings, devoted to the aged and eastern verge of the vast group of buildings we find the novices' lodgings (L), with a third cloister
II Abbot's House,
S. Door to the Chineet
for the Lay Brain
1. Staircaseto Dormitory. T. Base Court.
worn themselves out in its duties, was the library. On the other side of the chapter-ho use, to infirm members of the establishment. the south, is a passage (D) communicating with the courts last resting-place of the brethren, lay to the north side of and buildings beyond. This was sometimes known as the the nave of the church (H). parlour, colloquii locus, the monks having the privilege of It will be seen that the arrangement of a Cistercian conversation here. Here also, when discipline became monastery was in accordance with a clearly-defined system, relaxed, traders, who had the liberty of admission, were and admirably adapted to its purpose. allowed to display their goods. Beyond this we often find The base court nearest to the outer wall contained the the calefactorium or day-room—an apartment warmed buildings belonging to the functions of the body as agriby flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half-culturalists and employers of labour. Advancing into the frozen during the night offices, betook themselves after the inner court, the buildings devoted to hospitality are found conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease their close to the entrance ; while those connected with the sandals, and get themselves ready for the work of the day. supply of the material wants of the brethren,—the kitchen, In the plan before us this apartment (E) opens from the cellars, &c., -form a court of themselves outside the cloister, south cloister walk, adjoining the refectory. The place and quite detached from the church. The church refecusually assigned to it is occupied by the vaulted substruc- tory, dormitory, and other buildings belonging to the ture of the dormitory (Z). The dormitory, as a rule, was professional life of the brethren, surround the great placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the cloister. The small cloister beyond, with its scribes' cal efactory and chapter-house, and joined the south transept, cells, library, hall for disputations, &c., is the centre of the where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the literary life of the community. The requirements of sickchurch for nocturnal services. Opening out of the dor- ness and old age are carefully provided for in the infirmary mitory was always the necessarium, planned with the cloister, and that for the aged and infirm members of the greatest regard to health and cleanliness, a water-course establishment. The same group contains the earters of invariably running from end to end. The refectory opens the novices. out of the south cloister at (G). The position of the refec This stereotyped arrangement is further illustrated by Citeaux, tory is usually a marked point of difference between Bene- the accompanying bird's eye view of the mother establishdictine and Cistercian abbeys. In the former, as at Canterbury, the refectory ran east and west parallel to the nave of the church, on the side of the cloister furthest removed from it. In the Cistercian monasteries, to keep the noise and sound of dinner still further away from the sacred building, the refectory was built north and south, at right angles to the axis of the church. It was often divided, sometimes into two, sometimes, as here, into three aisles. Outside the refectory door, in the cloister, was the lavatory, where the monks washed their hands at dinner time. The buildings belonging to the material life of the monks lay near the refectory, as far as possible from the church, to
Returning to the cloister, a vaulted passage admitted to
's eye View of Citeaux.
7. Great Cloister. W.Small Cloister. X. Boundary Wa
on the bigh
Citeaux À CROSS
Citeaux. directs travellers to the gate of the monastery, reached by | buttery. The arches of the lavatory are to be seen near
an avenue of trees. On one side of the gate-house (B) the refectory entrance. The western side of the cloister is a long building (C), probably the almonry, with a is, as usual, occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the dornitory above for the lower class of guests. On the other upper story the dormitory of the lay brothers (8). Exside is a chapel (D). As soon as the porter heard a stranger tending from the south-east angle of the main group of knock at the gate, he rose, saying, Deo gratias, the oppor buildings are the walls and foundations of a secondary tunity for the exercise of hospitality being regarded as a group of considerable extent.
group of considerable extent. These have been identified
Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire (Cistercian).
10. Common Room. 2. Chapels.
11. Old Refectory. simplicity of the order.
12. New Rcfcctory. The English Cistercian houses, of which there are such England.
14. Calefactory or Day-Room.
16-19. Uncertain; perhaps Omces con
nected with the Infirmary. the same plan, with slight local variations. As an example,
20. Infirmary or Abbot's House. we give the ground-plan of Kirkstall Abbey, which is one
of the best preserved and least altered. The church here and was divided by two rows of columns. The fish-ponds Kirkstall. is of the Cistercian type, with a short chancel of two lay between the monastery and the river to the south. The
squares, and transepts with three eastward chapels to each, abbey mill was situated about 80 yards to the north-west.
13. Kitchen Court.
15. Kitchen and Offices,