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ARTIL- same as without drag-rope men. In limbering and The figures are referred to in a foregoing page of this ARTIL-
are ready to assist with drag-ropes, the truck is al- &c. in artillery exercises, as above described. AR
ways put on in all movements with the drag-ropes, Plate III., figs. 1 and 2, are correct representations DEL.
of a brass 6-pounder field-piece; fig. 1 is the eleva
tion, and fig. 2 the plan. Description of the plates to this article.
Plate IV., fig. 1, is an elevation of the limber to the
preceding; fig. 2 is the elevation of a 13-inch mortar Plate I. and II. are intended to illustrate our descrip-on its feet; and fig. 3 is a perspective view of an tion of the machines of war or artillery of the ancients. 8-inch howitzer with its limber.
ARTOCARPUS, in Botany, a genus of plants, nations of ancient Gaul. When Cæsar took possesclass Monoecia, order Monandria.
sion of this last country it was divided between the
the city now called Clermont.
-The funeral baked meat,
Mousin tells us that in his time it cost more to bury
The root contains a large portion of starch.
S. S. W. from London. The river Arun is navigable
5 1 2
ARUN. Petty Sessions are held here. This town sends two the castle, becomes thereby an Earl without any other ARUX. DEL. Members to Parliament, chosen by the inhabitants creation. It is supposed to have been built during the
paying scot and lot; the Mayor is the returning officer. reign of King Alfred, or not long before. Bevis, a ARUN
It is a borough by prescription, and is governed by a giant of ancient times, is said (by tradition), to have DELIA DELIAN
Mayor, 12 Burgesses, a Steward, and other officers. been the founder. He was able (says Gilpin), to MARBLES. The Mayor, who is chosen annually, is Judge at the wade the channel to the Isle of Wight, and frequently
Court Leet of the Lord of the Manor, which is holden did so for his amusement. He was warder of the every three weeks; he appoints the collectors of the gate to the Earls of Arundel, who weekly supplied him package and stallage, the ale-conners and flesh-tasters; with two hogsheads of beer, a whole ox, and bread, and no writ can be executed within the borough, with- &c., mustard in proportion. Soon after the Norman out his permission; he has also the authority of a Justice Conquest, this castle was given by William I. to his of the Peace. The castle (to which the manor is in- kinsman, Roger De Montgomery, whom he at the separably annexed), belongs to the noble family of same time created Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury. the Howards, Earls of Arundel, and Dukes of Nor- Here the Empress Maud was first received when folk; and it is declared by an act of parliament, she landed in England to dispute her claims with passed in the reign of Henry VI., that whoever hath Stephen.*
ARUNDELIAN MARBLE S.
ARUNDELIAN MARBLES. Thomas Howard, of the Latin, inscriptions, those which Selden judged Earl of Arundel, who lived in the time of James and to be of the greatest importance; and in the following Charles the First, devoted a large portion of his for- year he published them, in a thin folio volume, under tune to the collection of monuments, illustrative of the the title of Marmora Arundelliana. arts, and of the history of Greece and Rome. He him- It might have been supposed that curiosities (and self resided a long time in Italy, where he had fre- such these stones must have appeared to the ignorant quent opportunities of adding to his store; but, not as well as the learned) procured at such an expense, satisfied with his own individual exertions, he em- and preserved with so much care, would, in a civilized ployed men of learning to travel at his expense in country, have been secured from further delapidation; quest of such treasures; and among them, one pecu- but such was not the case. The noble family of liarly fitted for such an undertaking, Mr. William Arundel was compelled to abandon its mansion, durPetty, who explored, sometimes at the risk of his life, ing the civil wars, to the commonwealth ; and the the ruins of Greece, the Archipelago, and the shores parliament, who put it under sequestration, suffered of Asia Minor : and succeeded in procuring above two the collection of marbles, deposited in its garden, to hundred relics of antiquity. Among them were those be plundered and defaced in the most shameless manof which we are about to speak, and which, in honour ner; and it is supposed that not more than half of of their noble collector, have been called the Arun- the original number escaped dispersion or destruction delian Marbles.
in that disastrous period. Gassendi tells us, in his life of Peiresc, that a Jew A better fate awaited that portion of these reliques who was employed by that celebrated antiquary to which was preserved ; for it was presented by Henry purchase antiquities for him, had paid fifty pieces of Howard, Duke of Norfolk, grandson of the collector, gold for these marbles, but was seized, together with to the university of Oxford. These inscriptions the antiquities which he had collected, by the Turks, were now in the hands of men who could apprewho wished to extort a higher price ; and that the ciate their value, and give them to the world, acwhole was redeemed from the latter by Petty, the companied by such illustrations as were requisite to agent of Lord Arundel. This story has much the make them eminently useful to the scholar and air of a fable, and has not, we believe, been generally the antiquary. Humphrey Prideaux, afterwards dean credited : at all events it does not appear that Petty of Norwich, a man of profound and various learning, was ever charged with having used any unfair means undertook the publication of the whole collection, to get possession of these treasures. They arrived and brought out his work in 1676. They were again in Englanl in the year 1627, with the rest of the col- reprinted in 1732, under the care of Maittaire; and, lection; which then consisted of 37 statues, 128 subsequently, in a more exact and splendid manbusts, and 250 inscriptions, together with a large ner, by the learned Dr. Chandler, in 1763, nearly number of altars, sarcophagi, fragments of sculpture, a century after the original publication. Those and an invaluable assemblage of gems. The inscrip- who have ever attempted to transcribe almost oblitions were inserted in the wall of the garden at the terated inscriptions, will feel no surprise, when they back of Arundel House, in the Strand, and were ex- learn, that there is a considerable disagreement beamined, soon after they had been placed there, by Selden, and two other scholars, at the recommendation of Sir Robert Cotton. Those learned men used * From the time of the civil wars in the 17th century, Arandel their utmost endeavours in cleaning and decyphering Duke of Norfolk undertook to restore it to its ancient magni
Castle continued litile better than a mass of ruins, till the last these monuments, and succeeded with great labour ficence. The only parts now remaining of the ancient ruins are and difficulty in decyphering 29 of the Greek, and 10 the keep, and some of the walls.
ARUN- tween these different copies of the Arundelian Mar- wary, and foster a spirit of groundless scepticism, by ARUNDELIAN bles; and it is to be lamented, that the learned carelessly or artfully giving to plausible conjectures,
MARMAR- university to which they now belong, has not caused the authority of positive facts.
fac similes of the most important ones to be engraved. Mr. Robertson's 1st objection is, that “the charac-
be deemed reasonable to give it up as a forgery. The
The epochs are all dated retrospectively from the But Mr. Robertson objects, in the 3d place, that
And unless it differed from other ancient authorities
ARUN. 5th. “ This chronicle is not once mentioned by any easy to inquire into all the details of its history, while ARUN. DELIAN writer of antiquity.” But if that circumstance be a the persons who discovered it were yet alive, is it rea- DELIAN
proof of its being surreptitious, most of the inscrip, sonable to entertain suspicions now, when such in- MAR. BLES.
tions allowed to be ancient, must be given up as mo- quiries can no longer be made ? What ground is
antiquity.” That such impositions have been occa6th. “ Some of the facts seem borrowed from wri- sionally practised, is certainly true, and that caution ters of a later date." To this objection it is surely is requisite in forming a judgment on the genuineness fair to reply, by asking-whether later writers may of monuments which may be spurious, will not be not have borrowed from this inscription ? or, what is denied ; but when it is considered how much skill more probable, from the same source as the compiler and knowledge; what a variety of means and reof this inscription? The only instance adduced by sources ; what a concurrence of favourable circumMr. Robertson, which has any thing of a suspicious stances, are all requisite to enable any modern to character, is the agreement between the catalogue of forge an inscription like that of the Parian Chronicle, the twelve cities of lonia, given on the marble, and in such a manner as to deceive any one at all accus. that found in Ælian's Various History. But what tomed to the examination of such works; it will, we proof is there that Ælian did not derive his list from think, be readily allowed, that the supposition of its the same source, as the author of this chronicle? The having been forged in modern times, is in the highest silence of Ælian, as to his authority, can prove no- degree improbable. That it is an ancient forgery, does thing, for abundant instances of similar omissions not appear to have been ever suggested; nor is there might be produced from his work. It may also be any ground for such a surmise. Those who are acasked, whether one, who had skill enough to forge quainted with the state of learning and arts among such a monument as the Parian Chronicle, would not the present inhabitants of Greece and Asia Minor, take special care to avoid all appearance of copying so will agree with us, in affirming that it would be now modern a writer as Ælian?
nearly impossible to find any persons in those coun7th. “Parachronisms appear in some of the epochas, tries capable of executing such a forgery in a style which we can scarcely suppose a Greek chronologer which should escape detection ; but the Greeks of in the 129th Olympiad would be liable to commit.” the present day are far superior in wealth and knowAdmitting that there are errors in the dates here re- ledge, and therefore far more capable of succeeding in corded, it seems difficult to discover how it can be such an attempt than their forefathers were two centhence inferred that the inscription is a forgery. Such turies ago ; while they were yet smarting under the errors are to be found in many of the principal Greek lash of Turkish despotism, and but just beginning to and Roman writers; and those observed on this mo- emerge from the mists of ignorance and barbarism, nument are of very small importance. Would not a which had enveloped their country ever since the forger have obviated such objections by taking some extinction of their empire. It may also be observed, known author for his guide ? The instances, in- that of Mr. Robertson's nine arguments, three only deed, in which this marble is at variance with other are positive ; nor are they even strictly applicable to authorities, might be as reasonably alleged as argu- this case ; but negative arguments afford, at best, ments for its genuineness.
only a tottering basis for an hypothesis, and can never 8th. “The history of the discovery of these be allowed to have any weight except when supported marbles,” Mr. Robertson says, “ is obscure and unsa- by unexpected coincidences. tisfactory." The only facts, however, which he has Such of our readers as have any desire to see this mentioned as corroborating that opinion, are the im- question more fully and ably discussed, will find a perfect account which has been preserved of the cir- very able vindication of the Parian Chronicle in Procumstances under which the marble was discovered fessor Porson's Review of Mr. Robertson's Essay, in the and procured, together with the omission of any men- Monthly Review, Jan. 1789, p. 690; or Porson's Tracts, tion of it in Sir Thomas Roe's negotiations. But if by Kidd, p. 57. there was nothing calculated to excite suspicion in See also Marmora Oxoniensia, ut supra; Mémoires the conduct of the persons from whom Petty pur- de l'Acad. des Inscriptions, xxvi. 157; Lenglet Dufreschased the marble, why should he be solicitous to noy, Tablettes Chronologiques, i. 29. ed. 1778, 12mo. ; preserve a minute account of all the circumstances Robertson's Parian Chronicle, Lond. 1788 ; Hewlett's attending the purchase? If no suspicions arose when Vindication of Ditto ; Archæologia, ix. No. 15; Brewthe marble was first brought to light, when it was ster's Encycloped. ii. 530.
ARUNDO. ARUNDO, in Botany, a genus of plants, class
The rightful juge, which that ye han served,
Shal yeve it you, as ye han it deserved.
Id. The Second Nonnes Tale, v. ii. p. 218.
It were better dike and delue,
And stande vpon the right feith,
Than knowe all that the bible seitl,
And erre, as some clerks do.
Gower. Con. d. The Prologue.
And like an oxe vnder the fote
He graseth as he nedes mote
To getten him his lines foode.
Id. 16. book i.
And Palamon that hath swiche love to me,
And cke Arcite, that loveth me so sore,
This grace I praie thee withouten more,
As sende love and pees betwixt hem two.
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. i. p. 92.
Gladly, quod she, sin that it may you like.
But that I pray to all this compagnie,
If that I speke after my fantasie, sacrifices : and a solemne procession and supplication was pro
As taketh not a greefe of that I say, claimed unto all the gods that were shrined at Rome, and bad their
For min entente is not but for to play,
Id. The Wif of Bathes Prologue. v. i. p. 234.
The multitude of angels with a shout
Milton's Par. Lost, book iii.
As if (which might induce us to accord)
Man had not hellish foes enow besides,
That day and night for his destruction waite.
Milton's Par. Los!, book ii.
As one who in his journey bates at none,
Milton's Par. Lost, book xii. 1. 1. into the form of a regular art; but afterwards the It is very visible, that all sensual excess is naturally attended Senate ordered twelve of the sons of the most consi- with a double inconvenience. As it goes beyond the liniits of derable persons in Rome, to be sent into the country,
nature, it begets bodily pains and diseases : as it transgresseth the in order to acquaint themselves' fully with the rites
rules of reason and religion, it breeds guilt and remorse in the
As, is sometimes used, among Antiquaries, to ex-
press a particular weight, which is the same with the
Roman libra or pound.
As, was also the name of a Roman coin, which,
like those of modern Europe, was of different weights
at different periods. In the early ages of the Repubmore occult intimation of the will of God.
lic, it weighed a Roman pound, or twelve ounces ;
and Mr. Pinkerton thinks its value may then have
been about eight pence English. But after the trea-
as was reduced to two ounces; Pinkerton, however, written Es. Tooke i. 274.
thinks that Pliny was mistaken in supposing, that the
weight of the as was first reduced so late as the
period just mentioned.
In the second Punic war, the
as was further reduced to one ounce. Lastly, by the
R. Gloucester, p. 30. Papirian law, (A. C. 191.), it was reduced to half an
ounce, at which weight it continued until the time of He was more þan ten yer old, ar he coupe ýs abece. Vespasian.
Id. p. 266.
As, was also used to denote any integer, in which be on alf vel adoun anon, þe oper býleuede stölle
sense it is the origin of the English word ace. Hares In be sadel, þey ýt wonder were, as yt was Gode's wylle.
ex asse, was the heir to the whole inheritance. The Hd. p. 401.
jugerum, or Roman acre, was also called as, and Myd word be yretneħ muche, & lute deß indede, divided like the coin into twelve parts, which also was Hys moup ys as a leon, hys herte arn as an hare.
divided like the coin in the dcunx, dextans, dodrans,
ASABACCA, see Asarum.
ASAFETIDA, see FERULA.
ASAM, Assam, properly Ashām, a kingdom on the
and from 60 to 80 in breadth ; but in a few places