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The length of it is 20 feet 7 inches, its diameter in ARTILLERY
the middle is 6 feet 3 inches ; and it threw a ball of LERY. At what time gunpowder was first employed for 100 lbs. There is an Indostan inscription upon it
, the purposes of war, is very uncertain ; but it is pretty which says it was made a.d. 1400. evident that cannon were in use very early in the Although, during the 16th century, the size of 14th century, but they were, in course, of the rudest
was considerably diminished, and a more and most uncultivated character. Their first deno- tasteful form given to their exterior, still some few mination was bombarde from Bopßos, or “a bombo et were made of what we now consider a prodigious adora,” on account of the great noise produced by the magnitude ; highly ornamented, and bearing a variety discharge. In the early use of these machines, they of mottoes, and dignified with names of various inwere employed like those they supplanted, and which port. Thus Louis XII., in 1503, had twelve brass we have described, in throwing enormous stones. cannon founded of an extraordinary size, which he They were therefore of immense calibre, and as the named after the twelve peers of France. The means of boring iron masses of such magnitude were Spaniards and Portuguese dedicated theirs to their then wanted, they were necessarily formed of iron saints, and the Emperor Charles V., when he went bars, fitted together lengthwise, and confined by against Tunis, had twelve cannons cast, which he strong hoops of iron ; sometimes the bars were sols called the twelve apostles. Several of these singular dered together, but still the hoops could not be dis- specimens of the early art of founding, and of the mispensed with. There are some specimens of these taken ideas of the first artillerists, are preserved in difearly cannon preserved as curiosities in the Repository ferent arsenals. At Milan there is a seventy pounder, and Royal Arsenal at Woolwich. All the ancient called the Pimontelli, and another at Bois le Duc, called cannon are unnecessarily long and clumsy, and we the Devil. At Dover Castle we have a sixty pounder, may easily imagine that their carriages and appoint- called Queen Elizabeth's Pocket Pistol ; and in the ments were equally heavy and unmanageable. We are Tower of London, an eighty pounder, brought from informed indeed by Guicciardini, in the first book of Edinburgh, bearing the name of Mounts Meg. There his history, that so cumbrous and unmanageable were is also an eighty pounder in the arsenal at Berlin, the cannon in the 14th and 15th centuries, that they denominated the Thunderer, and one of the same could only be discharged at considerable intervals ; calibre at Malaga, called the Terrible. At Bremen viz., two or three times in a day, so that the besieged there are two curious sixty pounders, called the had sufficient time to repair, at their leisure, the damage Messengers of Bad News; and lastly, one in the which they had sustained ; and it not unfrequently castle of St. Angelo, at Rome, made of the nails that happened that the pieces burst, and thus did more fastened the copper plates which covered the ancient injury to those who employed them, than to those Pantheon, with the following inscription, “Ex clavis they were intended to annoy. In 1453, when Maho- trabalibus porticus Agrippæ.' met II. battered the walls of Constantinople, he is said In the royal arsenal at Woolwich, there were very to have used bombards, which projected masses of lately a great number of cannon of unusual construc1200 pounds weight, and even during the late wars tion, although not of very great size, and many are the Turks employed enormous stone mortars to op- still preserved; but by far the greater part have been pose our passage of the Dardanelles. To trace, how- sold or re-cast. ever, the various changes that have taken place in Without proceeding further in this historical sketch the construction, management, &c. of these arms, of the first invention, and subsequent improvements would far exceed the limits of this article; we must in the construction of cannon, we shall endeavour to pass therefore from these early applications of cannon lay before our readers some particulars relative to the to the purposes of bombardment, to the time when present state of the English artillery, which is on all they began to be employed in the open field, at hands admitted to be the most perfect, both in its which period they must have undergone considerable form and appointments, of any in Europe. changes and improvements. The English indeed appear to have been the first to employ cannon in the
Artillery for the field. field, and as early as 1346, at the celebrated battle of Cressy, five of them were placed on a small hill near This was formerly divided into three classes ; viz., that village, and which are said to have greatly con- battalion guns, artillery of the park, and horse artributed to the attainment of that victory. Cannon, tillery. however, were not cast in England till sometime in The battalion guns included all the light pieces the 16th century, viz., brass cannon about the year attached to regiments of the line, which they accom1535, and those of iron in 1547 ; we read, indeed, of panied in all their manœuvres, to cover and support brass guns of a much earlier date, but whether they them. In the English service there were two 6were formed of bars, or in what other way they were pounders attached to each battalion, constructed, we are not informed. Notwithstanding The French had two 4-pounders per
battalion. the improvements thus introduced in the formation The Danes
two 3. pounders ditto. of cannon, yet they were still, from a mistaken idea The Austrians three 6-pounders ditto. of the necessity of great length, exceedingly large and
The Prussians two unwieldy. Louis XII. had one cast at Tours, which
first line. carried a ball of 100lb. One of these extraordinary
ditto. cannon was taken at the siege of Dien, in 1546, by
second line. Don John de Castro, and was very lately preserved The Hanoverians two 3-pounders ditto. in the castle of St. Julian de Barra, near Lisbon. This practice is however now discontinued in the
ARTIL- British service, and in lieu of battalion guns, the commonly 8-pounders, and a 6-inch howitzer at. ARTIL
of horse artillery, the former being attached to the Park of artillery. This, in addition to the requisite
pounders, 12-pounders, and 8-inch howitzers, for the
and ammunition for every description of ordnance to
The following Table exhibits the latest regulations, for the quantity and disposition of the ammunition, attached to the
particular pieces specified in it.
Artillery for a siege. This of course contains, be
64...... 24-pounders. sides a number of pieces of the kind we have been
28...... 10-inch mortars. describing, a quantity of heavy ordnance; the par
8...... S-inch mortars. ticular number of which, however, depends upon
54-inch mortars. circumstances; but the proportion of the different These numbers, it will be perceived, do not exactly kinds is generally something like the following; agree with the above rule, and indeed no rule can be viz. :
made to apply generally to all cases.
similar to that employed in the siege. The following
The following are the numbers and calibre of the places being considered of the first class, and so on in
ARTIL. The guns will be of the following calibre, one- guns, except that 7 and 8 stand outside the wheel, ARTILLERY. third 18-pounders, one-third 12-pounders, and one- and 8 assists 7 to ram home if necessary.
LERY. third of 24, 9, and 4-pounders in equal proportion; Howitzers. The positions here are the same as with and if the place do not possess any very extraordinary the heavy guns, but the duties are different ; 7 sponges, means of defence, 800 rounds of ammunitiou per uncaps the fuze, and puts in the shell ; 8 takes the gun for the two larger calibre, and 900 for each of sheep skin out of the piece, lays it on the ground, the sinaller will be a sufficient supply.
with the woollen side up, (when 7 holds it up) puts in Gun carriages one-third more than the number of the sheep skin again, and pulls it out with his left guns.
hand on the word ready. He stops the muzzle with Mortars about one-fourth of the number of guns in it immediately that the piece is fired; 9 serves the the three first classes, and one-fifth or one-sixth in vent; 10 fires ; 11 commands; 12 carries the match the other ciasses. Of these two-fifth will be 13- and bucket; 13 serves 8 with cartridges from a carinch or 10-inch mortars, and the rest of a smaller touch ; 14 serves 7 with shells from the limber,which nature.
he lays on the sheep skin; 15 attends the limber. As Howitzers one-fourth of the number of mortars. from unavoidable accidents, the number of men at
In the preceding enumeration of the description of tached to a gun, may be reduced, it will be necessary
Erercise of a field gun with fifteen men.
32, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6, 4, and 3-pounders. to it, the duties of the standing numbers, that is the Carronades. . 68, 42, 32, 24, 18, and 12-pounders. numbers from 7 to 15 continue the same in all the Howitzers. 10, 8,5, and 44-inch.
exercises just mentioned; but they assist also in the Mortars. 13, 10, 8, 51, and 44-inch.
movements of the gun by drag-ropes. In the line of for throwing stones to small distances, march, 1, 2 and 3 are on the left of the gun in the Mortars which are brass, about 15 inches in rear of 7; and 4, 5 and 6 on the right in the rear of 8. (Stone.) diameter, of a lighter construction than In the position for action, 1, 2 and 3 hold the right the above.
drag-rope, and 4, 5 and 6 the left, and dress in a line Eighteen inch mortars were formerly employed, with the axletree. On the word load, 3 and 4 unbook but they have for many years been laid aside.
the drag-ropes from the drag washers, 3 holds the For the particulars of the construction, weight, &c. hook in his left hand, and 4 in his right, and they of these several pieces, see Cannon.
hook on again at the word cease firing. Exercise of artillery. When fifteen men are attached On the word prepare to advance quick, 2, 3, 4 and 5, for the service of a gun in the field, they are num- slip under the drag-ropes; 2 and 5, man the loop ends bered from 1 to 15; but when the gun is not to be on the inside ; 3 and 4 the first pins on the inside ; 7 advanced by the men, the first six numbers are and 8 move to the second pins on the inside; 1 and 6 omitted, and the nine men are numbered from 7 to remain at their pins, 9 and 10, move to the second pins 15. The exercise of heavy field guns differs but on the outside, and 12 and 13 to the near pins on the little from the light ones. It will therefore be suffi- outside ; 14 assists 11 at the traversing handspike; cient to confine our description of the exercise to one 13 lifts up the trail for 11 to put in the truck; and case only.
12 gives his match to 10, then the word being given, Line of March, nine men to a gun. Here numbers Prepare for action,—2, 3, 4 and 5, slip back again 7, 9, 12 and 15, are on the left of the gun; 8, 10, under the drag-ropes, and the whole resume their 13, 14 and 11, on the right; numbers in and 8 oppo- places for action. site to the muzzle of the gun; 9 and 10 opposite the Word--With two pair of drag-ropes prepare to retreat breech; 12 and 13 opposite the trail ; 14 opposite the quick,—3 and 4 unhook from the drag-washer, and axle tree of the limber; 11 opposite the shafts; 15 march from the rear; 2 and 5 follow, and I and 6 leads the limber horse; the driver leads the fore hook the loop end of the drag-ropes to the trail books;
12 sticks his linstock in the ground, and with 13 Position, duties, &c. of nine men prepared for action. brings the spare drag-ropes from 14, and gives the Light guns. Number sponges, 8 loads, 9 serves the chain ends to 7 and 8 to hook to the drag washers; vent, 10 fires, Il commands, 12 carries the match 7, 9 and 12 man the right drag-rope; and 8, 10 and and water bucket; 13 serves 8 with ammunition from 13 the left. To resume the position for action on the 14, who carries a cartouch and a pair of drag-ropes, Word, prepare for action,—7 and 8 unhook the 15 holds the limber horse, and carries a cartouch. spare drag-ropes, and 12 and 13 carry them back to
Number ñ is between the right wheel and the 14; 1 and 6 unhook from the trail, and 3 and 4 hook muzzle; 8 between the left wheel and muzzle; 9 clear the other end to the drag washers. of the near wheel; 10 clear of the left wheel, both in Word—Prepare for action retreating. The drag-rope a line with the vent; 11 on the left of the hand-spike; men change as in retreating, upon the word load, 12 on his right, clear of 9; 13 covers the left wheel, 1 and 6 unhook from the trail, and hook on again at five yards in the rear ; 14 covers the right wheel, ten the word cease firing. It must be here remarked, that yards in the rear. The limber is 25 yards directly in in the exercise with 15 men, only the additional duties the rear of the gun.
have been detailed; the duties of the standing num. Heavy guns. This is the same as with the light bers in action, advancing or retreating, being still the