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ARTIL- same as without drag-rope men. In limbering and The figures are referred to in a foregoing page of this ARTIL-
LERY. unlimbering, the drag-rope men have no duties; but article. In Plate II. are also illustrated the positions, LERY.

are ready to assist with drag-ropes, the truck is al- &c. in artillery exercises, as above described. AR

ARUN
VERNI.

ways put on in all movements with the drag-ropes, Plate III., figs. 1 and 2, are correct representations DEL.
and thrown off at the word load.

of a brass 6-pounder field-piece; fig. 1 is the eleva

tion, and fig. 2 the plan. Description of the plates to this article.

Plate IV., fig. 1, is an elevation of the limber to the

preceding; fig. 2 is the elevation of a 13-inch mortar Plate I. and II. are intended to illustrate our descrip-on its feet; and fig. 3 is a perspective view of an tion of the machines of war or artillery of the ancients. 8-inch howitzer with its limber.

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this genus.

ARTOCARPUS, in Botany, a genus of plants, nations of ancient Gaul. When Cæsar took possesclass Monoecia, order Monandria.

sion of this last country it was divided between the
Generic character. Male, amentum cylindrical, Arverni and the Aqui. According to Strabo this
calyx none, corolla of two petals, filaments the length country was situated between the ocean, the Pyren-
of the corolla ; female, calyx none, corolla none, ger nees, and the Rhone ; it is from them that the mo-
mens numerous in the form of a globe, style filiform, dern name, Auvergne is derived, and their capital was
drupa compound.

the city now called Clermont.
The A. Incisa, or Bread-fruit Tree, is a native of the ARVILS, or ARVALS, is the name of a species of
South Seas, it grows to the height of about 40 feet; funeral entertainments, of a very old date. These
the stem is about the thickness of a man's body. feasts, we are informed by Brand, are still kept up in
The whole tree is full of a tenacious milky juice, the north of England, and are called by their old
which may be drawn out into threads. The fruit is name. The custom seemns to have been borrowed
an important article of food to the inhabitants of the from the ancients. Juvenal in his Fifth Satire men-
South Sea islands. For a more detailed account of tions the cæna feralis, and it is in allusion to it that
this interesting production, the reader is referred to Hamlet says-
Capt. Cook's Voyage.

-The funeral baked meat,
The Indian Jaca tree, A. Integrifolia, is a species of Did coldly furnish forth the marriage supper.

Mousin tells us that in his time it cost more to bury
ARTOIS, a province and government of France be- a dead wife in England, than to portion off a daughter.
fore the Revolution, which is now included in the The truth of which remark is illustrated by the fol-
departments of the Pas de Calais, and the Somme. lowing extract from Stowe's London, book i. p. 259,
It was formerly one of the 17 provinces of which the “ Margaret Atkinson, widow, by her will, dated Oct.
Netherlands were composed; and in the time of Cæsar 18, 1544, orders that the next Sunday after her bu-
was occupied by the Atrebatii, from whom it is sup- rial, there be provided 2 doz. of bread, a kilderkin of
posed to derive its name. It was bounded on the ale, two gammons of bacon, three shoulders of mut-
south and west by Picardy ; by French Flanders on ton, and two couple of rabbits. Desiring all the
the north ; and to the east by French Hainault and parish, as well rich as poor to be partakers thereof;
Cambrecis ; and was about 22 leagues in length, and and a table to be set in the midst of the church, with
12 in breadth. This district is one of the most fertile every thing necessary thereto." See Brand's Popular
in France ; but is deficient in wood, and it produces Antiquities, by Ellis, vol. ii. 150.
little or no wine. Its manufactures are in consider- ARUM, in Botany, a genus of plants, class Mo.
able, and the only articles of export consist of agri- noecia, order Polyandria.
cultural produce. The principal town is Arras, where Generic character. Spatha of one leaf, convolute
before the revolution the provincial states used to as- at the base, perianth none, Spadix with germens at
semble, consisting of two bishops, eighteen abbots, the base, stamina sessile near the middle of the
eighteen deputies from chapters, and about seventy spadix which is naked above, berry one-celled, one-
nobles and representatives of the tiers état. It was in seeded. Hooker, Fl. Scot, 258.
the possession of the houses of Austria and Spain until This genus contains one British species, the A. Ma-
the year 1640, when it was conquered by Louis XIV, culatum, Cuckow-Pint, or Lords and Ladies, not un-
and finally ceded to France by the treaty of Nimeguen, common in hedges. It is an extremely acrid plant,
in 1678.

The root contains a large portion of starch.
ARVANS, (Sr.), in the upper division of the hun- ARUNDEL, in the hundred of Avisford, Rape of
dred of Caldicot, county of Monmouth; a Chapel, Arundel, county of Sussex; a discharged Vicarage,
(not in charge), of the certified value of £10.; valued in the King's Books at £5. Os. 10d.; Patron,
Patron, the Duke of Beaufort. The resident population Mrs. Groome. The resident population of this town
of this parish in 1801, was 282. The money raised in 1801, was 1855. The money raised by the parish
by the parish rates in 1803, was £301. 11s. 04d., at rates in 1803, was £1341. 3s., at 8s. in the pound.
4s. 6d. in the pound. It is 24 miles N. W. by N. from It is 10 miles E. by N. from Chichester, and 60 miles
Chepstow.

S. S. W. from London. The river Arun is navigable
ARVERNI, the name of one of the most powerful up to the town for ships of 100 tons burden. The

5 1 2

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DEL

MAR

BLEN

ARUN. Petty Sessions are held here. This town sends two the castle, becomes thereby an Earl without any other ARUX. DEL. Members to Parliament, chosen by the inhabitants creation. It is supposed to have been built during the

paying scot and lot; the Mayor is the returning officer. reign of King Alfred, or not long before. Bevis, a ARUN

It is a borough by prescription, and is governed by a giant of ancient times, is said (by tradition), to have DELIA DELIAN

Mayor, 12 Burgesses, a Steward, and other officers. been the founder. He was able (says Gilpin), to MARBLES. The Mayor, who is chosen annually, is Judge at the wade the channel to the Isle of Wight, and frequently

Court Leet of the Lord of the Manor, which is holden did so for his amusement. He was warder of the every three weeks; he appoints the collectors of the gate to the Earls of Arundel, who weekly supplied him package and stallage, the ale-conners and flesh-tasters; with two hogsheads of beer, a whole ox, and bread, and no writ can be executed within the borough, with- &c., mustard in proportion. Soon after the Norman out his permission; he has also the authority of a Justice Conquest, this castle was given by William I. to his of the Peace. The castle (to which the manor is in- kinsman, Roger De Montgomery, whom he at the separably annexed), belongs to the noble family of same time created Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury. the Howards, Earls of Arundel, and Dukes of Nor- Here the Empress Maud was first received when folk; and it is declared by an act of parliament, she landed in England to dispute her claims with passed in the reign of Henry VI., that whoever hath Stephen.*

ARUNDELIAN MARBLE S.

ARUNDELIAN MARBLES. Thomas Howard, of the Latin, inscriptions, those which Selden judged Earl of Arundel, who lived in the time of James and to be of the greatest importance; and in the following Charles the First, devoted a large portion of his for- year he published them, in a thin folio volume, under tune to the collection of monuments, illustrative of the the title of Marmora Arundelliana. arts, and of the history of Greece and Rome. He him- It might have been supposed that curiosities (and self resided a long time in Italy, where he had fre- such these stones must have appeared to the ignorant quent opportunities of adding to his store; but, not as well as the learned) procured at such an expense, satisfied with his own individual exertions, he em- and preserved with so much care, would, in a civilized ployed men of learning to travel at his expense in country, have been secured from further delapidation; quest of such treasures; and among them, one pecu- but such was not the case. The noble family of liarly fitted for such an undertaking, Mr. William Arundel was compelled to abandon its mansion, durPetty, who explored, sometimes at the risk of his life, ing the civil wars, to the commonwealth ; and the the ruins of Greece, the Archipelago, and the shores parliament, who put it under sequestration, suffered of Asia Minor : and succeeded in procuring above two the collection of marbles, deposited in its garden, to hundred relics of antiquity. Among them were those be plundered and defaced in the most shameless manof which we are about to speak, and which, in honour ner; and it is supposed that not more than half of of their noble collector, have been called the Arun- the original number escaped dispersion or destruction delian Marbles.

in that disastrous period. Gassendi tells us, in his life of Peiresc, that a Jew A better fate awaited that portion of these reliques who was employed by that celebrated antiquary to which was preserved ; for it was presented by Henry purchase antiquities for him, had paid fifty pieces of Howard, Duke of Norfolk, grandson of the collector, gold for these marbles, but was seized, together with to the university of Oxford. These inscriptions the antiquities which he had collected, by the Turks, were now in the hands of men who could apprewho wished to extort a higher price ; and that the ciate their value, and give them to the world, acwhole was redeemed from the latter by Petty, the companied by such illustrations as were requisite to agent of Lord Arundel. This story has much the make them eminently useful to the scholar and air of a fable, and has not, we believe, been generally the antiquary. Humphrey Prideaux, afterwards dean credited : at all events it does not appear that Petty of Norwich, a man of profound and various learning, was ever charged with having used any unfair means undertook the publication of the whole collection, to get possession of these treasures. They arrived and brought out his work in 1676. They were again in Englanl in the year 1627, with the rest of the col- reprinted in 1732, under the care of Maittaire; and, lection; which then consisted of 37 statues, 128 subsequently, in a more exact and splendid manbusts, and 250 inscriptions, together with a large ner, by the learned Dr. Chandler, in 1763, nearly number of altars, sarcophagi, fragments of sculpture, a century after the original publication. Those and an invaluable assemblage of gems. The inscrip- who have ever attempted to transcribe almost oblitions were inserted in the wall of the garden at the terated inscriptions, will feel no surprise, when they back of Arundel House, in the Strand, and were ex- learn, that there is a considerable disagreement beamined, soon after they had been placed there, by Selden, and two other scholars, at the recommendation of Sir Robert Cotton. Those learned men used * From the time of the civil wars in the 17th century, Arandel their utmost endeavours in cleaning and decyphering Duke of Norfolk undertook to restore it to its ancient magni

Castle continued litile better than a mass of ruins, till the last these monuments, and succeeded with great labour ficence. The only parts now remaining of the ancient ruins are and difficulty in decyphering 29 of the Greek, and 10 the keep, and some of the walls.

BLES.

BLES.

ARUN- tween these different copies of the Arundelian Mar- wary, and foster a spirit of groundless scepticism, by ARUNDELIAN bles; and it is to be lamented, that the learned carelessly or artfully giving to plausible conjectures,

DELIAN

MARMAR- university to which they now belong, has not caused the authority of positive facts.

fac similes of the most important ones to be engraved. Mr. Robertson's 1st objection is, that “the charac-
The art of lithography, which is extremely appli- ters have no certain or unequivocal mark of antiquity;"
cable to such purposes, offers the means of perpe- but it may be asked, what such marks are? and till it
tuating, as it were, the original inscriptions them- has been shewn that those unequivocal evidences are
selves, by a method unattended by any considerable wanting in the Arundelian inscription, it can hardly
expense.

be deemed reasonable to give it up as a forgery. The
Some of these inscriptions record treaties and pub- best evidence, surely, that can be adduced in such a
lic contracts; others, are memorials of the gratitude case, is a resemblance, in style and execution, to other
of the state to patriotic individuals; but by far the monuments of nearly the same age : now, by Mr.
greater number are sepulchral, and entirely of a pri- Robertson's own confession, “ the characters of this
vate nature. One, however, has deservedly attracted inscription" seem to resemble, more than any other,
more notice than the rest, and it is that to which we those of the Marmor Cyzicenum ; and they agree in
chiefly direct the reader's attention. It is commonly many respects with those of the Marmor Sandvicense;"
known by the name of “ The Parian Chronicle ;" be- which are the two inscriptions, to the age of which it
cause it is in fact a chronological table of events, and most nearly approaches.
appears to have been made in the island of Paros. His 2d objection is, that “it is improbable that the
This stone was, in the time of Selden, two feet seven Chronicle was engraved for private use : 1. because
inches in height, and six feet six inches in breadth: the expense was such as few learned Greeks could
containing 93 lines, arranged in two columns. It afford; and 2. Because a manuscript would be more
originally contained a chronological account of the easily circulated.” But if there was one both able
principal events in Grecian, and particularly Athenian, and willing to incur such an expense, that would
history, during a period of 1318 years, from the reign be sufficient : and whence does it appear, that the
of Cecrops to the archonship of Diognetus, B. c. 264; cheapest and most convenient method of executing a
but it has suffered considerable injury, much of it work is always preferred to one more laborious and
having been effaced, so that it now terminates with expensive? If there were no examples of records en-
the archonship of Diotimus, B. c. 354; about 90 years graved on marble, of so late a date as the probable
earlier than the period to which it originally extended. age of this Chronicle, Mr. Robertson's argument
Had not Selden most fortunately transcribed it with would have some weight; but even then, it would
peculiar care, a great portion of it would have been give nothing more than a probable surmise : and of
irrecoverably lost; for no less than 31 out of the 79 public monuments of this nature we have some in
epochs, legible upon it, in his time, have been knocked almost every collection down to a much later period
off, for the purpose, it is said, of repairing a fire-place. than that of the Ptolemies.

The epochs are all dated retrospectively from the But Mr. Robertson objects, in the 3d place, that
archonship of Diognetus at Athens, 264 years before “ this marble does not appear to have been engraved
Christ, and briefly record the most important events, by public authority.” Be it so; yet, is it so extremely
in the order in which they took place. This monu- improbable, that some wealthy individual should be
ment therefore is invaluable, if its authenticity can willing to confer a benefit on his countrymen, by
be depended upon ; the more so, as several facts are leaving them such “a memorial of his learning and
recorded here, of which no account is to be found magnificence ?" And though there is no evidence
elsewhere. Its authority, indeed, was never called in that this marble was engraved by public authority, it
question, till of late years; but in 1788, a Mr. Robert- must be remembered, that there is also no evidence
son published an essay, entitled The Parian Chronicle, that it was not ; inasmuch, as the usual formularies
in which he has assailed its genuineness with consi- naming the authorities by whoin the inscription was
derable learning, and a great appearance of candour, ordered, are often omitted in monuments indisputably
such as has caused it to be considered by some persons raised at the public expense ;—such as the survey of
as a fabrication of no very ancient date. But the, the Temple of Minerva at Athens.
truth is, that it would be difficult to find any inscrip- The 4th objection is drawn from “ the darkness and
tion, professing to be of considerable antiquity, which confusion of the Grecian history :” for “ the Greek
answers all the conditions required by that writer, and Roman writers complain, long after the date of
who seems to have reversed the usual order of reason- this work, that they had no chronological accounts of
ing on subjects of this nature, and begins by maintain- the affairs of ancient Greece." But had they no mate-
ing, that no inscription can be admitted as genuine, till rials to work upon ? And was it not possible for any
it has been shewn that no probable arguments can be one to attempt to reconcile the discordant accounts
adduced against its authenticity; instead of allowing, found in different writers ? Were there not many
as seems more equitable, that its genuineness ought works extant, at the time when this Chronicle is sup-
not to be doubted, till such arguments have been posed to have been compiled, which are now lost?
produced.

And unless it differed from other ancient authorities
Whether those alleged by Mr. Robertson are such, where they all agree, what inference can be drawn
our readers will be best able to determine, by seeing against its genuineness? May it not have followed
them, in his own words, as they are summed up by one in preference to another? And even, if it did
himself; and we shall not hesitate to add, very briefly, disagree with them, where they are unanimous, what
our own estimate of their real value, as their inge- proof would this afford of its being a modern compi-
nuity and speciousness might easily mislead the un- lation ?

MAR

BLES

ARUN. 5th. “ This chronicle is not once mentioned by any easy to inquire into all the details of its history, while ARUN. DELIAN writer of antiquity.” But if that circumstance be a the persons who discovered it were yet alive, is it rea- DELIAN

proof of its being surreptitious, most of the inscrip, sonable to entertain suspicions now, when such in- MAR. BLES.

tions allowed to be ancient, must be given up as mo- quiries can no longer be made ? What ground is
dern; for few, if any of them, have been distinctly there for supposing that this stone would be men-
noticed by ancient writers ; it must, however, always tioned in Sir Thomas Roe's correspondence ? None,
be borne in mind, that only a small portion of the we may venture to say, whatever; for it is well
works of antiquity are known to the moderns ; and known how little such objects interest the Turks, and
that, consequently, such arguments as this are de- the mention of their interference, in the bargain be-
serving of very little attention ; for the suspected in- tween Samson, Peiresc's Jew, and the original pro-
scription might have been mentioned by many authors prietors, is one of those circumstances which give
whose writings are lost. The stone, moreover, on that story so much the appearance of falsehood.
which this chronicle is engraved, is not so large as to 9th. The concluding objection is contained in a
have been necessarily placed in a conspicuous situa- proposition to which, with some limitations, every
tion; and if it were not, it would not necessarily one will assent, that “ the world has been frequently
attract the notice of any ordinary traveller: so imposed upon by spurious books and inscriptions, and
that it might have remained long in so small an therefore we should be extremely cautious with re-
island as Paros, without being generally known in gard to what we receive under the venerable name of
Greece.

antiquity.” That such impositions have been occa6th. “ Some of the facts seem borrowed from wri- sionally practised, is certainly true, and that caution ters of a later date." To this objection it is surely is requisite in forming a judgment on the genuineness fair to reply, by asking-whether later writers may of monuments which may be spurious, will not be not have borrowed from this inscription ? or, what is denied ; but when it is considered how much skill more probable, from the same source as the compiler and knowledge; what a variety of means and reof this inscription? The only instance adduced by sources ; what a concurrence of favourable circumMr. Robertson, which has any thing of a suspicious stances, are all requisite to enable any modern to character, is the agreement between the catalogue of forge an inscription like that of the Parian Chronicle, the twelve cities of lonia, given on the marble, and in such a manner as to deceive any one at all accus. that found in Ælian's Various History. But what tomed to the examination of such works; it will, we proof is there that Ælian did not derive his list from think, be readily allowed, that the supposition of its the same source, as the author of this chronicle? The having been forged in modern times, is in the highest silence of Ælian, as to his authority, can prove no- degree improbable. That it is an ancient forgery, does thing, for abundant instances of similar omissions not appear to have been ever suggested; nor is there might be produced from his work. It may also be any ground for such a surmise. Those who are acasked, whether one, who had skill enough to forge quainted with the state of learning and arts among such a monument as the Parian Chronicle, would not the present inhabitants of Greece and Asia Minor, take special care to avoid all appearance of copying so will agree with us, in affirming that it would be now modern a writer as Ælian?

nearly impossible to find any persons in those coun7th. “Parachronisms appear in some of the epochas, tries capable of executing such a forgery in a style which we can scarcely suppose a Greek chronologer which should escape detection ; but the Greeks of in the 129th Olympiad would be liable to commit.” the present day are far superior in wealth and knowAdmitting that there are errors in the dates here re- ledge, and therefore far more capable of succeeding in corded, it seems difficult to discover how it can be such an attempt than their forefathers were two centhence inferred that the inscription is a forgery. Such turies ago ; while they were yet smarting under the errors are to be found in many of the principal Greek lash of Turkish despotism, and but just beginning to and Roman writers; and those observed on this mo- emerge from the mists of ignorance and barbarism, nument are of very small importance. Would not a which had enveloped their country ever since the forger have obviated such objections by taking some extinction of their empire. It may also be observed, known author for his guide ? The instances, in- that of Mr. Robertson's nine arguments, three only deed, in which this marble is at variance with other are positive ; nor are they even strictly applicable to authorities, might be as reasonably alleged as argu- this case ; but negative arguments afford, at best, ments for its genuineness.

only a tottering basis for an hypothesis, and can never 8th. “The history of the discovery of these be allowed to have any weight except when supported marbles,” Mr. Robertson says, “ is obscure and unsa- by unexpected coincidences. tisfactory." The only facts, however, which he has Such of our readers as have any desire to see this mentioned as corroborating that opinion, are the im- question more fully and ably discussed, will find a perfect account which has been preserved of the cir- very able vindication of the Parian Chronicle in Procumstances under which the marble was discovered fessor Porson's Review of Mr. Robertson's Essay, in the and procured, together with the omission of any men- Monthly Review, Jan. 1789, p. 690; or Porson's Tracts, tion of it in Sir Thomas Roe's negotiations. But if by Kidd, p. 57. there was nothing calculated to excite suspicion in See also Marmora Oxoniensia, ut supra; Mémoires the conduct of the persons from whom Petty pur- de l'Acad. des Inscriptions, xxvi. 157; Lenglet Dufreschased the marble, why should he be solicitous to noy, Tablettes Chronologiques, i. 29. ed. 1778, 12mo. ; preserve a minute account of all the circumstances Robertson's Parian Chronicle, Lond. 1788 ; Hewlett's attending the purchase? If no suspicions arose when Vindication of Ditto ; Archæologia, ix. No. 15; Brewthe marble was first brought to light, when it was ster's Encycloped. ii. 530.

AS.

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ASAM.

ARUNDO. ARUNDO, in Botany, a genus of plants, class

The rightful juge, which that ye han served,
Triandria, order Digynia, natural order, gramina.

Shal yeve it you, as ye han it deserved.
AS.

Id. The Second Nonnes Tale, v. ii. p. 218.
Generic character. Calyx of two valves, corolla sur-

It were better dike and delue,
rounded with long hairs, seed free, covered with the

And stande vpon the right feith,
corolla.

Than knowe all that the bible seitl,
Several species of this genus are common in this

And erre, as some clerks do.

Gower. Con. d. The Prologue.
country, particularly the A. Phragmites, or Common
Reed.

And like an oxe vnder the fote
ARU'SPEX, Aruspex, or Haruspex. Harviga,

He graseth as he nedes mote
ARU'SPICE, hostia cujus adherentia inspicieban-

To getten him his lines foode.

Id. 16. book i.
ARU'SPICY. tur exta.

And Palamon that hath swiche love to me,
A flam more senseless than the roguery

And cke Arcite, that loveth me so sore,
Of old auruspicy and augury,

This grace I praie thee withouten more,
That out of garbages of cattle

As sende love and pees betwixt hem two.
Presag'd th'erents of truce or battle.

Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. i. p. 92.
Butler's Poems, V. viii. p. 135.

Gladly, quod she, sin that it may you like.
These prodigious fights, by direction from the aruspices [i. e.

But that I pray to all this compagnie,
the soothsa yers) were expiate, and the gods pacified with greater

If that I speke after my fantasie, sacrifices : and a solemne procession and supplication was pro

As taketh not a greefe of that I say, claimed unto all the gods that were shrined at Rome, and bad their

For min entente is not but for to play,
chappels there.

Id. The Wif of Bathes Prologue. v. i. p. 234.
Hollands Livy.

The multitude of angels with a shout
They (the Romans) had colleges for their augurs and aruspices, Loud as from numbers without number, sweet
who us'd to make their predictions sometimes by fire, sometimes As from blest voices, uttering joy.
by flying of fowls, sometimes by inspection into the entrails of

Milton's Par. Lost, book iii.
beasts, or invoking the dead.

Howell's Letters.

As if (which might induce us to accord)

Man had not hellish foes enow besides,
ARUSPICES, were an order of priests among the

That day and night for his destruction waite.
ancient Romans, whose business it was to divine events

Milton's Par. Los!, book ii.
by inspecting the entrails of beasts. These diviners,

As one who in his journey bates at none,
were at first all brought from Etruria, among Tho' bent on speed, so leer the archangel paus'd.
whom this particular mode of divination was reduced

Milton's Par. Lost, book xii. 1. 1. into the form of a regular art; but afterwards the It is very visible, that all sensual excess is naturally attended Senate ordered twelve of the sons of the most consi- with a double inconvenience. As it goes beyond the liniits of derable persons in Rome, to be sent into the country,

nature, it begets bodily pains and diseases : as it transgresseth the in order to acquaint themselves' fully with the rites

rules of reason and religion, it breeds guilt and remorse in the

mind.
and ceremonies of this part of the Etruscan religion.

Tillotson's Sermons.
The custom of inspecting the entrails of the victims,

As, is sometimes used, among Antiquaries, to ex-
is probably the remains of the Patriarchal religion. It
is evident from scripture, that in early times God sig-

press a particular weight, which is the same with the

Roman libra or pound.
nified his acceptance of sacrifices by certain visible

As, was also the name of a Roman coin, which,
appearances. And these being withdrawn, it was not
unnatural that men should search for some other

like those of modern Europe, was of different weights

at different periods. In the early ages of the Repubmore occult intimation of the will of God.

lic, it weighed a Roman pound, or twelve ounces ;
AS, is an article; and (however and whenever used

and Mr. Pinkerton thinks its value may then have
in English), means the same as it, or that, or which.
In the German, where it still evidently retains its

been about eight pence English. But after the trea-
original signification and use, (as Se also does), it is sury had been exhausted by the first Punic war, the

as was reduced to two ounces; Pinkerton, however, written Es. Tooke i. 274.

thinks that Pliny was mistaken in supposing, that the
Sire, heo seyde, y leue not þat my sustren al soß seide.

weight of the as was first reduced so late as the
Ac for me my self, ich wol so segge of his dede.
Ych the loue as pe mon that my fader ys,

period just mentioned.

In the second Punic war, the
And euer habbe y loued as my fader, & euer wole y wys.

as was further reduced to one ounce. Lastly, by the

R. Gloucester, p. 30. Papirian law, (A. C. 191.), it was reduced to half an
Clerc he was god ynou, and gut, as mē telleme.

ounce, at which weight it continued until the time of He was more þan ten yer old, ar he coupe ýs abece. Vespasian.

Id. p. 266.

As, was also used to denote any integer, in which be on alf vel adoun anon, þe oper býleuede stölle

sense it is the origin of the English word ace. Hares In be sadel, þey ýt wonder were, as yt was Gode's wylle.

ex asse, was the heir to the whole inheritance. The Hd. p. 401.

jugerum, or Roman acre, was also called as, and Myd word be yretneħ muche, & lute deß indede, divided like the coin into twelve parts, which also was Hys moup ys as a leon, hys herte arn as an hare.

divided like the coin in the dcunx, dextans, dodrans,
Id. p. 457.

bis, &c.
Of all þat grete tresoure bat eucr he biwan,
Als bare was his toure as Job pe pouere man.

ASABACCA, see Asarum.
R. Brunne, p. 323.

ASAFETIDA, see FERULA.
For Cassiodore sayth, that as evil doth he that vengeth him by north east side of Bengal, about 700 miles in length,

ASAM, Assam, properly Ashām, a kingdom on the
outrage, as he that doth the outrave.
Chaucer. The Tale of Melibeus, v. ii. p. 112.

and from 60 to 80 in breadth ; but in a few places

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