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fertile. The trade in native merchandise is said to be mission as legate to the northern courts from Pope Leo as great as that of Abomey, the capital of Dahomey; and IX., he immediately set about carrying out the emperor's there is also a considerable traffic in slaves. Population, wishes by establishing himself in an independent patriabout 24,000.

archate of the north. For this purpose he sought by every ADAL, a region in Eastern Africa, with a coast line means to augment his already great influence, he adorned extending, between 11° 30' and 15° 40' N. lat., from the his two cathedrals, and enlarged and fortified the town of Gulf of Tajurrah to the neighbourhood of Massowah. For Bremen so that it might rival Rome. There was much in about 300 miles it borders on the Red Sea, the coast of his favour, and he might even have succeeded in entirely which is composed of coral rock. It stretches inland to separating the church of the north from the see of Rome, the mountain terraces, to the west of which lie the Abys- had it not been for the death of Henry III., and the opposinian table-lands of Shoa and Tigré, with a breadth near sition of Cardinal Hildebrand. Henry IV. being a minor Massowah of only a few miles, but widening towards the at the time of his father's death, Adalbert was associated south to 200 or 300 miles. The northern portion of this with Archbishop Hanno of Cologne as guardian and regent; region, known as the Afar country, is traversed by two and during the absence of the latter on a mission to Rome, routes to Abyssinia—the one from Zulla near Massowah, he sought, by granting every indulgence, to gain the and the other from Amphilla Bay. The former of these favour of the young prince, and so to be able to exercise was selected for the British Abyssinian expedition of 1868, an absolute power in the state (1062–65). The Archbishops Annesley Bay being the place of debarkation and base of of Mayence and Cologne secured his banishment from operations. There is a third route to Abyssinia through court after the government had been assumed by Henry in Adal, that from Tajurrah to Ankobar, the capital of Shoa, person (1066); and about the same time his diocese was said to be preferred for trading purposes, as being less invaded by the “natural enemies” of Bremen, the Saxon steep than the others. The river Hawash flows through nobles. In 1069, however, he was recalled, and reinstated the southern district of Adal in a N.E. direction, but is in his former position. He died at Goslar in 1072, having lost in Lakes Abbebad and Aussa. Near this river is done much during his last years to inflame the Saxons' hatred Aussa, the chief town of the country. Volcanic rocks of Henry, which resulted soon afterwards in their revolt. occur in various parts of this district; and two mountains, ADAM, -78, an appellative noun, meaning the first man. 4000 feet high, are mentioned, which have sent down In Genesis ii. 7, 25, iii. 8, 20, iv. 1, &c., it assumes the nature streams of lava on all sides to the distance of 30 miles. of a proper name, and has the article, the man, the only The country contains two great salt plains or basins,—that one of his kind; yet it is appellative, correctly speaking. of Asali in its northern portion, and Aussa in the south. In Genesis i. 26, 27, v. it is simply appellative, being The remarkable salt lake of Bahr Assal, near Tajurrah, is applied to both progenitors of the human race; not to 570 feet below the level of the sea. The country the first man alone as in the second, third, and fourth as a whole is barren and uncultivated. A little barley chapters. The etymology of the word is uncertain, but is reared on the higher terraces, and some districts it is probably connected with a root signifying red, so that afford pasturage for domestic animals, large quantities of the idea is one red or ruddy. butter being annually sent to Massowah. In some parts The early part of Genesis contains two accounts of of Adal the elephant is not uncommon. The salt of Asali | man's creation. These narratives need not be examined and Aussa is a valuable article of commerce. There is no at present farther than man's origin is concerned. In fixed government, the country being inhabited by various Genesis i. 26, 27, we read, “ And God said, Let us make independent tribes, all speaking the Afar language and man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have professing the Mahometan religion, and most of them of dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of nomadic habits.

the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and ADALBERT, SAINT, one of the founders of Christianity over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. in Germany, known as the Apostle of the Prussians, was So God created man in his own image; in the image of born of a noble family in Slavonia, about 955; was educated God created he him ; male and female created he them.” at the monastery of Magdeburg; and, in 983, was chosen At the end of the sixth day of creation man appears, the Bishop of Prague. The restraints which he tried to impose noblest of earth's inhabitants. In Genesis ii. 7, 8, we also on the newly-converted Bohemians by prohibiting poly- read, “And the LORD formed man of the dust of the gamy, clerical incontinency, and similar sins, raised against ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; him so strong a feeling of hatred, that he was forced, in and man became a living soul. And the LORD God 988, to retire to Rome, where he resided at the monasteries planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the of Monte Basino and St Alexis. In 993 he returned to man he had formed." The woman's creation is thus his flock, in obedience to the command of the Pope. Find narrated in subsequent verses of the same chapter—20, 21, ing little amendment, however, in their course of living, he 22, 23, “And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the soon afterwards went again to Rome, and obtained permis- fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field : but for sion from the Pope to devote himself to missionary labours, Adam there was not found an help meet for him. And which he carried on chiefly in North Germany and Poland. the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, While preaching in Pomerania (997), he was thrust through and he slept : and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the heart by a heathen priest.

the flesh instead thereof. And the rib, which the LORD ADALBERT, Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg, God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought born of the noble Saxon family of the Counts of Wettin, her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of was one of the most remarkable ecclesiastics of the 11th my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called century. Through the friendship of the emperor Henry Woman, because she was taken out of man.” Between III. he was elevated in 1043, when only about thirty these accounts some discrepancy exists. The first repreyears old, to the see of Bremen and Hamburg, which sents the man and woman to have been created together, included the whole of Scandinavia, and he accompanied after the various creatures which the earth sustains on its the monarch in his journey to Rome (1046). Here it is surface; the second makes Adam to have been created said that he was offered and that he refused the papal first, then the various animals, with the woman last of all. throne. The refusal certainly cannot have arisen from The creation of animals separates the origin of the man lack of ambition; for on his return in 1050, with a com

and the woman. The first narrator states that man was

made in the image and form of God, without explaining of life, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The his meaning more particularly. Hence interpreters differ former derives its name from the virtue of its fruit to in attempting to define it. The language need not be impart perpetual life or immortality. The fruit of the restricted either to man's spirit or to his body, but may latter communicates the knowledge of good and evil. It refer to his united whole, including spiritual qualities and awakens moral consciousness. The one had to do with bodily form. The ancient Hebrew did not think of God physical, the other with spiritual life. Such were the without a certain form, but transferred the human one to miraculous powers of the two trees in the midst of the him, divesting it of grossness, and giving it an ethereal garden. luminousness of surpassing glory. The image of God, The third chapter gives an account of the first pair falling therefore, in which Adam is said to have been created, away from the state in which they were created. What includes the whole man, with special reference to the that state was may be clearly gathered from the words. It spiritual nature within him. We cannot tell whether the was one of innocent simplicity. The protoplasts had a childwriter thought of immortality as involved in the God- like unconsciousness of evil ; no knowledge of right and likeness. He may have done so. But the second account wrong, virtue and vice. They were in the happy condition teaches that man was only mortal at first, because he is of infancy. Their moral existence had not begun. Perfecsent out of Paradise lest he should become immortal by tion, rightness, righteousness, could not be predicated eating of the tree of life.

of them. But the world presents vice and its concomitant The narrative in the first chapter is arranged according misery in strong colours. Misery and evil abound. The to a definite plan. Six days are allotted to the creation of eyes of an Oriental especially must have been vividly the heavens and earth, with all their furniture animate struck with the phenomena of toilsome work, the pains of and inanimate. After due preparation had been made child-bearing, the slavery of woman, and the inevitable by the formation of light, atmosphere, and land separated necessity of death. The Hebrews, accordingly, meditated from water, life is called into existence, first vegetable, on the cause. The writer seeks to connect with the problem then animal, terminating in man the lord of this lower incidental phenomena, as the love of man and wife, the world. The narrative in chapters ii.-iv. does not present form of the serpent different from that of other animals, such orderly progress. In it man is the central figure, the mutual hatred of man and serpents, &c. It is an old to whom all is subordinated. He is created first. For question, the introduction of evil into the world. As all him plants and trees are made to spring up. He is placed the posterity of the first pair participate in sin and sufferin a delightful garden. The Lord God perceiving his ing, the cause must be looked for in connection with solitary condition creates the beasts of the field and the these. Yet it must not proceed from themselves. God fowls of the air; but when brought to the protoplast, had made them innocent and happy. The origin of evil they were insufficient to supply his mental void, so that must come from without. A serpent becomes the instru. woman was made, in whom he found a suitable partner. ment of their temptation. That cunning and mischievous A number of questions connected with the first pair, not animal seduces them. The writer thought of nothing but necessarily entering into the writer's main purpose in the creature itself. Those who suppose that the devil describing man's origin, but complementary and new, employed the serpent as his instrument, or that the devil are, the means by which the ground yielded vegetable pro- alone is spoken of, are confronted by the fact that the idea ductions, the materials from which the man and the woman of Satan was of later introduction among the Hebrews were formed, the cause of their intimate union, the place than the age of the writer. The curse pronounced on the of their abode, the simplicity of their condition, and the tempter sufficiently shows that none but the agent expressly way in which animals first received their names. By these named was thought of. traits preparation is made for the history of what befell Are these narratives of the creation, primal abode, and the protoplasts in their primitive abode.

fall of man, literal history? So some have always believed, According to the second narrative, Jehovah planted a with Augustine and the Reformers. The difficulties in garden in Eden, eastward, and put the first man there. the way of this interpretation are great. As it cannot A spring or stream rising in Eden, and flowing through be carried out consistently, its advocates resort to various the garden, supplied it with water. In issuing from the expedients. They forsake the literal for the figurative garden it divided itself into four rivers, each having its wherever necessity demands. Thus they put a figurative own course. The writer gives their names, and the construction on the language of the curse, because they countries washed by three of them. This garden, usually allege that a literal one would be frigid, utterly unworthy termed Paradise after the Septuagint and Vulgate, has of the solemn occasion, highly inconsistent with tho been eagerly sought for; but it has baffled curiosity. dignity of the speaker and the condition of the parties Though two of the rivers, the Euphrates and Tigris, are addressed. Sometimes they even incline to regard the well known, the other two, Pison and Gihon, can only be narrative as a sort of poem, or give it a poetical character. identified with difficulty. They seem to be rivers of The atmosphere in which the accounts move is different Northern India. The Tigris and Euphrates took their from the literal one. Instead of assuming that God rise in the high land of Northern Armenia ; the Pison, i.e., created the world and all it contains in a moment of Indus, rises in the Himalayas; and the Gihon, i.e., Oxus, time, and in harmonious arrangement, the first writer is connected with Ethiopia or Cush. The writer appears attributes creation to six successive days, represents the to have considered them all as having their source in the Almighty as addressing the newly-formed existences, looknorthern highlands of Asia, and flowing south, and there-ing upon them with satisfaction, pronouncing them good, fore he placed Eden somewhere in the north of Asia. and resting on the seventh day. He naturally chose The names of two rivers belonging to a foreign tradition, the six days of the Hebrew week, with which he was and little known to the Hebrews because intercourse with familiar, for successive gradations of the creative power. India was then remote, were associated with those of two In the second account we find a speaking serpent, God known ones incorporated in the national tradition. If the walking in a human way in the cool of the day through interpreter had to do with pure history, it might not be the garden, his jealousy of the aspiring Adam who had amiss to search for Eden in some definite locality; but, as attained a higher knowledge, his cursing the serpent, and the case stands, thc examination would probably be fruitless. cherubim with a flaming sword. To explain all this as

The garden has two remarkable productions—the tree literal history, were to attribute other perfections to the

Deity than infinite power, spirituality, and wisdom. Hence the other hand, his restoration and happiness are supposed the Church of England, according to Horsley, does not to be in his own power. His salvation is practicable through demand the literal understanding of the document con the victory of reason over instinct, of faith over sense. 4 tained in the second and third chapters, as a point of The traditions of ancient nations present analogies to the faith.

creation of man given in the first chapter of Genesis. The Are the narratives allegorical ? So Philo? interprets Etrurian comes nearest to the Hebrew. There creation them, followed by the Greek fathers of Alexandria, takes place in six periods of a thousand years each, and Clement and Origen, as well as by Ambrose. In modern men appear in the last, after the earth, sun, moon, and stars, times Coleridge read the whole as an allegory:3 So did with all living things on the surface of the globe, had been Donaldson in his Jashar. There is no indication, how- brought into existence by God. The Persian mythology, ever, that allegories were intended. Had this been the in like manner, makes Ormuzd, the god of light, create by case, the truths meant to be conveyed would have been easily his word Honover the visible world in six periods of a discovered. The embarrassment and capriciousness of the thousand years each, and man is formed last. The name of allegorical interpreters prove that they have followed a the first man is Kaiomorts. The Chaldee myth, given by wrong method. The outward form is set aside, and an Berosus, presents little resemblance to the Hebrew narraidea discovered beneath it with which the envelope has tive. Bel, the highest god, divided the darkness, and cut no necessary connection. Both should be retained; the the woman, who ruled over the monstrous creatures found at shell suggesting the kernel, and the kernel showing itself first in the all, into two halves, out of which heaven and earth to be the necessary evolution of central ideas.

were formed. After that he cut off his own head. The blood According to another interpretation, more commonly ac trickling down was taken by other gods and mixed with cepted among scholars at the present day, both accounts are earth, from which men were formed, who are therefore wise, supposed to be, like the early records of other nations, tradi- and partakers of the divine intelligence.? The Phenician tional and mythical. This does not imply that they are fables myth is still more unlike the Hebrew account. But Ovid's or fictions; far from it. It is true that the oldest traditions teaching is that man was made in the image of the gods, of peoples are mainly subjective, the result of the national and was intended to be ruler of the earth.' The Egyptian mind; but they are nevertheless real. Variable, developed theology has no point of contact with the Hebrew.10 The in different forms, influenced by the characteristics of the Indian accounts are very numerous, but often discrepant. people and by their intercourse with others, they are all that their likeness to the Hebrew narrative is remote; for the constitutes the earliest history of nations, the shapings of play of imagination appears in them to excess and absuroral tradition before written records appeared. A mythologi- dity. Among those myths in which the formation of men cal age stands at the head of all national histories; and that is described without allusion to any primordial distinction of the Hebrews seems to be no exception. The two narra of castes, we may quote two. Prajapati, i.e., the universe tives present philosophical mythi in a historical form. They which was soul and only one, formed animals from his represent the best ideas of the Hebrews at a certain stage breaths, a man from his soul. The soul is the first of the of their history in explanation of the creation of man, his breaths. Since he formed a man from his soul, therefore primeval abode and state, and the cause of his degeneracy. they say, "man is the first of the animals, and the strongest.” The first account is plain and simple. It assigns a high The soul is all the breaths; for all the breaths depend upon dignity to man, and traces all human beings to a single the soul. Since he formed man from his soul, therefore pair, in harmony with the best evidence of modern they say, is all the animals;" for all these are man’s. 11 science that points to unity of origin, rather than to dif- Manu's account of the creation is that men of the four ferent centres of creation. There is a naturalness in the castes proceeded separately from different parts of Brahma's narrative that cannot be mistaken, while the writer adheres body prior to the division of that body into two parts. The to generalities. (Sec Gabler's Einleitung to Eichhorn's doctrine of emanation appears in the Indian cosmogonies, as Urgeschichte, vol. 'i. p. 11, &c.; and Gesenius's article also that of absorption. Thus Brahma is reabsorbed into “ Adam,” in Ersch und Gruber's Encyklopædie, vol. i.) the supreme spirit, according to Manu.12 According to the

On the other hand, the narrator in the second, third, and Bamians in India, God having made the world and the fourth chapters manifests a more reflective spirit, seeking to creatures belonging to it, created man, who came forth from explain causes, and to trace connections. Supplying particu- the earth at the divine voice, his head appearing first, then lars wanting in the older narrative, and correcting others, he his whole body, into whom life was conveyed. God gave enters into details, and though more anthropomorphic, has him for companion a woman, and the two lived together as a finer perception of circumstances associated with the man and wife, feeding on the fruits of the ground. They protoplasts. Tholuck himself admits his narrative to be a had four sons of different temperaments, for whom God mythus. It is usual to designate the first writer the made four women, and the four quarters of the earth were Elohist; the second, the Jehovist; because the one com- peopled by their progeny.13 monly uses Elohim as the name of God; the other The paradisiacal state of the first pair, and their loss of Jehovah, or Jehovah Elohim in the second and third it as described in the second and third chapters of Genesis, chapters.

have their parallels in the myths of ancient nations. AcThe Adam in the second and third chapters, according to cording to the Persian traditions, Meschia and Meschiane, this view, is the progenitor and representative of humanity, the progenitors of mankind, were created for happiness in who brought misery into the world by self-will. He is ideal man, becoming historical in every individual who, as 4 See Tuch's Kommentar ueber die Genesis, p. 50. soon as his moral nature is awakened, feels the power and 5 Suidas, s. v. Tupprivía, vol. ii. pp. 1248-9, ed. Bernhardy. the possibility of rising higher through reason and per

6 Kleuker, i. 19, 20; iii. 59, &c. ception. Adam's procedure repeats itself in each indivi

7 Eusebius's Chron. Bipartitum, vol. i. p. 24, ed. Aucher,

8 See Sanchoniatho, translated by Cory, in the Phenix, p. 185, &c., dual, who has his paradise, eats of the tree of knowledge, ed. New York. and feels within him the roots of apostasy from God. On 9 Metamorphos. i. 76, &c.; Opera ed. Burmann, tom. ii. p. 20.

Rocth's Geschichte der Philos. i. p. 131, &c.

11 Muir's Sanskrit Texts, vol. i. p. 24, 2d ed. 1 De mundi Opificio, p. 37, vol. i. ed. Mangey.

12 Tbid. p. 53, &c. 9 Philocalia, cap. 1, and contra Cels.

13 See Lord's Display of two Foreign Sects in the East Indies, chap3 Aids to Reflection, p. 241, note (Burlington edition of 1840). | ter i. p. 1, &c.

man

a woman.

this world and the next, on condition that they were good, | infancy till Prometheus implanted in them the power of and did not worship Dews. At first they acted according to intellect, and the capability of knowledge. The fire from their original nature, acknowledging that all beings were heaven is not the cause of the evils that broke in upon derived from Ormuzd. But they were seduced by an evil them; rather is it the teacher of every art, and the opener spirit, and clothed themselves in black for thirty days. up of infinite resources; but Prometheus himself must After that they went out to hunt, and found a white goat, endure fearful punishment for his self-will, in paying too of whose milk they drank. In this they sinned against much regard to mortals. Still there is an intimation of their body, and were punished. The evil spirit or Dew future reconciliation between the opposing powers, Zeus presented himself to them again, giving them fruits to eat, and Prometheus. by which they forfeited a hundred enjoyments. At first The points of similarity between the Old Testament and they covered themselves with the skins of dogs, and ate this Greek representative of man's fall are tolerably plain. the flesh of these animals. They hunted and made them- In both there is an original state marked by freedom from selves clothing of the skins of deer.1

sorrow, by complete earthly enjoyment and undisturbed Abriman is represented as a poisonous serpent, and peace with God. Both attach the origin of evil to the act springs in this form from heaven to earth.2 Dews often of a free being putting himself in opposition to Godtake the same form.3

evil being the punishment of that act, arising by means of The tree Hom among them is similar to the tree of life.

As the Old Testament narrative implies that It imparts immortality, and is called the king of trees. 4 the step taken by man was not a mere degeneracy, so

The holy mountain or paradise of Persian tradition is Æschylus's description admits that it was for humanity Aibordj, the abode of Ormuzd and the good spirits, which the beginning of a richer and higher life, since man's sends forth great rivers. This means the Hindu Koosh proper destiny could not be worked out in a condition of mountains where was Airjana veedjo, the first seat of the childlike incapacity. Pandora reminds us of Eve; EpiAryan race. Here we have mention of a district Heden; metheus of Adam. Prometheus and the serpent both wish and Zoroaster is said to have been born in Hedenesch, but to make men like God in knowledge and happiness.13 The elsewhere in Airjana veed jo.6

tragic poet seems to regard Prometheus as the archetype of According to the religion of Lama or the Calmucks, men man, so that his fate is theirs. Like every strong-willed lived in the first age of the world 80,000 years. They mortal, Prometheus flounders on the rock of presumption. were holy and happy. But their happiness came to an end. He persists in acting contrary to the commands of Deity, A plant, sweet as honey, sprang out of the earth, of which a and endures torture till he submits to a higher will, acceptgreedy man tasted, and made others acquainted with it. A ing the symbols of repentance and restraint within certain sense of shame was awakened, and therefore they began to limits.

limits. Thus, like Adam, he is the representative of make themselves coverings of the leaves of trees. Their humanity. age and size decreased. Virtue fled, and all manner of vice The fundamental difference between the Hebrew and prevailed.? The paradisiacal state of Thibetan mythology Greek narratives is, that the distinction between God and is one of perfection and spirituality. But the desire to eat the world, spirit and nature, maintaired with all sharpness of a sweet herb, schima, put an end to that condition. in the one, is not carried out in the other. On the conShame sprang up within the fallen; the need of clothing trary, the Greek myth mixes the two spheres, so that the was felt. They were driven to agriculture by necessity.

to agriculture by necessity. world appears as the original, independent element, of Virtue fled, murder, adultery, and all other vices suc which spirit and deity are mere products. In the Hebrew ceeded. 8

narrative the spiritual features are presented clearly and Among the Indians, the holy mountain of the north, the simply; in the Greek they are indistinct, because transferred seat of the gods, and the source of the great rivers, was to the sensuous world and covered with a luxuriant growth Meru.' The tree Parijata, brought from heaven to earth of outer nature.14 by Krishna, with its heavenly flower and fruit, scares away Ovid paints the golden age in the manner of Hesiod, but hunger, thirst, disease, old age, &c.10

with more details. It was pervaded by innocent simplicity, The Greek myths are remotely parallel. Hesiod describes and the successive ages became still worse, till moral corrupthe primitive state as one free from toil, sickness, and all tion reached such a height in the last or iron age that kinds of evil. Mortals were contented with easily obtained, Jupiter sent a flood to destroy all mankind. 15 though poor, sustenance. But cunning Prometheus de Plato in his Symposium 16 explains the sexual and amaceived Zeus, and stole fire from heaven. The latter, by tory inclination of the man and the woman by the fact way of punishment, sent a beautiful woman, Pandora, whom that there were at first androgynous beings, whom Zeus Epimetheus accepted as a gift. Having with her a vessel separated into men and women. The two sexes were into which all sorts of misery had been put, she opened it originally united. out of curiosity, and evils flew forth in abundance, filling In Corrodi's Beiträge (xviii. p. 14), the Indian Ezour the earth. Hope alone remained at the bottom. 11 Vedam is quoted, in which the first man is called Adimo,

The story is supplemented and modified in the Theogony. from whose body came Brahma, Vishnu, and Schiva. This There Prometheus is twice punished, and woman becomes statement is repeated by Knobel and others. But the the source of man's evils, merely as the original mother of Ezour Vedam (a corrupt pronunciation of Yajur Veda) is a the race. There is also a reconciliation between Zeus and spurious Veda from the pen of some Jesuit missionary.17 Prometheus. 12

Though it mentions Adimo (which simply means the first) In Æschylus mankind are presented in the ignorance of in vol. i. p. 195, &c., and vol. ii. 205, genuine Indian

mythology recognises no such name of the first man. 1 Kleuker's Zend-Avesta, part iii. pp. 84, 85.

The second narrative, in some of its ideas, seems deIbid. iii. 62.

3 Ibid. ii. 192. * Ibid. iii. p. 105.

13 See Buttmann's Mythologus, Band i. p. 48, &c. 5 Ibid. iii. 70, 91.

6 Ibid. ii. 277, 299; ii. 118. 14 See G. Baur in the Studien und Kritiken for 1848, p. 320, et seq. ? Stäudlin in Archiv. für Kirchengeschichte, i. 3, p. 14.

15 Metamorphos. i. 89, &c. ; vol. ii. p. 14, &c., ed. Burmann. & See Stäudlin's Archiv. i. 3, p. 15.

16 Cap. xv. ed. Stallbaum, 1827. 9 Von Bohlen's Das alte Indien, i. 12; ii. 210.

17 The Ezour Vairm was inted at Paris in 1778. See Mr Ellis, in 10 Wilson's Vishnu Purana, pp. 586, 613; and Langlois's translation the Asiatick Researches, vol. xiv. p. 2, &c., and Dr Muir in ths of the Harivansa, tome ii. p. 3.

Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. xxiii. part 2, p. u Opera et Dies, 40-105.

12 lbid. 506-616.
255, &c.

I. – 18

rived from Eastern Asia. Several features disclose this; , when he awoke commanded the parts that had been rcsuch as the covering of fig leaves, the springing of four moved to be dispersed over the globe, that the whole earth rivers from a common source, and the names of two of might be inhabited by his seed. Thus Adam lost his size, them which point to India. The tree of life and the but not his completeness. His first wife was Lilith, seducing spirit have their place in the Persian and Indian mother of the demons.

mother of the demons. But she flew away through the religions. But its essence is adapted to the Hebrew air; and then the Lord created Eve from his rib, brought theology, and contains genuine Hebrew traits; though it her to Adam in the most beautiful dress, and angels descendstands tolerably isolated in the circle of ideas which the ing from heaven played on heavenly instruments; sun, moon, Old Testament presents. Not till the Book of Wisdom and stars dancing. He blessed the pair, and gave them a do we find express reference to it (chap. ii. 23, 24), feast upon a table of precious stone. Angels prepared the though the tree of life is spoken of in the Proverbs. Yet most costly viands. But Adam's glory was envied by the there is diversity amid similarity. As elaborated by the angels; and the seraph Sammael succeeded in seducing Hebrew mind, the narrative is a profound theory, with noble him. The pair were driven out of paradise into the place features worthy of the subject. Its verisimilitude is of darkness, and wandered through the earth.2 apparent. It shows a thoughtful contemplation of human According to the Koran, God created man of dried clay nature, a fine sense of its capacities and weakness, of its like an earthen vessel, animating the figure, and enduing: aspirations and needs. Its lines are drawn with great dis- it with an intelligent soul. When he had placed him cernment. The problem need expect no better solution in in paradise, he formed Eve out of his left side. All this life; for its depths cannot be fathomed by the sound the angels worshipped the new man except Eblis, who ing-line of a finite understanding. Here is the one philo- refused and became an unbeliever. Satan caused them to sophy of the subject that has taken the deepest hold of the forfeit paradise, and turned them out of their state of human mind, engrafting itself on the religious systems of happiness. On Adam's repentance, God pitied him, and very different races, and enlisting the sympathies of the had him taught the divine commandments by the arch.. most civilised nations. Originating in the East, it has been angel Gabriel ; whereupon he was conducted to Arafat, a. transferred to the West, where it lives in pristine vigour. mountain near Mecca, and found Eve after a separation of It is the essence of the best ideas and traditions of 200 years. He was buried on Mount Abukais, near Mecca.3 Eastern Asia, improved and enlarged by the Hebrew mind Many other fables of the later Jews respecting Adam are at a certain period. The more the narrative is examined, collected by Eisenmenger, and those of the Mahometans the more clearly will it appear the result of enlightened by Herbelot. reason. It embodies national traditions of Hebrew reflec In the emanation systems of the Christian Gnostics and tiveness. Free from the pantheism and dualism inherent Manichæans, as well as in the gnosis of the Mandæans, in the mythologies of other peoples, the monotheism which Adam is represented as one of the first and holiest æons. distinguished the Hebrews as the depositaries of a divine Both catholic and heretical literature indulged in fictions truth pervades it. The tradition has two sides. It repre- respecting Adam. A Life of Adam was translated from the sents the transition of man to freedom and humanity, as Ethiopic into German by Dillmann, in Ewald's Jahrbuch, Schiller describes it; his elevation by the awakening v. The Testament of Adam, current in Syriac and Arabic, exercise of reason ; his advance from nature's cradling- was published by Renan in the Journal Asiatique, série v. season to a consciousness of the divine within him; but it tom. 2. Both these seem to be derived from the Spelunca represents at the same time the inclination to follow his Thesaurorum, which exists in MS. in the Syriac tongue. own will, to aspire to the forbidden contrary to his better The Sethites, a Gnostic sect, bad Apocalypses of Adam; conviction, to push reason beyond the limits within which other Gnostics had a Gospel of Eve. A Book of the Repentalone it can be legitimately used ; in short, to break away ance of Adam and A Book concerning the Daughters of from the will of God in self-sufficient independence. While Adam, are condemned in the decree of Gelasius. George the fact was one of the most fortunate in man's history, it Syncellus cites a Greek Life of Adam; and a fragment was also one of the saddest. When moral good was made from The Greek Book of Adam, in a Florentine MS., is possible, moral evil was introduced. A knowledge of the given in the Literaturblatt des Orients for 1850. Thus one brings that of the other.1

the Adam-literature is copious. The Book of Adam, pubAfter Adam fell, God drove him from paradise, whose lished by Norberg in 1816, is improperly so termed. It gates were guarded by cherubim to prevent access to the is a Mandæan or Sabian work, Sidra Rabba, which is now tree of life. The protoplasts had first three sons-Cain, better known, since Petermann's critical edition of 1867, Abel, Seth; then other sons and daughters. Adam died and Nöldeke's researches into the language. (s. D.) at the age of 930. According to the Elohist, the later ADAM OF BREMEN, ecclesiastical historian, was born in race of men descended from Seth, the first born (Genesis v.); Upper Saxony, and in 1067, probably on the invitation of according to the Jehovist from Cain, who was the first born Archbishop Adalbert, came to Bremen, where he was (Genesis iv.) A Jewish tradition represents him as buried appointed canon and magister scholarum. He died in in Hebron with the patriarchs; a Christian one makes 1076. His Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum, Golgotha his resting-place.

containing a history of the diocese of Hamburg and A number of absurd fables, the fancies of Jewish writers, Bremen from 788 till the death of Adalbert in 1072, is of have gathered round the simple narratives of the Old great importance as the chief source of information in Testament, and are incorporated in the Talmud. In these regard to the state of the northern kingdoms during the Adam is said to have been made as a man-woman out of period of which it treats. It is supposed to have been comdust collected from every part of the earth; his head piled partly from written documents and partly from the reached to heaven, and the splendour of his face surpassed oral communications of the Danish king, Svend Estrithson. the sun.

The very angels feared him, and all creatures Its statements are generally trustworthy, though the chronohastened to pay him devotion. The Lord, in order to logy is sometimes confused, and the geographical informadisplay his power before the angels, caused a sleep to fall upon him, took away something from all his members, and

· Eisenmenger's Entdektes Judenthum, Amsterdam, 1700, 4to.

3 D'Herbelot's Bibliotheque Orientale, s. v. “Adam,” p. 53, &c., 1 See Schelling's Magisterdissertation in vol. i. of his Sämmtliche ed. 1697, Paris. IVerke, p. 3, &c.

* See Dillmann in Herzog's Encyklopædie, xii. p. 319.

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