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It may be well, perhaps, to state at the outset the position taken by the Encyclopædia

Troversies of the

time-Scientific, Religious, and activity of modern science has

gomewhat crude conjecsciences require alteration and enlargement; ; the articles thanselves must, of instances, be written afresh rather than simply revised. The scientific the work will thus be to a great extent new. In attempting to distribute for the new edition, so as fairly to cover the ground occupied by modern science, I have been largely indebted to Professor Huxley and Professor Clerk Maxwell, whose valuable help in the matter I am glad to have an opportunity of acknowledging.

Passing from Natural and Physical Science to Literature, History, and Philosophy, it may be noted that many sections of knowledge connected with these departments display fresh tendencies, and are working towards new results, which, if faithfully reflected, will require a new style of treatment. Speaking generally, it may be said that human nature and human life are the great objects of inquiry in these departments. Man, in his individual powers, complex relationships, associated activities, and collective progress, is dealt with alike in Literature, History, and Philosophy. In this wider aspect, the rudest and most fragmentary records of savage and barbarous races, the earliest stories and traditions

every lettered people, no less than their developed literatures, mythologies, and religions, are found to have a meaning and value of their own. As yet the rich materials thus supplied for throwing light on the central problems of human life and history have only been very partially turned to account. It may be said, indeed, that their real significance is perceived and appreciated, almost for the first time, in our own day. But under the influence of the modern spirit, they are now being dealt with in a strictly scientific manner The available facts of human history, collected over the widest areas, are carefully co-ordinated and grouped together, in the hope of ultimately evolving the laws of progress,

moral and material, which underlie them, and which, when evolved, will help to connect and interpret the whole onward movement of the race. Already the critical use of the comparative method bas produced very striking results in this new and stimulating field of research. Illustrations of this are seen in the rise and rapid development of the comparatively moderr science of Anthropology, and the successful cultivation of the assistant sciences, such as Archæology, Ethnography, and Philology, which directly contribute materials for

The activity of geographical research in both hemispheres, and the large additions recently made to our knowledge of older and newer continents by the discoveries of eminent travellers and explorers, afford the anthropologist additional materials for his work. Many branches of mental philosophy, again, such as Ethics, Psychology, and Asthetics, while supplying important elements to the new science, are at the same time very largely interested in its results, and all may be regarded as subservient to the wider problems raised by the philosophy of history. In the new edition of the Encyclopædia full justice will, it is hoped, be done to the progress made in thege various directions. Britannica in relation to the active cont Philosophical. This is the more necessay naturally stimulated speculation, and gin

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tures and hypotheses. The air is full of novel and extreme opinions, arising often from a hasty or one-sided interpretation of the newer aspects and results of modern inquiry. The higher problems of philosophy and religion, too, are being investigated afresh from opposite sides in a thoroughly earnest spirit, as well as with a directness and intellectual power, which is certainly one of the most striking signs of the times. This fresh outbreak of the inevitable contest between the old and the new is a fruitful source of exaggerated hopes and fears, and of excited denunciation and appeal. In this conflict a work like the Encyclopædia is not called upon to take any direct part. It has to do with knowledge rather than opinion, and to deal with all subjects from a critical and historical, rather than a dogmatic, point of view. It cannot be the organ of any sect or party in Science, Religion, or Philosophy. Its main duty is to give an accurate account of the facts and an impartial summary of results in every department of inquiry and research. This duty will, I hope, be faithfully performed.

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THE first symbol of every Indo-European alphabet, of the speech-organs, in which the breath escapes without

denotes also the primary vowel sound. This coin any stoppage, friction, or sibilation arising from the concidence is probably only accidental. The alphabets of tact of those organs, whereas consonants are heard when Europe, and perhaps of India also, were of Semitic origin, the organs open after such contact more or less complete. and in all the Semitic alphabets except one, this same Now, all vowels except a are pronounced with a certain symbol (in modified forms) holds the first place; but it contraction of the organs; thus, in sounding the i (the represents a peculiar breathing, not the vowel a,—the English e-sound), the tongue is raised so as almost to vowels in the Semitic languages occupying a subordinate touch the palate, the passage left being so close, that if place, and having originally no special symbols. When the tongue were suffered for a second to rest on the palate, the Greeks, with whom the vowel sounds were much more there would be heard not i but y; and a similar relation important, borrowed the alphabet of Phoenicia, they re-exists between u and w. This is commonly expressed by quired symbols to express those vowels, and used for this calling y and w semi-vowels. We might more exactly call purpose the signs of breathings which were strange to i and u consonantal-vowels; and as an historic fact, i does them, and therefore needed not to be preserved; thus the constantly pass into y, and u into w, and vice versa. But Phænician equivalent of the Hebrew aleph became alpha; no consonant has this relation to the a-sound; it has absoit denoted, however, no more a guttural breathing, but the lutely no affinity to any consonant; it is, as we have called purest vowel sound. Still, it would be too much to it, the one primary essential vowel. assume that the Greeks of that day were so skilled in The importance of this sound may be shown by historiphonetics that they assigned the first symbol of their bor- cal as well as by physiological evidence. We find by rowed alphabet to the a-sound, because they knew that tracing the process of phonetic change in different lansound to be the most essential vowel.

guages, that when one vowel passes into another, it is the This primary vowel-scund (the sound of a in father) is pure a-sound which thus assumes other forms, whereas produced by keeping the passage through which the air is other vowels do not pass into the a-sound, though somevocalised between the glottis and the lips in the most open times the new sound may have this symbol. Roughly position possible. In sounding all other vowels, the air- speaking, we might express the genechannel is narrowed by the action either of the tongue or ral character of vowel change by drawthe lips. But here neither the back of the tongue is ing two lines from a common point, raised (as it is in sounding o and other vowels), so that a at which a is placed. One of these free space is left between the tongue and the uvula, nor lines marks the progress of an original is the front of the tongue raised (as in sounding e), so that a (ah-sound) through e (a-sound), till the space is clear between the tongue and the palate. it sinks finally to i (e-sound); the other Again, no other vowel is pronounced with a wider opening marks a similar degradation, through of the lips; whereas the aperture is sensibly reduced at o to u (00-sound). This figure omits

i each side when we sound o, and still more when we sound many minor modifications, and is subu (that is, yoo). The whole channel, therefore, from ject to some exceptions in particular languages. But it the glottis, where the breath first issues forth to be modi- represents fairly in the main the general process of vowelfied in the oral cavity, to the lips, where it finally escapes, change. Now, we do not assert that there ever was a is thoroughly open. Hence arises the great importance of time when a was the only existing vowel, but we do main. the sound, by reason of its thoroughly non-consonantal tain that in numberless cases an original a has passed into character. All vowels may be defined as open positions other sounds, whereas the reverse process is excessively

I. – I

rare. Consequently, the farther we trace back the history of-thirst). Sometimes, especially with verbs, it represents of language, the more instances of this vowel do we find; the old English â, which in old High German appears as the more nearly, if not entirely, does it become the one ur or er, and in modern German as er, which signifies the starting point from which all vowel-sound is derived. completion of an action, as in erwachen, to which awake

It is principally to the effort required to keep this corresponds. Frequently no special force seems to be sound pure that we must attribute the great corruption of added by the prefix, as in abide, arise, &c. Sometimes a it in all languages, and in none more than our own. In- appears as the representative of the prefix commonly used deed, in English, the short a-sound is never heard pure; it in past participles, which has the form ge in German, and is heard in Scotland, e.g., in man, which is quite different ge and y in old English, e.g., in ago or agone; compare from the same word on English lips. We have it, how aware (O.E. gewaere), among (O.E. gemang), &c. A also ever, long in father, &c., though it is not common. It has stood for the preposition an (on) in such expressions (now passed into a great many other sounds, all of which are obsolete) as a-doing, a-making, where doing and making are denoted in a most confusing way by the original symbol, verbal nouns. Lastly, it represents the prepositions on or and some by other symbols as well. Thus a denotes—(1.) of in the phrases now-a-days, Jack-a-lantern, and others. The English vowel-sound in man, perhaps the most common The place that A occupies in the alphabet accounts for of all the substitutes, dating from the 17th century. (2.) | its being much employed as a mark or symbol. It is used, It appears in want; for this sound o is also employed, as in for instance, to name the sixth note of the gamut in music; on. (3.) A more open sound is heard in all (also denoted in some systems of notation it is a numeral (see ARITHby au in auk, and aw in awl). (4.) Very commonly it re- METIC); and in Logic it denotes a universal affirmativo presents the continental e, as in ale' (here also we have the proposition (see Logic). In algebra, a and the first letters symbol ai in ail). (5.) It is found in dare and many of the alphabet are employed to represent known quantisimilar words, where the sound is really the e of den, pro- ties. Al marks the best class of vessels in Lloyd's Relonged in the utterance; here also ai is sometimes an gister of British and Foreign Shipping. In the old poets, equivalent, as in air. Then (6) there is a sound which is “A per se” is found, meaning the highest degree of excelnot that of a either in man or in father, but something lence; as when Chaucer calls Creseide " the floure and A between the two. It is heard in such words as ask, pass, per se of Troye and Grece.” grant, &c. All these may be, and often are, pronounced A was the first of the eight literæ nundinales at Rome, with the sound either of man or of father; still, we do often and on this analogy it stands as the first of the seven Dominihear in them a clearly distinguishable intermediate sound, cal letters. which ought to have a special symbol. Lastly (7), there It is often used as an abbreviation, as in A.D. for anno is the dull sound heard in final unaccentuated syllables, e.g., domini, A.M. for ante meridiem, A.B. and A.M. for artium in the word final itself. It is that to which all unaccen baccalaureus and artium magister. In commerce A stands tuated syllables tend; but it is also often heard even in for accepted.

(J. P.) monosyllables, where it is represented by every other vowel AA, the name of about forty small European rivers. symbol in the language, e.g., in her, sir, son, sun. This The word is derived from the old German aha, cognate Protean sound is commonly called the neutral vowel ; it to the Latin aqua, water. The following are the more occurs in all languages, but perhaps in none so frequently important streams of this name :—a river of Holland, in as in English. This great variety of sounds, which are all North Brabant, which joins the Dommel at Bois-le-Duc; denoted among us by one symbol, clearly shows the in- two rivers in the west of Russia, both falling into the sufficiency of our written alphabet.

Gulf of Livonia, near Riga, which is situated between As in English, so in Sanskrit, the short ah-sound was them; a river in the north of France, falling into the sea lost, and was replaced regularly by the neutral sound. at Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer; and a This was regarded by the grammarians as inherent in every river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Lucerne and Aargau, consonant, and therefore was only written at the beginning which carries the waters of Lakes Baldeker and Hallwyler of a word; in fact, it is the smallest amount of vowel into the Aar. sound requisite to float a consonant. Long a, however, AACHEN. See Aix-LA-CHAPELLE. kept its sound pure, and does so still in the vernaculars of AALBORG, a city and seaport of Denmark, is situated on India. In Latin the sound was probably pure, both short the Liimfiord, about 15 miles from its junction with the and long, and it has been preserved so in the Romance | Cattegat. It is the capital of the district of the same languages down to the present day. In Greek there was name, one of the subdivisions of the province of Jütland. considerable variation, proved in one case at least by a The city is a place of considerable commercial importance, variation of symbol; in Ionic a commonly passed into and contains a cathedral and a school of navigation. Soap, n, a symbol which probably denoted the modern Italian tobacco, and leather are manufactured; there are several open e; but possibly the close e, that is, the English a in distilleries; and the herring fishery is extensively prosecuted. ale. On the other hand, it is probable that the Doric a Grain and herring are largely exported, as are also to a approximated to an o, being sounded as a in our word smaller extent wool, cattle, skins, tallow, salt provisions, and want, and it is likely that this variation was the latelao- spirits. The harbour, which is good and safe, though pós which the grammarians attribute to the Dorians. This difficult of access, is entered by about 800 vessels annually, is commonly supposed to have been the retention of a where and there is direct steam communication with Copenhagen. the Ionic had n; but that was not peculiar to the Dorians, The district is celebrated for its breed of horses. Popula being common to all the Greeks except the Ionians. In tion (1870), 11,953. the north of Europe we find a similar tendency to give to AALEN, a walled town of Würtemberg, pleasantly a un 0-sound; thus in Norse, aa is sounded as an open o. situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Alps, By a further extension in the north of England, at least in about 50 miles E. of Stuttgart. Woollen and linen goods such parts as have been specially exposed to Norwegian are manufactured, and there are ribbon looms and tanneries influence, au has the sound of 0; e.g., law is pronounced lo. in the town, and large iron works in the neighbourhood.

A is frequently used as a prefix in lieu of some fuller Aalen was a free imperial city from 1360 till 1802, when form in old English. Thus it stands for the preposition it was annexed to Würtemberg. Population (1871), 5552. on (O.E. an) in away, again, afoot, asleep; for off in adown AAR, or AARE, the most considerabie river in Switzer. (0.E. 0f-dune); and seems to be intensive in athirst (O.E. I land, after the Rhine and Rhone. It rises in the glaciers

of the Finster-aarhorn, Schreckhorn, and Grimsel, in the are many vineyards, and much fruit is grown. The cancanton of Bern; and at the Handeck in the valley of Hashton is distinguished by its industry and its generally forms a magnificent water-fall of above 150 feet in height. diffused prosperity. Many of the inhabitants are employed It then falls successively into the lakes Brienz and Thun, in the fishings on the Aar, and in the navigation of the and, emerging from the latter, flows through the cantons of river. In the villages and towns there are considerable Bern, Soleure, and Aargau, emptying itself into the Rhine, manufactures of cotton goods, silk, and linen. The chief opposite Waldshut, after a course of about 170 miles. exports are cattle, hides, cheese, timber, raw cotton, yarn, Its principal tributary streams are the Kander, Saane, and cotton cloths, silk, machinery, and wooden wares; and Thiele on the left, and the Emmen, Surin, Aa, Reuss, and the imports include wheat, wine, salt, leather, and iron. Limmat, on the right. On its banks are situated Unterseen, The most important towns are Aarau, Baden, Zofingen, and Thun, Bern, Soleure or Solothurn, Aarburg, and Aarau. Laufenburg, and there are mineral springs at Baden, SchinzThe Aar is a beautiful silvery river, abounding in fish, and nach, Leerau, and Niederweil. The Swiss Junction is navigable from the Rhine as far as the Lake of Thun. Railway crosses the Rhine near Waldshut, and runs south Several small rivers in Germany have the same name. through the canton to Turgi, whence one line proceeds S.E.

AARAU, the chief town of the canton of Aargau in to Zurich, and another S. W. to Aarau and Olben. Switzerland, is situated at the foot of the Jura mountains, Until 1798, Aargau formed part of the canton of Bern, on the right bank of the river Aar, 41 miles N.E. of Bern. but when the Helvetic Republic was proclaimed, it was It is well built, and contains a town-hall, barracks, several erected into a separate canton. In 1803 it received a small museums, and a library rich in histories of Switzer- considerable accession of territory, in virtue of the arrangeland. There is a cannon foundry at Aarau, and among the ment under which the French evacuated Switzerland. principal manufactures are silk, cotton, and leather; also According to the law whereby the cantons are represented cutlery and mathematical instruments, which are held in in the National Council by one member for every 20,000 great repute. The slopes of the neighbouring mountains inhabitants, Aargau returns ten representatives to that are partially covered with vines, and the vicinity of the assembly. The internal government is vested in a legistown is attractive. About ten miles distant along the lative council elected by the body of the people, while a right bank of the Aar are the famous baths of Schinznach. smaller council of seven members chosen by the larger Population, 5449.

body for the general administration of affairs.

The reAARD-VARK (earth-pig), an animal very common in sources of Aargau are stated to amount to about a million South Africa, measuring upwards of three feet in length, sterling; its revenue in 1867 was nearly £82,000, and the and having a general resemblance to a short-legged pig expenditure slightly greater. There is a public debt of It feeds on ants, and is of nocturnal habits, and very timid about £40,000. The canton is divided into eleven districts, and harmless. Its flesh is used as food, and when suitably and these again are subdivided into forty-eight circles. There preserved is considered a delicacy. The animal is the only is a court of law for each district, and a superior court for known species of its genus (Orycteropus), and belongs to the whole canton, to which cases involving sums above 160 the order Edentata of the mammalia. The same prefix francs can be appealed. Education is compulsory; but in the Aard appears in the name of the AARD-WOLF (Proteles Roman Catholic districts the law is not strictly enforced. By Lalandii), a rare animal found in Caffraria, which is said improved schools and other appliances great progress has to partake of the characters of the dog and civet. See been made in education within the last thirty or forty years. MAMMALIA.

AARHUUS, a city and seaport of Denmark, situated AARGAU (French, ARGOVIE), one of the cantons of on the Cattegat, in lat. 56° 9' N., long. 10° 12' E. It is Switzerland, derives its name from the river which flows the chief town of a fertile district of the same name, one through it, Aar-gau being the province or district of the of the subdivisions of Jutland. The cathedral of Aarhuus Aar. It is bounded on the north by the Rhine, which divides is a Gothic structure, and the largest church in Denmark. it from the duchy of Baden, on the east by Zurich and Zug, The town also contains a lyceum, museum, and library, on the south by Lucerne, and on the west by Bern, Soleure Aarhuus is a place of extensive trade. It has a good and or Solothurn, and Basel It has an area of 5024 square miles. safe harbour, has regular steam communication with By the census of 1870, the number of inhabitants was Copenhagen, and is connected by rail with Viborg and the 198,873, showing an increase during the preceding ten years interior of the country. Agricultural produce, spirits, of 4665. Aargau stands sixth among the Swiss cantons in leather, and gloves are exported, and there are sugar redensity of population, having 395 inhabitants to the square fineries, and manufactures of wool, cotton, and tobacco. mile. The statistics of 1870 show that of the inhabitants Population (1870), 15,020. 107,703 were Protestants, 89,180 Catholics, and 1541 Jews. AARON, the first high-priest of the Jews, eldest son German is the language almost universally spoken. of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, and brother

Aargau is the least mountainous canton of Switzerland. of Moses and Miriam. When Moses was commissioned to It forms part of a great table-land to the north of the Alps conduct the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan, Aaron was and the east of the Jura, having a general elevation of appointed to assist him, principally, it would appear, on from 1200 to 1500 feet. The hills do not rise to any account of his possessing, in a high degree, persuasive greater height than 1800 feet above this table-land, or readiness of speech. On the occasion of Moses' absence 3000 feet above the level of the sea. The surface of the in Mount Sinai (to which he had gone up to receive the country is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and tables of the law), the Israelites, regarding Aaron as their well-wooded hills alternating with fertile valleys watered leader, clamorously demanded that he should provide them by the Aar and its numerous tributaries, and by the rivu- with a visible symbolic image of their God for worship. lets which flow northward into the Rhine. Although He weakly complied with the demand, and out of the moist and variable, the climate is milder than in most ornaments of gold contributed for the purpose cast the parts of Switzerland.

figure of a calf, this form being doubtless chosen in recolThe minerals of Aargau are unimportant, but remarkable lection of the idols of Egypt. În obedience to instructions palæontological remains are found in its rocks. The soil to given by God to Moses, Aaron was appointed high-priest; the left of the Aar is a stiff clay, but to the right it is light his sons and descendants, priests; and his tribe was set and productive. Agriculture is in an advanced state, and apart as the sacerdotal caste. The office of high-priest was great attention is given to the rearing of cattle. There held by Aaron for nearly forty years, till the time of his

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