had named his heir, assumed the title of caliph, and, by a The assumption by a numerous class of the name and decisive victory near the river Zab (750), effected the over- style of abbé appears to have originated in the right conthrow of the Ommiad dynasty. Merwan fled to Egypt, ceded to the King of France, by a concordat between Pope but was pursued and put to death, and the vanquished Leo X. and Francis I., to appoint abbés commendataires to family was treated with a severity which gained for Abul- 225 abbeys, that is, to most of the abbeys in France. Abbas the surname of Al-Saffah, the Blood-shedder. This kind of appointment, whereby the living was comFrom this time the house of Abbas was fully established mended to some one till a proper election could take in the government, but the Spanish provinces were lost to place, though ostensibly provisional, really put the nomithe empire by the erection of an independent caliphate of nee in full and permanent possession of the benefice. Cordova, under Abderrahman.

He received about one-third of the revenues of the abbey, On the death of Abul-Abbas, Almansur succeeded to but had no share in its government, the charge of the the throne, and founded Baghdad as the seat of empire. house being intrusted to a resident officer, the prieur He and his son Mohdi waged war successfully against the claustral. The abbés commendataires were not necessarily Turkomans and Greeks of Asia Minor; but from this time priests; the papal bull required indeed that they should the rule of the Abbassides is marked rather by the take orders within a stated time after their appointment, development of the liberal arts than by extension of but there seems to have been no difficulty in procuring territory. The strictness of the Mohammedan religion was relief from that obligation. The expectation of obtaining relaxed, and the faithful yielded to the seductions of luxury. these sinecures drew young men towards the Church in The caliphs Harun Al-Rashid (786-809) and Al-Mamun considerable numbers, and the class of abbés so formed(813-833) attained a world-wide celebrity by their gorgeous abbés de cour they were sometimes called, and sometimes palaces, their vast treasures, and their brilliant and nume- (ironically) abbés de sainte espérance, abbés of St Hope. rous equipages, in all which their splendour contrasted came to hold a recognised position, that perhaps proved as strikingly with the poverty of European sovereigns. The great an attraction as the hope of preferment. The conformer is known as one of the heroes of the Arabian nection many of them had with the Church was of the Nights; the latter more worthily still as a liberal patron slenderest kind, consisting mainly in adopting the name of literature and science. It is a mistake, however, to of abbé, after a remarkably moderate course of theolook in the rule of these caliphs for the lenity of modern logical study ; practising celibacy; and wearing a distinccivilisation. “No Christian government,” says Hallam, tive dress—a short dark-violet coat with narrow collar. “except perhaps that of Constantinople, exhibits such a Being men of presumed learning and undoubted leisure, series of tyrants as the caliphs of Baghdad, if deeds of many of the class found admission to the houses of the blood, wrought through unbridled passion or jealous French nobility as tutors or advisers. Nearly every great policy, may challenge the name of tyranny."

family had its abbé. As might be imagined from the The territory of the Abbassides soon suffered dismem- objectless sort of life the class led, many of the abbés were berment, and their power began to decay. Rival sove of indifferent character ; but there are not a few instañices reignties (Ashlabites, Edrisites, &c.) arose in Africa, and of abbés attaining eminence, both in political life and in an independent government was constituted in Khorasan the walks of literature and science. The Abbé Sieyès may (820), under the Taherites. In the West, again, the Greeks be taken as a prominent example of the latter type. encroached upon the possessions of the Saracens in Asia ABBEOKUTA, or ABEOKUTA, a town of West Africa Minor. Ruin, however, came from a less civilised race. The in the Yoruba Country, situated in N. lat. 7° 8', and caliphs had continually been waging war with the Tartar E. long. 3° 25', on the Ogun River, about 50 miles north hordes of Turkestan, and many captives taken in these wars of Lagos, in a direct line, or 81 miles by water. It lies were dispersed throughout the empire. Attracted by their in a beautiful and fertile country, the surface of which is bravery and fearing rebellion among his subjects, Motassem broken by masses of grey granite. Like most African (833-342), the founder of Samarah, and successful oppo- towns, Abbeokuta is spread over an extensive area, being nent of the Grecian forces under Theophilus, formed body- surrounded by mud walls, 18 miles in extent. The houses guards of the Turkish prisoners, who became from that are also of mud, and the streets mostly narrow and time the real governors of the Saracen empire. Mota- filthy. There are numerous markets in which native prowakkel, son of Motassem, was assassinated by them in the ducts and articles of European manufacture are exposed palace (861); and succeeding caliphs became mere puppets for sale. Palm-oil and shea-butter are the chief articles of in their hands. Radhi (934-941) was compelled by the export, and it is expected that the cotton of the country disorganised condition of his kingdom to delegate to will become a valuable article of commerce. The slave Mohammed ben Rayek (936 A.D.), under the title of Emir- trade and human sacrifices have been abolished; but notal-Omara, commander of the commanders, the government withstanding the efforts of English and American missionof the army and the other functions of the caliphate. aries, the natives are still idle and degraded. The state Province after province proclaimed itself independent; called Egbaland, of which Abbeokuta is the capital, the caliph's rule became narrowed to Baghdad and its has an area of about 3000 square miles. Its progress has vicinity; and the house of Abbas lost its power in the been much hindered by frequent wars with the king of East for ever, when Hulagu, prince of the Mongols, set Dahomey. Population of the town, about 150,000; of the Baghdad on fire, and slew Motassem, the reigning caliph state or adjacent territory, 50,000. (See Burton's Abbeo(20th Feb. 1258). The Abbassides continued to hold a kuta and the Cameroon Blountains, 2 vols.) semblance of power in the merely nominal caliphate of ABBESS, the female superior of an abbey or convent Egypt, and feebly atternptes to recover their ancient seat. of nuns. The mode of election, position, rights, and The last of them, Motawakkel III., was taken by Sultan authority of an abbess, correspond generally with those Selim I., the conqueror of Egypt, to Constantinople, and of an abbot. The office was elective, the choice being by detained there for some time as a prisoner. He afterwards the secret votes of the sisters from their own body. The returned to Egypt, and died at Cairo a pensionary of the abbess was solemnly admitted to her office by episcopa! Ottoman government, in 1538.

benediction, together with the conferring of a staff and ABBÉ is the French word corresponding to ABBOT, but, pectoral, and held it for life, though liable to be deprived from the middle of the sixteenth century to the time of for misconduct. The Council of Trent fixes the qualifying the French Revolution, the term had a wider application. age at forty, with eight years of profession. Abbesses had

a right to demand absolute obedience of their nuns, over case in all the English conventual cathedrals, e.g., Canter-
whom they exercised discipline, extending even to the bury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the archbishop or bishop
power of expulsion, subject, however, to the bishop. As occupied the abbot's place, the superior of the monastery
a female an abbess was incapable of performing the being termed prior. Other priories were originally off-
spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an shoots from the larger abbeys, to the abbots of which they
abbot. She could not ordain, confer the veil, nor excom continued subordinate; but in later times the actual dis-
municate. In the eighth century abbesses were censured tinction between abbeys and priories was lost.
for usurping priestly powers by presuming to give the Reserving for the article MONASTICISM the history of the
veil to virgins, and to confer benediction and imposition rise and progress of the monastic system, its objects, benefits,
of hands on men. In England they attended ecclesiastical evils, its decline and fall, we propose in this article to con-
councils, e.g. that of Becanfield in 694, where they signed fine ourselves to the structural plan and arrangement of
before the presbyters.

conventual establishments, and a description of the various By Celtic usage abbesses presided over joint-houses of buildings of which these vast piles were composed. monks and nuns. This custom accompanied Celtic mon The earliest Christian monastic communities with which Cells. astic missions to France and Spain, and even to Rome we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or huts itself. At a later period, A.D. 1115, Robert, the founder collected about a common centre, which was usually the of Fontevraud, committed the government of the whole abode of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or order, men as well as women, to a female superior. singular asceticism, but without any attempt at orderly

Martene asserts that abbesses formerly confessed nuns, arrangement. The formation of such communities in the but that their undue inquisitiveness rendered it necessary East does not date from the introduction of Christianity. to forbid the practice.

The example had been already set by the Essenes in Judea The dress of an English abbess of the 12th century and the Therapeutæ in Egypt, who may be considered the consisted of a long white tunic with close sleeves, and a prototypes of the industrial and meditative communities of black overcoat as long as the tunic, with large and loose monks. sleeves, the hood covering the head completely. The In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics abbesses of the 14th and 15th centuries had adopted were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another, secular habits, and there was little to distinguish them at no great distance from some village, supporting themfrom their lay sisters.

(E. V.) selves by the labour of their own hands, and distributing ABBEVILLE, a city of France, in the department of the surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the Somme, is situated on the River Somme, 12 miles the poor. Increasing religious fervour, aided by persecufrom its mouth in the English Channel, and 25 miles | tion, drove them further and further away from the abodes N.W. of Amiens. It lies in a pleasant and fertile valley, of men into mountain solitudes or lonely deserts. The and is built partly on an island, and partly on both sides deserts of Egypt swarmed with the cells or huts of these of the river. The streets are narrow, and the houses are anchorites. Antony, who had retired to the Egyptian mostly picturesque old structures, built of wood, with Thebaid during the persecution of Maximin, A.D. 312, was many quaint decaying gables and dark archways. The the most celebrated among them for his austerities, his town is strongly fortified on Vauban's system. It has a sanctity, and his power as an exorcist. His fame collected tribunal and chamber of commerce. The most remarkable round him a host of followers, emulous of his sanctity. edifice is the Church of St Wolfran, which was erected in | The deeper he withdrew into the wilderness, the more the time of Louis XII. Although the original design was numerous his disciples became. They refused to be sepanot completed, enough was built to give a good idea of rated from him, and built their cells round that of their the splendid structure it was intended to erect. The spiritual father. Thus arose the first monastic community, façade is a magnificent specimen of the flamboyant Gothic consisting of anchorites living each in his own little dwellstyle, and is adorned by rich tracery, while the western ing, united together under one superior. Antony, as front is flanked by two Gothic towers. A cloth manufac- Neander remarks (Church History, vol. ii. p. 316, Clark's tory was established here by Van Robais, a Dutchman, Trans.), "without any conscious design of his own, had under the patronage of the minister Colbert, as early as become the founder of a new mode of living in common, 1669; and since that time Abbeville has continued to be Cænobitism.” By degrees order was introduced in the one of the most thriving manufacturing towns in France. groups of huts. They were arranged in lines like the tents Besides black cloths of the best quality, there are produced in an encampment, or the houses in a street. From this velvets, cottons, linens, serges, sackings, hosiery, pack- arrangement these lines of single cells came to be known thread, jewellery, soap, and glass-wares. It has also as Lauræ, Aawpai, “streets" or "lanes.” establishments for spinning wool, print-works, bleaching The real founder of cænobian monasteries in the modern Coenobia. works, tanneries, a paper manufactory, &c.; and being sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian of the beginning of the situated in the centre of a populous district, it has a con 4th century. The first community established by him was siderable trade with the surrounding country. Vessels of at Tabennæ, an island of the Nile in Upper Egypt. Eight from 200 to 300 tons come up to the town at high-water. others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 3000 monks. Abbeville is a station on the Northern Railway, and is also Within 50 years from his death his societies could reckon connected with Paris and Belgium by canals. Fossil 50,000 members. These coenobia resembled villages, peopled remains of gigantic mammalia now extinct, as well as the by a hard-working religious community, all of one sex. rude flint weapons of pre-historic man, have been dis- The buildings were detached, small, and of the humblest covered in the geological deposits of the neighbourhood. character. Each cell or hut, according to Sozomen (H. E. A treaty was concluded here in 1259 between Henry ii. 14), contained three monks. They took their chief III. of England and Louis IX. of France, by which the meal in a common refectory at 3 P.m., up to which hour province of Guienne was ceded to the English. Popula- they usually fasted. They ate in silence, with hoods so tion, 20.058.

drawn over their faces that they could see nothing but what ABBEY, a monastery, or conventual establishment, was on the table before them. The monks spent all the under the government of an ABBOT or an ABBESS. A time, not devoted to religious services or study, in manual priory only differed from an abbey in that the superior labour. Palladius, who visited the Egyptian monasteries bore the name of prior instead of abbot. This was the about the close of the 4th century, found among the 300

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members of the Cænobium of Panopolis, under the enceinte comprises two large open courts, surrounded with Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4 carpenters, 12 buildings connected with cloister galleries of wood or stone. camel-drivers, and 15 tanners. Each separate community The outer court, which is much the larger, contains the had its own ceconomus, or steward, who was subject to granaries and storehouses (K), and the kitchen (H), and a chief economus stationed at the head establishment. All other offices connected with the refectory (G). Immethe produce of the monks' labour was committed to him, diately adjacent to the gateway is a two-storeyed guestand by him shipped to Alexandria. The money raised by house, opening from a cloister (C). The inner court is the sale was expended in the purchase of stores for the surrounded by a cloister (EE), from which open the monks' support of the communities, and what was over was devoted cells (II). In the centre of this court stands the catholicon to charity. Twice in the year the superiors of the several or conventual church, a square building with an apse of coenobia met at the chief monastery, under the presidency the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a of an Archimandrite ("the chief of the fold,” from wúvdpa, a domed narthex. In front of the church stands a marble fold), and at the last meeting gave in reports of their fountain (F), covered by a dome supported on columns. administration for the year.

Opening from the western side of the cloister, but actually The coenobia of Syria belonged to the Pachomian institu- standing in the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large tion. We learn many details concerning those in the cruciform building, about 100 feet each way, decorated vicinity of Antioch from Chrysostom's writings. The within with frescoes of saints. At the upper end is a semimonks lived in separate huts, kálußan forming a religious circular recess, recalling the Triclinium of the Lateran hamlet on the mountain side. They were subject to an Palace at Rome, in which is placed the seat of the Hegu. abbot, and observed a common rule. (They had no refec menos or abbot. This apartment is chiefly used as a hall tory, but ate their common meal, of bread and water only, of meeting, the Oriental monks usually taking their meals when the day's labour was over, reclining on strewn grass, in their separate cells. St Laura is exceeded in magnitude sometimes out of doors.) Four times in the day they by the Convent of Vatopede, also on Mount Athos. This Vatopede. joined in prayers and psalms.

enormous establishment covers at least 4 acres of ground, The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy and contains so many separate buildings within its massive of space, and convenience of access from one part of the walls that it resembles à fortified town. It lodges above community to another, by degrees dictated a more compact 300 monks, and the establishment of the Hegumenos is and orderly arrangement of the buildings of a monastic described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign cenobium. Large piles of building were erected, with prince. The immense refectory, of the same cruciform strong outside walls, capable of resisting the assaults of an shape as that of St Laura, will accommodate 500 guests at enemy, within which all the necessary edifices were ranged its 24 marble tables. round one or more open courts, usually surrounded with The annexed plan of a Coptic monastery, from Lenoir cloisters. The usual Eastern arrangement is exemplified shows us a church of three in the plan of the convent of Santa Laura, Mt. Athos aisles, with cellular apses, and

(Laura, the designation of a monastery generally, being two ranges of cells on either thos. converted into a female saint).

side of an oblong gallery,

Monasticism in the West
owes its extension and de-
velopment to Benedict of

Nursia (born A.D. 480). His
A. Gateway.

rule was diffused with miracul-
B. Chapels. ous rapidity from the parent

foundation on Monte Cassino
through the whole of Western
Europe, and every country wit-
nessed the erection of monas Plan of Coptic Monastery.
teries far exceeding anything A. Narthez.
that had yet been seen in spaci- c. Corridor, with cells on each side.

ousness and splendour. Few
G. Refectory

great towns in Italy were without their Benedictine convent, BenedicH. Kitchen and they quickly rose in all the great centres of population in tine.

England, France, and Spain. The number of these monas-
teries founded between A.D. 520 and 700 is amazing.
Before the Council of Constance, A.D. 1415, no fewer than
15,070 abbeys had been established of this order alone.
The Benedictine rule, spreading with the vigour of a young
and powerful life, absorbed into itself the older monastic
foundations, whose discipline had too usually become dis-
gracefully relaxed. In the words of Milman (Latin

Christianity, vol. i. p. 425, note x.), “ The Benedictine
Monastery of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Lenoir).

rule was universally received, even in the older monas

teries of Gaul, Britain, Spain, and throughout the West, This monastery, like the Oriental monasteries generally not as that of a rival order (all rivalry was of later is surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, date), but as a more full and perfect rule of the monasenclosing an area of between 3 and 4 acres. The longer tic life.” Not only, therefore, were new monasteries side extends to a length of about 500 feet. There is only founded, but those already existing were pulled down, one main entrance, on the north side (A), defended by and rebuilt to adapt them to the requirements of the three separate iron doors. Near the entrance is a large new rule. tower (M), a constant feature in the monasteries of the The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly Levant. There is a small postern gate at (L.) The arranged after ono plan, modified where necessary (as at


C. Guest-house.

D. Church.

E. Cloister.

F. Fountain.

D. Staircase.

I. Cells.

K. Storehouses.

L. Postern Gate.

M. Tovar.

St Gall.



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Durham and Worcester, where the monasteries stand close the original preserved in the archives of the convent. to the steep bank of a river), to accommodate the arrange- The general appearance of the convent is that of a town of ment to local circumstances.

isolated houses with streets running between them. It is We have no existing examples of the earlier monasteries evidently planned in compliance with the Benedictine rule, of the Benedictine order. They have all yielded to the which enjoined that, if possible, the monastery should contain ravages of time and the violence of man. But we have within itself every necessary of life, as well as the buildfortunately preserved to us an elaborate plan of the great ings more intimately connected with the religious and Swiss monastery of St Gall, erected about A.D. 820, which social life of its inmates. It should comprise a mill, a puts us in possession of the whole arrangements of a bakehouse, stables and cow-houses, together with accommonastery of the first class towards the early part of the modation for carrying on all necessary mechanical arts 9th century. This curious and interesting plan has been within the walls, so as to obviate the necessity of the made the subject of a memoir both by Keller (Zurich, monks going outside its limits. The general distribution 1844) and by Professor Willis (Arch. Journal, 1848, vol. of the buildings may be thus described :-The church, V. pp. 86–117). To the latter we are indebted for the with its cloister to the south, occupies the centre of a

quadrangular area, about 430 feet square. The buildings, as in all great monasteries, are distributed into groups. The church forms the nucleus, as the centre of the religious life of the community. In closest connection with the church is the group of buildings appropriated to the monastic life and its daily requirements—the refectory for eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common room for social intercourse, the chapter-house for religious and disciplinary conference. These essential elements of

monastic life are ranged about a cloister court, surrounded 2172

by a covered arcade, affording communication sheltered from the elements, between the various buildings. The infirmary for sick monks, with the physician's house and physic garden, lies to the east. In the same group with the infirmary is the school for the novices. The outer school, with its head-master's house against the opposite wall of the church, stands outside the convent enclosure, in close proximity to the abbot's house, that he might have a constant eye over them. The buildings devoted to hospitality are divided into three groups,—one for the reception of distinguished guests, another for monks visiting the monastery, a third for poor travellers and pilgrims. The first and third are

placed to the right and left of the common entrance of the 8

monastery,—the hospitium for distinguished guests being placed on the north side of the church, not far from the abbot's house; that for the poor on the south side next to the farm buildings. The monks are lodged in a guest-house built against the north wall of the church. The group of buildings connected with the material wants of the establishment is placed to the south and west of the church,' and is distinctly separated from the monastic buildings. The kitchen, buttery, and offices, are reached by a passage from the west end of the refectory, and are connected with the bakehouse and brewhouse, which are placed still fur

The whole of the southern and western sides Ground-plan of St Gall.

is devoted to workshops, stables, and farm-buildings. The CHURCH.

0. House for blood-letting. A. Hig: Altar.

buildings, with some exceptions, seem to have been of one W. Schoolmaster's Lodgings. X,X,. Guest-house for those

story only, and all but the church were probably erected superior rank.

of wood. The whole includes thirty-three separate blocks.
X,.1g. Guest-house for the poor.
Y: Guest-chamber for strange monks. The church (D) is cruciform, with a nave of nine bays, and


a semicircular apse at either extremity. That to the west
2. Factory.
m. Threshing-floor.

is surrounded by a semicircular colonnade, leaving an open II. Calefactory, with Dormitory over. b. Workshops.

“Paradise” (E) between it and the wall of the church. 1. Necessary.

The whole area is div ed by screens into various chapels. K. Refectory.

The high altar (A) stands immediately to the east of the

transept, or ritual choir; the altar of St Paul (B) in the h. 2ig-sties. i. Sheep-folds. k, k, k. Servants' and workmen's

eastern, and that of St Peter (C) in the western apse. A P1 Scriptorium, with Library over.

sleeping chambers.

cylindrical campanile stands detached from the church on
P2. Sacristy and Vestry.
Q. House of Novices-1. Chapel; 2.

either side of the western apse (FF).
Refectory; 3. Calcfactory; 4. n. Pou.try-keeper's house.
Dormitory; 5. Master's Room ;

The “cloister court” (G) on the south side of the nave p. Cemetery.

of the church has on its east side the “pisalis” or “ calefacR. Infirmary-1-6 as above in the

tory” (H), the common sitting-room of the brethren, warmed 8. Doctor's House.

by flues beneath the floor. On this side in later monasT. Physic Garden.

teries we invariably find the chapter-house, the absence of substance of the following description, as well as for the which in this plan is somewhat surprising. above woodcut, reduced from his elucidated transcript of | however from the inscriptions on the plan itself, that the

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ther away

V. School


B A'tar of St Paul.
C Altar of St Peter.
D. Nave.
E. Paradise.
FF. Towers.

G. Cloister.

J. Abbot's house.

C, C. Mills.
d. Kiln
e. Stables.
1. Cowsheds.
g. Goatsheds,

L. Kitchen.
M. Bakehouse and Brewhouse.
N. Cellar.
0. Parlour.

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north walk of the cloisters served for the purposes of a chap | ment, that by the 9th century monastic estabusoments ter-house, and was fitted up with benches on the long sides. had become wealthy, and had acquired considerable importAbove the calefactory is the "dormitory” opening into the ance, and were occupying a leading place in education, south transept of the church, to enable the monks to attend agriculture, and the industrial arts. The influence such an the nocturnal services with readiness. A passage at the institution would diffuse through a wide district would be other end leads to the “necessarium” (I), a portion of the no less beneficial than powerful. monastic buildings always planned with extreme care. The The curious bird's eye view of Canterbury Cathedral and Cantersouthern side is occupied by the “refectory" (K), from the its annexed conventual buildings, taken about 1165, pre- bury. west end of which by a vestibule the kitchen (L) is reached. served in the Great Psalter in the library of Trinity College, This is separated from the main buildings of the monastery, Cambridge, as elucidated by Professor Willis with such and is connected by a long passage with a building containing admirable skill and accurate acquaintance with the existing the bakehouse and brewhouse (M), and the sleeping-rooms of remains, exhibits the plan of a great Benedictine monasthe servants. The upper story of the refectory is the “ves- tery in the 12th century, and enables us to compare it with tiarium,” where the ordinary clothes of the brethren were that of the 9th, as seen at St Gall. We see in both the kept. On the western side of the cloister is another two same general principles of arrangement, which indeed bestory building (N). The cellar is below, and the larder and long to all Benedictine monasteries, enabling us to deterstore-room above. Between this building and the church, mine with precision the disposition of the various buildopening by one door into the cloisters, and by another to the ings, when little more than fragments of the walls exist. outer part of the monastery area, is the “parlour” for inter- From some local reasons, however, the cloister and monastic views with visitors from the external world (O). On the buildings are placed on the north, instead, as is far more eastern side of the north transept is the “ scriptorium" commonly the case, on the south of the church. There or writing-room (P), with the library above.

is also a separate chapter-house, which is wanting at To the east of the church stands a group of buildings St Gall. comprising two miniature conventual establichments, each The buildings at Canterbury, as at St Gall, form separate complete in itself. Each has a covered cloister surrounded groups. The church forms the nucleus. In immediate conby the usual buildings, i.e., refectory, dormitory, &c., and tact with this, on the north side, lie the cloister and the à church or chapel on one side, placed back to back. A group of buildings devoted to the monastic life. Outside detached building belonging to each contains a bath and a of these, to the west and east, are the “halls and chambers kitchen. One of these diminutive convents is appropriated devoted to the exercise of hospitality, with which every to the “ oblati" or novices (Q), the other to the sick monks monastery was provided, for the purpose of receiving as as an "infirmary" (R).

guests persons who visited it, whether clergy or laity, traThe “residence of the physicians" (S) stands contiguous vellers, pilgrims, or paupers." To the north a large open to the infirmary, and the physic garden (T) at the north-east court divides the monastic from the menial buildings, incorner of the monastery. Besides other rooms, it contains tentionally placed as remote as possible from the convena drug store, and a chamber for those who are dangerously tual buildings proper, the stables, granaries, barn, bakeill. The “house for blood-letting and purging” adjoins it house, brewhouse, laundries, &c., inhabited by the lay seron the west (U).

vants of the establishment. At the greatest possible distance The "outer school,” to the north of the convent area, con- from the church, beyond the precinct of the content, is tains a large school-room divided across the middle by a the eleemosynary department. The almonry for the relief of screen or partition, and surrounded by fourteen little rooms, the poor, with a great hall annexed, forms the pauper's termed the dwellings of the scholars. The head-master's hospitium. house (W) is opposite, built against the side wall of the The most important group of buildings is naturally that church. The two “ hospitia" or "guest-houses” for the devoted to monastic life. This includes two cloisters, the entertainment of strangers of different degrees (X, X,) great cloister surrounded by the buildings essentially concomprise a large common chamber or refectory in the nected with the daily life of the monks,—the church to the centre, surrounded by sleeping apartments. Each is pro south, the refectory or frater-house here as always on the vided with its own brewhouse and bakehouse, and that for side opposite to the church, and furthest removed from it, travellers of a superior order has a kitchen and store-room, that no sound or smell of eating might penetrate its sacred with bed-rooms for their servants, and stables for their precincts, to the east the dormitory, raised on a vaulted horses. There is also an “ hospitium” for strange monks, undercroft, and the chapter-house adjacent, and the lodgabutting on the north wall of the church (Y).

ings of the cellarer to the west. To this officer was comBeyond the cloister, at the extreme verge of the con- mitted the provision of the monks' daily food, as well as vent area to the south, stands the “factory” (Z), contain that of the guests. He was, therefore, appropriately lodged ing workshops for shoemakers, saddlers (or shoemakers, in the immediate vicinity of the refectory and kitchen, and sellarii), cutlers and grinders, trencher-makers, tanners, cur- close to the guest-hall. A passage under the dormitory riers, fullers, smiths, and goldsmiths, with their dwellings leads eastwards to the smaller or infirmary cloister, approin the rear. On this side we also find the farm-buildings, priated to the sick and infirm monks. Eastward of this the large granary and threshing-floor (a), mills (c), malt- cloister extend the hall and chapel of the infirmary, resemhouse (d). Facing the west are the stables (e), ox-sheds bling in form and arrangement the nave and chancel of an

), goat-stables (9), piggeries (h), sheep-folds (6), together aisled church. Beneath the dormitory, looking out into with the servants and labourers' quarters(k). At the south- the green court or herbarium, lies the “pisalis” or “caleeast corner we find the hen and duck house, and poultry- factory," the common room of the monks. At its northyard (m), and the dwelling of the keeper (n). Hard by is east corner access was given from the dormitory to the the kitchen garden (6), the beds bearing the names of the necessarium, a portentous edifice in the form of a Norman vegetables growing in them, onions, garlic, celery, lettuces, hall, 145 feet long by 25 broad, containing fifty-five seats. It poppy, carrots, cabbages, &c., eighteen in all. In the same was, in common with all such offices in ancient monasteries, way the physic garden presents the names of the medicinal constructed with the most careful regard to cleanliness and herbs, and the cemetery (P) those of the trees, apple, pear,

| The Architectural History of the Conventual Buildings of the plum, quince, &c., planted there.

Monastery of Christ Church in Canterbury. By the Rev. Robert It is evident, from this most carious and valuable docu- I Wiliis. Printed for the Kent Archæological Society, 1869.

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