« ElőzőTovább »
3. “ And greater sure my inerit, who, to gain
A point sublime, could such a task sustain.” As the antecedent and relative are correspondent words, wnich ought both to be distinctly marked, in order to show the precise meaning of a sentence, where the relative only is expressed, the accentual force falls upon it, the antecedent being understood.
EXAMPLES. 1. “ Who does the best his circumstance allows,
Does we'll, acts n'obly; an'gels/ could no mo're.” 2. “ Who lives to na'ture, ra'rely can be poʻor ;
Who lives to fan'cy, ne'ver can be rich.”
ECHO. I HAVE adopted this name, says Mr. Walker, for want of a better, to express that repetition of a word or thought, which immediately arises from a word or thought that preceded it. When in narrative or didactic composition, the echoing word is merely pronounced with the rising inflexion, and long pause ; but when it implies any degree of passion, as in the following beautiful examples, this inflexion and pause must be accompanied with a high impassioned tone. (For the sake of distinction, the echoing word has been printed in italics.)
1. “ Newton was a Christian ! New"ton! whose mind burst forth from the fetters cast by nature on our fi'nite conce'ptions— Newton ! whose science was truth, and the foundation of whose knowledge of it was philosophy ; not those visionary and arrogant presumptions which too often usu'rp its na'me, but philo'sophy/ resting on the basis of mathema'tics, which, like figʻures, cannot li'e — New'ton! who carried the line and rule to the utmost barriers of creation, and explored the principles by whi'ch (no do'ubt) all created matter is held together and exi'sts.”*-Erskine.
* That this seems to be the natural pronunciation the echoing word, the Editor begs to state, that several years ago, when in the habit of reciting the admirable speech from which the above example is extracted, and long before he became acquainted with Mr. Walker's system, he used to adopt the tone and inflexion here recommended for its pronunciation.
2. “ With 'mysterious reverence 'I forbear to descant on those serious and interesting rites, for the more august and solemn celebration of which Fashion nightly convenes these splendid myriads to her more sumptuous temples. Rite"s ! whi'ch (when engaged in with due dev'otion) absorb the whole sou'l, and call every passion into exercise, (except those indeed of love and peace, and kindness and ge'ntleness.) Inspi'ringrites ! which sti’mulate fe'ar, rousse ho'pe, kin'dle ze'al, quicken dul'ness, sha'rpen disce'rnment, ex'ercise m'emory, infla'me curio'sity !-Ri'tes ! in sho'rt, in the due performance of whi'ch, all the en'ergies and atte'ntions, all the pow'ers and abi'lities, all the abstr'action and exer'tion, all the diligence and devo'tedness, all the sa'crifice of tim'e, all the contem'pt of ea'se, all the negle'ct of sleep, all the obli'vion of ca're, all the risks of fo'rtune (ha'lf-of-which, if dire'cted to their tr'ue-objects, would change the very face of the woʻrld), all thesse/ are concen’trated to on e-point ; a point", in which/ the wis'e and the weak, the lea'rned and the ig'norant, the fa'ir and the frig'htful, the spri’ghtly and the du'll, the rich and the poor, the patric'ian and plebesian, meet in one co'mmon un'iform equality : equa"lity,* as religiously resp'ected in these sole'mnities, in which all distin'ctions/ are le'velled at a blow, and o'f whi'ch/ the very spi'rit is therefore democr'atical, as it is combated in all o'ther-instances.”—Hannah More.
RHETORICAL PUNCTUATION. The following rules are also extracted from Mr. Walker's “ Elements of Elocution and Rhetorical Grammar," and cannot fail to prove interesting to the admirer of correct reading.
RULE I. When a nominative consists of more than one word,—or of one important word--it is necessary to pause after it. (A slanting line, it will be recollected, indicates the pause.)
* The words “point” and “equality" must also be pronounced with the emphatic rising inflexion, and the word “rites more emphatical every time it is repeated, and the pause after it longer.
EXAMPLES. 1. “The dec'ays of ag'e/ must term’inate in deat'h.”
2. “ The exp'erience of cala’mity/ is necessary to a just sense of be'tter-fortune.'
3. “ Phil'osophy/ makes us w'iser ; Chris'tianity/ makes us bet'ter-men.”
4. “ The goʻspel/ is the comforter of the wretched.”
Note.—When a sentence consists of a nominative and a verb unattended by adjuncts, no pause is necessary ; “ Alexander wept.”
RULE II. Whatever member intervenes between the nominative case and the verb, is of the nature of a parenthesis, and must be separated from both of them by a short pause.
EXAMPLES. 1. “ Trials/ in this state of besing/ are the lot of m'an.”
2. “Ho'nest-endeavours/ if perseve'red-in/ will finally be succe'ssful.”
3. Disappoi'ntments and afflictions/—however disagr'eeable/ —often improve us.”
4. “ Such is the constitution of men, that vir'tue—however it may be neglected for a ti'me/—will ultimately be ackno'wledged and respected."
RULE III. Whatever member intervenes between the verb and the accusative case, is of the nature of a parenthesis, and must be separated from both by a short pause.
EXAMPLES. 1. “I knew a person who possessed the faculty of distinguishing flavours in so great a perfection, that, after having tasted ten different kinds of tea, he would distin'guish—without seeing the coʻlour-of-it/—the particular sort which was offered him.'
2. “ A man of a fine taste in wr'iting will dis'cern/-after the same ma’nner/—not only the general beauties and imperfec'tions of an au'thor, but discover the several ways of thinking and expressing himself, which diversify him/ from all oʻther authors.”
RULE IV. When two verbs come together, and the latter is in the in. finitive mood, if any word come between, they must be separated from the latter verb by a pause.
The slings and arrows of outr'ageous foʻrtune ;
An'd/ by oppoʻsing, en d-them ?" Note.—When the verb to be is followed by a verb in the infinitive mood, which may serve as a nominative case to it, and the phrases before and after the verb may be transposed, then the pause falls between the verbs : thus, “ The greatest misery is/ to be condemned by our own hearts.” “His highest enjoyment was/ to relieve the distressed.”
RULE V. Nouns in apposition, or words in the same case, where the latter is only explanatory of the former, have a short pause between them, either if both these nouns consist of many terms, or the latter only.
EXAMPLES. 1. “Hoʻpe/, the balm of li'fe/, soothes us under every
2. “Conte'nt/, the offspring of virtue, dwells both in retir'ement, and in the ac'tive-scenes of life.”
3. “ Solomon the son of Da'vid), and the builder of the temple of Jeru'salem, was the richest mo'narch/ that reigned over the Jewish-people."
Note. If the two nouns are single, no pause is admitted ; as, “ Paul the Apostle ;” “King George;" but if the latter consists of many terms, a short pause is necessary; as, “ Pa'ul—the ap'ostle of the Gen'tiles;" “George-ki'ng of Gre'at-Britain,” &c.
RULE VI. Who, Which, when in the nominative case, and the pronoun that, when used for who or which, require a short
pause before them.
EXAMPLES. 1. “ Death is the se'ason/ which brings our affections to the te'st."
2. “ Nothing is in vai'n/ that rouses the soʻul : nothing in vai'n/ that keeps the ethereal fire ali've and glo'wing."
3. “ A man can never be obliged to submit to any power, unless he can be sa'tisfied, wh'o is the person who has a right/ to ex'ercise it."
Note.—There are several words, usually called adverbs, which include in them the power of the relative pronoun, and will therefore admit of a pause before them : such as when, why, wherefore, how, where, whither, whether, whence, while, till, or until. It must be observed, however, that when a preposition comes before one of these relatives, the pause is before the preposition ; and that if any of these words are the last word of the sentence, or clause of a sentence, no pause is admitted before it ; as, “ I have read the book, of which I have heard so much commendation, but I know not the reason why. I have heard one of the books much commended, but I cannot tell which,” &c. It must likewise be observed, that if the substantive which governs the relative, and makes it assume the genitive case, comes before it, no pause is to be placed either before which, or the preposition that governs it.
EXAMPLE. “ The passage of the Jordan is a figure of baptism, by the grace of which, the new-born Christian passes from the sla'very of si'n, into a state of fre’edom/ peculiar to the chosen so'ns of God.”
RULE VII. When that is used as a conjunction, it ought always to be preceded by a short pause.
EXAMPLES. 1. “ It is in society o'nly/ that we can relish those pure delicious jo'ys/ which embellish and gladden the life of ma n."
2. “ The custom and familiarity of these tongues do sometimes so far influence the expressions in these epi'stles/ that one may observe the force of the He’brew conjuga'tions