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ARTICLE. adjunct, forms in fact a proposition, in which the par- consequently, a proper attention should be paid to it ARTICLE.
ticiple of existence is either expressed or understood, by those who interpret any Greek author. In fact,
but o yepwv' is equivalent to ő, yépwv For a full view of the manner in which the doctrine
It may be proper to observe, that in every lan-
ARTICLES OF LAMBETI, were nine articles on the
It appears then, that, generally speaking, the name gion, 31 Henry VIII, c. 14. By this law the doctrine
With regard to its usage with the names of attri- the navy is regulated, are founded upon statutes which
all its proceedings, as no business could be proposed
ARTIL- ARTI'LLERY, barb. Lat. artillaria. Fr. artillerie. fuzes, portfires, &c.; Fortification, or the construc- ARTILLERY. Caseneuve thinks it may be formed of arcus and tion of works for offence and defence. The manage- LERY.
telum. Vossius from arcuaba. Menage and Du ment of pontoons, the construction of military bridges, Cange from the old Fr. artiller, to render strong by the working of mines; and all the inost important art ; from ars, artis.
operations of a siege, or defence of a garrison, are Certes, I understond it in this wise, that I shall warnestore min considered generally to appertain more or less to the hous with toures, swiche as han castelles and other manere edi- engineer and artillery service. fices, and armure, and artelries, by which thinges I may my persone and myn hous so kepen and defenden, that min enemies of artillery as a science, but simply to describe the
We propose, however, in this article, not to treat shuln ben in drede min hous for to approche. Chaucer. The Tule of Melibeus, v. ii. p. 100.
several apparatus, appointments, &c. which according & vpõ the morowe folowynge comaundyd all the armoure and
to our first definition constitute what is commonly artylery belongyng ynto ye towne, to be brought to a place by understood as the artillery of an army; prefacing that hym assynged, and there to be kept by his offycers.
description by 'an historical sketch of the progress Fabyan, p. 527.
and successive changes which have taken place in The gods forbid (quoth he) one shaft of thine
this important branch of the military art.
In the most ancient times, when war was made
with quickness and impetuosity, the use of artillery
Fairfax's Tasso, book xvii. was unknown ; the club and the dart were at this They are persecutors eren of Horace himself, as far as they are time the only instruments of attack and defence; and able, by their ignorant and vile imitations of him ; by making an it was probably sometime before the bow and arrow unjust use of liis authority, and turning his artillery against his friends.
were thought of as offensive weapons. Dryden's Pref. to All for Love.
As the destructive means of attack were by the latIt is related by some historians, that Edward, besides the re
ter invention made to operate at a distance, corressources which he found in his own genius and presence of mind, ponding means of defence became necessary, and employed also a new invention against the enemy, and placed in trunks of trees interlaced with branches and supported his front some pieces of artillery, the first that had yet been with earth, constituted the first fortification ; which made use of in Europe. Hume's Hist. of England, p. 432.
was afterwards improved by substituting a wall with And if thou bast the mettle of a king,
a parapet, for shooting arrows at the assailants. Being wrong'd as we are by this peeuish toune;
Afterwards the walls were carried higher, and holes Turne thou the mouth of thy artillerie,
left in them of sufficient size only to enable the archers As we will ours, against these sawcie walles.
to discharge their arrows effectually upon an enemy.
To attack, therefore, with any chance of success,
some powerful engine became necessary to batter Over the Caspian, then stand front to front
down the walls ; this gave rise to the battering ram, Hov'ring a space, till winds the signal blow
which was probably one of the first engines of To joyn their dark encounter in mid air.
ancient artillery. To what date we are to refer the Milton's Par. Lost, book ii.
invention of this powerful machine is uncertain. We Now was Eretria by all forcible means assaulted, for not only are informed in the Second Book of Chronicles that the vessels of three joynt navies had brought thither all sorts of Uzziah, who began his reign 809 years before the engins and artillerie devised for to shake and batter the walls of cities, but also the fields and country hard by, yeelded them plentie Christian era, "made in Jerusalem engines, invented of timber and other matter to make new.
by cunning men, to be upon the towers and upon the
Holland's Livy. bulwarks to shoot arrows and great stones withal." Artillery, is originally a French word, signi- It is therefore probable, that the ram was at least fying archery, and was formely used to denote all the known in those days, although we have no distinct offensive apparatus of war, particularly those of the mention of it till the time of Pericles the Athenian, missile kind. At present we employ it only to the 409 years, B. C. To oppose this powerful engine of larger firearms, as cannon, mortars, howitzers, &c. attack farther means of defence became necessary, Rockets are also now considered as forming a part of and the invention of ballistæ and catapultæ resulted artillery.
probably from this necessity. But these soon became Artillery likewise signifies the art or science which instruments, not only of defence, but of attack; for has for its object the management, arrangement, and in the siege of Motya, about 370 years before Christ. application of the above arms to the purposes of of- Dionysius, after having battered down the fortification fence and defence, and hence that part of the army with his rams, advanced to the walls towers rolled which is specifically charged with this service is called upon wheels, whence he galled the besieged with the artillery.
continual vollies of stones and darts, thrown from his According to the latter extended signification of catapultæ. Anc. Univ. Hist. vol. vi. this term, it includes Gunnery, or the art of throwing A number of other instances are mentioned soon balls, shells, &c. with accuracy and precision ; Pye after this time, in which machines of various descriptions rotechny, or the composition of fireworks, as rockets, were employed both for defence and attack, of which
ARTIL- we may mention in particular the seige of Saguntum place, they would throw into it from the ballistæ dead
vented his soldiers from using the battering ram, by Athenæus mentions one of these ballistæ that threw
Two years previous to this, Marcellus had laid siege wheel y. And thus, by turning the pinion through
with a mallet, and the stem c c, obeying the enormous
cushion is placed.
The ancient artillery may be divided into three made sometimes of hair, at others of the bowels of
mate effects, however, were the same in all cases.
The force of the ballistæ was prodigious. The stones applied to a strong rope. Several arrows are lodged
ARTIL pin, the bent surface recovering itself by its natural charged by another stone. This is by some authors ArtilLERI. elasticity, advances to its original vertical position, called a fundiballe.
LERY. and thus drives before it all the arrows with consider- The arcoballista is a smaller propelling apparatus, able velocity. This kind of catapulta is mentioned by which might be worked by one man ; it is litile more Diodorus Siculus, as being employed at the siege of than a fixed bow with a simple mechanical contriCyprus.
vance for bringing back the line, as shown in fig. 5. Catapults of the larger kind were much more pow- The above are the principal machines which the erful, and were used to shoot darts and arrows of great ancients possessed for distant means of annoyance; it length and weight. One of these is represented in
still remains for us to describe those employed on a fig. 3. It is not unaptly assimilated to a broken bow, near approach to an enemy's works for the demolition although there is this difference, that in the latter the of the same, and the opposing engines of the beelastic force resides in the bow itself, whereas, here, sieged. as in the ballista, the elastic force is in the twisted cords ; between which the two arms are inserted, not
Machines of Approach and Demolition. vertically as in the stem of the ballista, but horizon- of the Battering Ram. The ancients employed two tally. At the extremity of the two arms a a, is at- different machines of this kind ; the one suspended, tached a strong rope b. The twisted cords cc, re- and which was vibrated after the manner of a penduceive their tension by means of the wheel work at dd; lum, and the other moveable on rollers. These were and are kept at the requisite twist by means of de- denominated the swinging and rolling ram; and when tents as in the ballista; the arms are also strengthened either of these was worked under a cover or shed to by ligatures of waxed cord as in the latter machine. protect the assailants from the annoyance of the be
When the engine is at rest, the two arms a a, rest sieged, they were denominated tortoise rams, from the against the cushions at mm, and as the twisting of shed being assimilated to the tortoise shell. the cords cc, proceeds by means of the toothed The swinging ram, fig. 6, resembled, as well in its wheels d d, these arms press more and more against magnitude as in its form, the mast of a large vessel, their respective cushions. Then drawing the rope b, suspended horizontally at its centre of gravity, by by means of the grappling hook x, and cord, worked chains or cords from a moveable frame of carpentry. by the windlass y, a projecting pin detains the cord b, Ligatures of waxed cord surrounded the beam at short at an assigned point, where it is known to have ac- intervals, and cords at the extremity farthest from the quired the requisite tension. The darts are then head, served for the purpose of applying human force placed in the grooves rr; and the pin being struck to supply the oscillatory motion. Other cords at interfrom its place, the arms a a, yielding to the elastic mediate distances were also sometimes thus employed. impulse of the twisted cords, move rapidly till they The frame of carpentry was often encased at its sides strike the cushions mm; the cord b, as rapidly tight- by a double cover of wicker work, between which ened strikes the darts, and sends them forth with asto- horsehair and marine herbs were stuffed. The top nishing velocity ; which might however be modified was covered with sloping hurdles plastered with to greater or less by different degrees of tension. mortar, and in case of necessity, the whole was kept
The impulsive energy of these machines far exceeds moist by vinegar, to prevent its being set on fire by the the ideas we should form of them from their descrip- enemy. In this form it became what was denominated tion. It is said that Montfaucon possessed a small the tortoise ram. See fig. 8. model of a catapulta, only five inches in length, which The rolling ram was much the same as the above in projected its dart to the distance of 400 feet; and Fo- its general construction; except that instead of relard, the learned editor of Polybius, had a model only ceiving a pendulous motion, it was a motion of simple a foot in each dimension, which propelled its dart alternation produced by the strength of men applied with such force as to cause it to enter and remain in to cords passing over the pulleys PP. fig. 7. This hard freestone at the distance of 1300 feet; Cæsar also construction seems to have been first employed at the relates that at the seige of Marseilles the besieged siege of Byzantium. propelled from the top of their walls, beams of 12 These machines were often extremely ponderous, feet long, armed at one end by pointed iron heads, Appian declares, that at the siege of Carthage he saw which pierced four ranks of stout hurdles and then two rams so colossal that one hundred men were emstuck firmly into the earth.
ployed in working each. And Vitruvius affirms that Of the scorpion. This is another of the propelling the beam was often from 100 to 120 feet in length, machines of the ancients, and is probably of anterior and Justus Lipsius describes some as 180 feet long, date to those we have been describing, being far infe- and 2 feet 4 inches in diameter, with an iron head rior to them in its action, although still a very power- weighing at least a ton and a half. ful engine. "We have represented one of the forms of In contrasting the effects of the battring ram with the scorpion in fig. 4. by which it will be perceived, those of the modern artillery, we must not merely that the propelling power was produced by the de- judge of them by the mechanical measure of their scent of the weight placed at the shorter arm of the respective momenta. Such a ram as one of those demachine, which raising the longer arm, the stone was scribed by Lipsius, would weigh more than delivered from the sling attached to it with a very 45,000 lbs., and the momentum of this, supposing its considerable force ; but as we have stated above, by velocity to be about two yards per second, would be a very inferior one to that produced bf the twisted nearly quadruple, the momentum of a 40 lb. ball, cord in the ballista and catapulta. It is needless to moving with a velocity of 1600 feet per second. But add that the stone being discharged, the long arm was what would be the different operation of these bodies drawn down by manual strength, and the machine re- upon a wall. The ball would penetrate the opposing
ARTIL- substance, and pursue the almost undisturbed tenor besieged city, it was natural, that the latter should ARTILLERY. of its way ; but this is not the case with the ram. Its attempt a means of annoyance, or defence against LERY,
efficacy in the work of demolition would depend upon their enemy, wḥich might counteract their efforts. the due apportioning its intervals of oscillation. At This probably gave rise to the machines we are about first it would produce no obvious effect upon the to describe, which were of different kinds, some being: wall; but the judicious repetition of its blows, would used in sieges, and others in engagements at sea. in a short time give motion to the wall itself. First, The description we have of these engines, and of the there would be just perceptible tremors, then more effects produced by them is scarcely credible. Pluextensive vibrations; these being evident, the men tarch informs us, that when Marcellus had advanced would adjust the oscillations of the ram to that of the his galleys close under the walls of Syracuse, Archiwall, till, at length, a large portion of it, partaking of medes directed against them enormous machines, the vibratory impulse, would, by a well timed blow, which being projected forward, there were let down fall to the earth at once. This recorded effect of the suddenly from them large beams, from which were ram has nothing analogous in the results of modern suspended long vertical arms of rope, terminated with machinery.
grappling hooks; which laying hold of the vessels, Moveable Towers, Tortoises, &c. The moveable and rapidly elevating them by the operation of countowers employed by the ancients in their sieges, and ter weights, upset and sunk them to the bottom of which they called Helepoles, were often of an astonish- the sea; or, after raising them by their prows, and ing magnitude, Vegetius describes them as being setting them as it were on their poops, plunged them formed of strong planks. To preserve them from endwise into the water. Others, it is said, he swung risk of fire thrown from the walls of the besieged round towards the shore by the application of his place, they were covered with raw hides, or with cranes, and after whirling them in the air, dashed pieces of woven horse hair. Their height was pro- them to pieces on the rocks beneath. Although it is portional to the dimensions of their bases, which were impossible not to suspect some degree of exaggerasometimes 30 feet square, and their height 40 or 50 tion in these statements, yet we cannot at the same feet. Sometimes their height was still greater, that time doubt, that very powerful means of this kind they might be above the walls, and even above the were employed in this celebrated siege; in which stone towers of the city. They were supported upon Archimedes, the prince of Grecian mathematicians, several small wheels, by means of which they might performed an important part, and where he at length be moved from place to place, notwithstanding their fell beneath the sword of one of the soldiers of the enormous size and weight. It was generally reckoned conqueror. that the besieged place was in eminent danger when- A more simple engine of this description is shown in ever the besiegers had succeeded in placing one of (fig. 12), it consisted of a long and strong perch, these near the walls. The helepole was supplied with armed by a strong iron crow head, and suspended on ladders, by which to mount from stage to stage, and a moveable carriage. It was employed principally for each stage presented its particular means of attack. destroying the parapets of walls, for dismantling the In the lower one there was commonly a ram ; and sides of the sheds under which the rams were worked, the middle stage, or a higher one, was furnished with and for other similar purposes. a bridge, made of mutually intersecting levers, which The telleno, fig. 13, was a machine employed for could be easily projected out, and thereby form a raising a few soldiers higher than the top of the communication between the tower and the wall. enemy's wall, to ascertain what was going on within Sometimes baskets fixed to projecting levers, carried them, and sometimes for taking possession of them, men who were let down upon the wall. On the and thus facilitating the escalade. In the former inupper stages were soldiers armed with halberts, and stance, it was formed by a great pile driven into the archers who continually played upon the besieged. ground, which served as a fulcrum, to a long lever,
Vitruvius states, that the weight of the helepolis which was placed across it, and balanced. At one of brought against Rhodes by Demetrius weighed its extremities was a light wooden, or wicker case, 260,000 lbs., and that to man and manæuvre it, cm- capable of holding a certain number of men, who ployed 3400 soldiers. (See figs. 10, 11).
when the opposite end was drawn down by cords, The Tortoise, as we have already stated, was a kind were raised so as to be enabled to look over the of moving sheet, used to defend the assailants in their walls, or to mount upon them. Others were mounted advance upon the place, these were also of great mag- on carriages, as shown in the figure. nitude. One of those employed by Cæsar, at the Such was the artillery of the ancients, or their seige of Marseilles, was 60 feet long, and served to machines of attack and defence, which the invention cover the space between the helepolis and the city of gunpowder has rendered useless and obsolete. In wall. In some instances a long rank of these was fact, few of the machines we have described are suffiplaced end to end, and served as a complete protec- ciently illustrated by the early historians, to enable tion to the soldiers. They were covered, as we have us to say with certainty that our representation is peralready said, with raw hides or with moistened horse fectly correct, and some are mentioned, of which only hair, to protect them from the fire of the besieged. the names remain. What we have given are drawn (See figs. 8, 9).
from the most authentic sources, and for most of
which we are indebted to Dr. Gregory, who has been Miscellaneous Machines.
at considerable pains in collecting them for his Of Crows (Corvi) and Cranes. As in the application lecture on the ancient artillery, delivered at the Royal of the engines last described, it was necessary for the Military Academy, and who has very obligingly besiegers to approach close under the walls of the ailowed us the perusal of his manuscript.