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considerably more, and its superficial area may be they have no buildings either of brick or stone; the
estimated at 60,000 square miles on a very moderate habitations of the rich and poor, are all equally con-
calculation. It is intersected by a great number of structed of bamboos or straw. The country produces
streams, and though mountainous, is highly fertile. neither camels nor horses ; and the people are so
It is in fact an extensive valley on the banks of the afraid, says our author, of the latter animal, that if
Berhām pūter, (Brahma putra,) lying between the one trooper should attack 100 armed Asamians, they
25th and 28th degrees of north lat. and 94 and 99 of would all throw down their arms and fly; but if one
east long. But its extent northwards has not yet been of this detestable race should encounter two men of
determined by actual observation. The kingdom is another nation, on foot, he would defeat them. The
divided into three districts—1. Uttar-kol, or Uttar- military weapons which the Asamians use, consist of
parh, the northern district to the north of the river muskets, swords, spears, bows and arrows; and at all
(Brahma putra). 2. Dekin-kol, or Dekin-parh, the events it says much for their courage and love of their
southern district to the south of the same river: and country, that with these they have invariably suc-
3. Majuli, a large island enclosed by branches of it. ceeded in defeating every attempt which has at vari-
It is also subdivided into Upper and Lower Ashān. ous times been made, to reduce them to subjection,
The former terminates at Kolyaparh, (Goyāl para), See Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 171–155.
where the river divides into two considerable streams, ASAPH, ST., a town of North Wales, in the county
and the mountains diverge to the south east. The of Flint, which has the rank of a city from being an
latter comprehends the lower and western provinces Episcopal See. It consists of little more than a single
annexed to the kingdom by 'Surg-Deo, and governed street. The cathedral, in which the service is no
by a viceroy. The divisions mentioned above, Uttar- longer performed, is a plain building, of about 190
kol and Dekin kol, do not, strictly speaking, apply to feet long. The Episcopal palace is a commodious
the lowland district.
residence, having been almost rebuilt by Bishop
Asam is bounded on the S. W. hy Bengal and Bisnī, Shopley. The diocese extends through Flint, Mont-
on the north by the successive ranges of the Būtan, gomery, Merionethshire, and part of Denbigh; and
Anka, Dúffula, or Dóp'hla, and Miri mountains ; on contains 121 parishes, and 131 churches and chapels,
the south by the Garra), (or Garó) hills. Of the the greater number of which are in the patronage of
two divisions above mentioned, Uttarcol, in the north- the Bishop. Population 1520; distant 28 miles W. of
ern side of the Burrampooter, is in the higher state of Chester, and 217 N. W. of London.
cultivation; it surpasses Dekinkol also in population. ASARABACCA. See ASARUM.
But there is no produce peculiar to the east which is ASARUM, in Botany, a genus of plants, class
not grown, or might not be cultivated either in the Dodecandria, order Monogynia.
high or low lands, with which Asam abounds. Man- Generic Character. Calyx trifid, superior; capsule
goes, plantains, citrons, limes, pine apples, &c. in six-celled.
great abundance, and of excellent flavour, are found The A. Europaum, or Asarabacca, a native of En-
here, as in other parts of India. There are also gland, has long been in use as a sternutatory. The
cocoa-nut trees, pepper vines, and various species of powder is made from the root or leaves
spices, in great plenty. The sugar-cane of this part ASBECK, a town of Westphalia, in the bishopric
of India is remarkable for its softness and sweetness; of Munster, bailiwic of Horstmar, annexed to the
and the silks resemble in quality those of China. Gold possessions of the house of Salm in 1803, but for the
and silver are found in most of the rivers, by washing present in the occupation of Prussia. Here is
the sand; and form so considerable a source of reve- à convent for noblemen's daughters. 4 miles S. E.
nue, that the number of persons employed in this of Aahaus.
occupation has been computed to amount to 12,000 ; ASBESTUS, in chemistry, from a privitiva, 'oßev-
some raise the number to 20,000; of whom, each vu,' I extinguish, is a mineral consisting princi-
individual pays a fixed tax of a tola of gold to the pally of a composition of siler and magnesia, with a
rajah. Of this people, the only account of which we small proportion of alumina, lime, and iron. There
know, is to be found in the second volume of the are five varieties of this substance, Common Asbestus,
Asiatic Researches. The paper alluded to, is a trans- Elastic Asbestus, Mountain Leather, Mountain Wood,
lation of A Description of Asam, written by Moham- and Amianthus. It is a greenish, brittle substance,
med Cazim, and translated from the Persian, by somewhat unctuous to the touch, and slightly elastic.
Henry Vansittart, Esq. In justice to the people The Egyptians, according to Herodotus, made a sort
which it describes, it should be remembered, that the of cloth of this substance, which they used for the
author was a rigid Mahonimetan, resident at the court purpose of wrapping up the bodies of the dead. Some
of Aurenzebe, and particularly hostile, as such, to the modern attempts have been made to produce this
people of Asam. According to this author, however, cloth, which has been effected by a mixture of as-
they are a base, unprincipled race, without piety, or bestus, with flax and oil. See Kirwan, Mineralogy,
any laws, except their own vicious inclinations. They v. i. 189. Brockart, Mineralogy, v. i. 497.
indulge in polygamy, live upon unclean food, and ASCALON, a town of Palestine, 14 miles N. of
would not refuse to eat an animal that had died a Gaza, and 30 S. W. of Jerusalem. It is a maritime
natural death even though dressed by the follower of town, and was formerly one of the five Satrapies of
a religion which they abhorred. Their dress consists Egypt. It is now merely a village, and is called
of a cloth tied round their loins, and a sheet thrown Jealona; but it continued a place of note until the
over their shoulders ; but they neither wear turbans, time of the Crusaders, among whom it was considered
por drawers, nor shoes. Except the gates of the city a place of importance. It is known in history as the
of Ghersong, and some of their idolatrous temples, birth-place of Herod the Great.
ASCALA ASCALABOTES, (from úokáłaßos, a kind of lizard.) white stripe on the back, becoming forked on the ASCALA-
BOTES. Cuv. Gecko, Daudin, Shaw. In Zoology, a genus head, and at the root of the tail, which is surrounded BOTES.
belonging to the family Geckotia, order Sauria, class with white rings. It is a native of India; it is caught
Reptilia. Generic character : body four-footed, elon- at Amboyna, on the branches of the tree, called Pan-
gated, tailed; toes broad and lamellated beneath ; dang of the banks.
head large and triangular; skin granulated, and b Hemidactyii, or Half-fingered Geckos.
studded with tubercles above and beneath with little These have the base of their toes provided with an
scales ; a row of pores or papillæ generally on the oval disc, formed below by a double tier of scales,
inside of the thighs.
from the middle of which springs the second phalanx,
genus is said to derive its name, Gecko, from slender, and supporting the third, or nail : all these
a peculiar cry made by one of its species which inha- have five nails and pores on both sides of the vent ;
bits Batavia, according to Bontius : it is of a thicker the scales on the under part of the tail are large
form than the other lizards; the feet are very remark- bands, like those on the belly of serpents.
able, from the under part of the toes being covered A. Tuberculatus, Daud. Cuv. Tokaie of Siam ; Tokai,
with such fine folds of skin, as to enable them to walk Shaw. About a foot long, varied with red and blue,
on the ceiling : their nails, which are wanting in and studded with small blue conical tubercles.
some species, are retractile in different ways, for the The Java Gecko, is similar to the preceding, but
purpose of preserving their points, and to give them smoother; the natives believe it to be poisonous.
a better grasp : the pupil of the eye contracts very To these may be added the G. à tubercules trièdres
much in the light, like those nocturnal animals who et G. à queue épineuse, of Daudin.
pass the day in their holes. From this form of their c Thecadactyli, having the fingers provided with
nails and eyes they seem, Cuvier thinks, to occupy scales like the last subdivision, but divided longitu-
the same place among the saurous reptiles, that the dinally by a furrow, in which the nails can be entirely
cats do among the carnivorous Mammalia.
received: they generally have no nails on the thumbs ;
They are a very numerous genus, and scattered over have no subfemoral papillæ ; and the tail is com-
the warm countries of both continents. They have been pletely covered with small scales.
accused of being poisonous, in consequence of their Among them we find the G. Lævis, Daud. Perfo-
dull air and partial resemblance to the salamanders rated Gecko, Shaw; which is a native of Surinam ;
and toads; but the charge is without foundation. and indeed it is probable that the G. Squalidus of
For information respecting structure and classifica- Herm. and G. Surinam, of Daud. are the same as the
tion, see COMPARATIVE Anatomy and Zoology.
Cuvier has subdivided them into several subgenera, d Ptyodactyli, or Fan-fingered Geckos, have the
of which the most numerous is,
extremities of the fingers expanded, and the under-
a Platydactyli, or Broad-fingered Geckos.
parts marked like a fan; the middle is split, and the
These have the toes very broad, and covered beneath nail received in it; the nails are all much hooked.
with transverse scales : some have no nails, and the A. Domesticus, Cuv. Lacerta Gecko, Hasselquist,
: they are covered with tubercles, Gmel. Common Gecko, Shaw. Rather more than a
have very vivid colours, and are natives of the Isle of foot long, of a reddish grey spotted with brown; the
France. Some want the subfemoral pores ; such are scales and tubercles very small ; its toes are marked
the A. Inunguis, Cuv. or Nailless Gecko ; and A. Ocelo beneath with numerous transverse lamellæ, and fur-
latus, Cuv. Gecko Ocell. Oppel, or spotted Gecko. nished with small claws except the thumbs; as it
Others have the papillæ very remarkable ; as the creeps along the skin it produces some redness, pro-
A. Cepedii, Cuv. Gecko Cepedien, Peron. Cepedian bably owing to the fineness of its nails; the tail is
Gecko, which inhabits the Isle of France, and is of a round, longer than the body, and marked with rings;
yellow colour spotted with blue, having a white line it has the subfemoral papillæ : its voice resembles
extending along each side.
that of the frog. It is very common in the houses of
Others have no nails on the thumbs, the second those countries which are south-east of the Mediter-
and fifth toes of all the feet, and no subfemoral pa- ranean : at Cairo, it is called Abou Burs,“ the leper's
pillæ ; such is,
father,” because they say it poisons with its feet the
A. Muralis, Cuv. Lacerta Mauritanica et Turcica, food and salt provision of which it is very fond.
Gmel. Gecko Fascicularis, Daud. Stellio of the an- A. Fimbriatus, Cuv. Tête plate, La Cep. Fimbriated
cients. Geckotte, Shaw. This hideous animal is of a Gecko, Shaw. About eight inches long. Cepede,
greyish colour, living in holes of the wall, under tiles, who first described it, thinks it connects the Chamæ-
&c. covered with dirt and filth. It is called Tarente leon, Gecko, and Water Newt; the head, skin, and
in the south of France, and is very common in the general form of the body resembling the Chamæleon;
south of Europe.
but there is no crest on the head, which that animal
The greater number of the Platydactylous Geckos has; and from the head a prolongation of the skin is
merely want nails on the four thumbs : they have a extended down the sides of the body like a fringe
row of pores about the vent.
which extends down the legs; the tail is like that of
A. Stellio, Cuv. Gecko à gouttelettes, Daud. Stellio the Newt, but compressed horizontally instead of
Gecko, Scbn. Spotted Gecko. The colour of this vertically, whilst the feet resemble those of the Gecko,
animal is red with spots of white, and tuberculated; but the toes are half-webbed; its colour also is
its tail covered with square imbricated scales ; is a variable like the Chamæleon. It inhabits Mada-
native of India.
gascar, and the inhabitants are afraid of it, but without
A. Vittatus, Cuv. Lacerta Vitt. Gmel. Pandang reason.
Lizard of Amboyna, White-striped Gecko, Shaw. A. Caudiverberus, Cuv. Lacerta Caudin. Lin. Gecko du
About seven inches long, of a brown colour, with a Peron. Feuillée. Scollop-tailed Gecko, Shaw. About
ASCALA- a foot long, black, having no fringe on the body, but habits and characters of the Gecko, except in the toes, ASCALA BOTES. only on the sides of the tail.
being small; it is grey, spotted with brown above, BOTES. The two preceding species Cuvier thinks are pro- and covered with little sharp tubercles; the tail is bably aquatic.
smooth, and flattened horizontally. e Phylluri. A. Phyllurus, Cuv. Stellio Phylurus, See Linnæi Systema Nature et a Gmelin; Schneider's Schneid. Lacerta Platura, White broad-tailed Lizard, Historiæ Amphibiorum ; Daudi Histoire Naturelle des Shaw. Broad-tailed Gecko : this single species has Reptiles ; Shaw's General Zoology; Cuvier's Règne been found only in New Holland; it has all the Animal
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