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Advertise A consequent application will sometimes be inferred from the metaphorical usage, English pent. which cannot be inferred from the literal.
“ To admit an opinion, to admit the propriety or force of an apology, excuse, argument, &c.” is, consequently, “ To grant, to concede, to agree, to assent.'
These are the main divisions which it will be incumbent upon the lexicographer to observe in the explanation of different words; and they may be thus methodically disposed :
1. The etymology, with the literal meaning, applied literally or to material objects: Plan. with the words similarly applied.
2. The metaphorical application of this meaning to the human mind; and the words
3. The application consequent or inferred from the literal meaning.
But the greater portion of language will admit of this comprehensive yet simple
The etymology, and literal meaning, literally and metaphorically employed ; with the words of similar application.
Whatever divisions, however, may occur, each must be attended by proper autho- Authorities. rities; those for the literal meaning (whenever they can be produced) will claim the first place; those for the metaphorical and consequent usage, must take their stations in due succession.
A few words are required to explain the manner of proceeding with compound Compoun
To abduce, adduce, conduce, deduce, induce, &c.
The difference of meaning, it is obvious, arises from the different preposed or
ad : duco : to lead to.
ab : traho: to draw from. attract : v. - ad : traho : to draw to.
Periods of the Language.
And so with the rest: then in each case must of course (to use the word of an English old chronicler *), subsecute the words synonimously applied.
To revert to the authorities : The writers, from whose works citations are to be made, may advantageously be classed into periods; and each word, when it is possible, should be supported by authorities within each period.
The first period must commence with the rhyming chronicles of Robert of Gloucester, and Robert of Brunne; and terminate with the writers, whose powers were invigorated by their exertions in the struggle with the see of Rome, during the reign of Henry VIII. and his two immediate successors.
The second will extend from the accession of Elizabeth, to the return of Charles II. ; or from Hooker and Shakespeare, to Milton and J. Taylor.
The third, from the Restoration to the establishment of the House of Hanover upon the throne; or from Waller and Barrow, to Pope and Samuel Clarke
The fourth, from the time of George II, through that of his present majesty (in itself a period of nearly sixty years):—the great names of Cowper and Paley, of Horsley and Watson, will close the catalogue. All living writers must submit to a bar of exclusion.
The first period, as the least explored, and the longest in duration, seems not only to permit, but to demand that citations should be adduced with a hand so lavish, as sometimes to risk the imputation of wasteful liberality; and in every period, fullness and freedom will be considered as the more pardonable error, if it be an error at all to prefer dullness to a dearth of information ; and to expose those who
search of knowledge to some degree of tediousness, when there is no other path to the knowledge they are or pretend to be desirous
of acquiring Advantages By the arrangement of the citations chronologically, some view may be taken logical citao of the progressive changes of the language; and more particularly so by the use
of early and succeeding translators : among whom, the translators of the Bible
effectual attainment of
manner in which writers of different ages endeavoured, according to the changes which had been made in the language, to signify the same ideas.
• Hall, p. 404.
The word explained, and its immediate derivatives, may be classed together : English of such derivatives no explanation is necessary. Thus:
It is perfectly useless to inform a reader, that Abandonment is “ the act of abandoning;” that Abandoner is, “ one who forsakes.”
It is upon
A general Preface must ascertain the force of the terminations.
By thus classing the words with their immediate derivatives together, a Derivatives.
Thus, from a comparison of the words Reduce and Educe, words formed from the same root, it will be seen that we have supplied ourselves much more abundantly with the immediate derivatives from the former, than the latter compound.
Enough, however, has been said for the present purpose; which was barely this :--to lay down with clearness, the broad principles upon which a Dictionary of the English language may be so constructed as to accomplish a decisive advancement in lexicographical learning; and to note a peculiarity or two in the manner of execution.
And is it a very culpable degree of presumption to assert--that by a Dictionary composed with all possible observance of such principles, copiously and (may it prove) judiciously illustrated, such decisive advancement will be indisputably accomplished ?
In it an effort will be made to establish and to exemplify the just principles of etymology; and to mark and preserve that wide and most important distinction, which the Coryphæus of modern philology has so satisfactorily proved
AND J. AND J.J. DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE.