ARTICLE. adjunct, forms in fact a proposition, in which the par- consequently, a proper attention should be paid to it ARTICLE.

ticiple of existence is either expressed or understood, by those who interpret any Greek author. In fact,
and which involves a relation to something before said as the article involves in all cases a reference, it is
by the speaker, or which is supposed to pass in the plain that it may oftentimes limit the sense of a
mind of the speaker. Thus, yépwv signifies generally passage, and preclude all interpretations but one.
" old man;

but o yepwv' is equivalent to ő, yépwv For a full view of the manner in which the doctrine
ūv, where the pronoun ő, “ this", implies that the old of the Greek article is to be applied to the criticism
man now spoken of has been mentioned before, or that of the New Testament, we refer the reader to the work
he is in some way or other known to the hearer or before mentioned.
the speaker.

It may be proper to observe, that in every lan-
The identity of the article with the pronoun is very guage which possesses an article, there is an evident
conspicuous in the language of Homer ; as in the connexion between the article and the simplest form
expressions 'Oyap Basiani xolweis, 'o orjie, &c. of the pronoun. In Greek, o, ös, outos. In English,
And in almost every instance, where it occurs in his the, this, that. In French, le, il, le, (him), and so
poems, it may be explained as a pronoun. In the in the other European languages, and also in the
words ο γάρ ήλθε θοάς επί νήας 'Αχαιών, it is acknow- Arabic.
ledged that ó is a pronoun. Why then should it be ArticLES OF THE CLERGY, Articuli Cleri, are certain
supposed to change its nature upon the addition of statutes which were passed in the reign of Ed. II.
Yépwv in the phrase ó yàp de yépwy: It is plain, 1316, for terminating the disputes between the tem-
that in the first case, the pronoun is used by itself, poral and spiritual courts, respecting the limits of their
with reference to the word yépwv understood, and in several jurisdictions.
the second, that word is added, to make the reference Articles of Faith, are certain points of doctrine,
more clear. The pronominal use of the article, or which we are obliged to believe, as having been re-
rather the use of the pronoun, without an adjunct was vealed by God, and so declared to have been by the
common in the Ionic dialect, long after the age of church of which we are members.

ARTICLES OF LAMBETI, were nine articles on the
The principal difficulty, concerning the Greek arti- subject of predestination, and the limitation of saving
cle, relates to its usage with proper names, and with grace, which were drawn up by Arch. Whitgift, and
the names of abstract ideas. The only way in which recommended to the attention of the students of Cam-
we can account for its being used with proper names, bridge, in consequence of some disputes which were
is to suppose, that the speaker first uses the pronomi- raised in the University, at that time, on the above-
nal article, as a designation of the person of whom he mentioned points. They were, however, merely de-
is speaking, and then subjoins the name itself, by way claratory of the doctrines of the church of England,
of explanation to his hearers ; thus in Homer, when and were not imposed as of public authority. An
the poet says oύνεκα τον-ητίμησε, he knows of whom account of the 39 articles of the church of England
he is speaking; but because his reader does not know, will be found in another part of the work. See Ge-
be recollects himself, as it were, and adds Xpúonv— NERAL INDEX.
θύνεκα τον Χρύσης ήτίμησε, “ him, that is to say, ARTICLES, Statute of the Ser, or the Bloody Statute,
Chryses." For, in fact, the name is added to define was an act for abolishing diversity of doctrine in cer-
the article; and not the article to define the name. tain articles of opinion concerning the Christian reli-

It appears then, that, generally speaking, the name gion, 31 Henry VIII, c. 14. By this law the doctrine
is necessary to the article, but not the article to the of the real presence, the communion in one kind, the
name, except in cases of particular reference. The perpetual obligation of vows of chastity, the utility of
poets therefore frequently omitted the article, in the private masses, the celibacy of the clergy, and the ne-
case of proper names, where a prose writer would cessity of auricular confession, were confirmed ; and
have used it ; but did not insert it, where correctness the denial of them made punishable with death.
of language required its omission. The general rule ARTICLES OF WAR, are certain regulations for the
is, that with proper names the article is used, where better government of the army in the United King-
the same person has been recently mentioned, or is of dom and in foreign parts dependent on Great Bri-
such notoriety, that the article may be supposed to tain. With respect to the army, these may be altered
suggest his name to the hearer. The particular limi- at the king's pleasure, and they have the force of law
tations of this rule are ably stated and illustrated by only in virtue of an annual act of Parliament, styled
Bishop Middleton in his work on the Greek article. the Mutiny Bill ; but the Articles of War by which

With regard to its usage with the names of attri- the navy is regulated, are founded upon statutes which
butes, the same learned writer observes, that in the are fixed, and in which every offence and the punish-
very few instances, where Homer employs abstract ment of it, are set down and defined by law.
terms, he employs them without the article ; and that ARTICLES, LORDS OF, were an ancient institution in
it is inserted in later writers, 1. When the noun is the history of the Scottish parliament appointed by
used in its most abstract sense. 2. When the attribute, the king, whose business it was to prepare and digest
&c. is personified. 3. When the article is employed all matters that were to be laid before Parliament;
in the sense of a possessive pronoun. 4. When there and that these lords possessed a virtual negative upon
is any reference.

all its proceedings, as no business could be proposed
It is obvious, from this brief statement of the nature or debated there, which had not previously received
and use of the Greek article, that it was not employed their sanction.
or neglected at random, without any alteration of or Articles OF DEATH, Articulus Mortes, the last pangs
influence upon the meaning of a sentence; and that, or agony of a dying person are sometimes so called.


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ARTIL- ARTI'LLERY, barb. Lat. artillaria. Fr. artillerie. fuzes, portfires, &c.; Fortification, or the construc- ARTILLERY. Caseneuve thinks it may be formed of arcus and tion of works for offence and defence. The manage- LERY.

telum. Vossius from arcuaba. Menage and Du ment of pontoons, the construction of military bridges, Cange from the old Fr. artiller, to render strong by the working of mines; and all the inost important art ; from ars, artis.

operations of a siege, or defence of a garrison, are Certes, I understond it in this wise, that I shall warnestore min considered generally to appertain more or less to the hous with toures, swiche as han castelles and other manere edi- engineer and artillery service. fices, and armure, and artelries, by which thinges I may my persone and myn hous so kepen and defenden, that min enemies of artillery as a science, but simply to describe the

We propose, however, in this article, not to treat shuln ben in drede min hous for to approche. Chaucer. The Tule of Melibeus, v. ii. p. 100.

several apparatus, appointments, &c. which according & vpõ the morowe folowynge comaundyd all the armoure and

to our first definition constitute what is commonly artylery belongyng ynto ye towne, to be brought to a place by understood as the artillery of an army; prefacing that hym assynged, and there to be kept by his offycers.

description by 'an historical sketch of the progress Fabyan, p. 527.

and successive changes which have taken place in The gods forbid (quoth he) one shaft of thine

this important branch of the military art.
Should be discharg'd gainst that discourteous knight,
His heart vnworthie is (shootresse diuine)

In the most ancient times, when war was made
Of thine artillerie to feele the might.

with quickness and impetuosity, the use of artillery

Fairfax's Tasso, book xvii. was unknown ; the club and the dart were at this They are persecutors eren of Horace himself, as far as they are time the only instruments of attack and defence; and able, by their ignorant and vile imitations of him ; by making an it was probably sometime before the bow and arrow unjust use of liis authority, and turning his artillery against his friends.

were thought of as offensive weapons. Dryden's Pref. to All for Love.

As the destructive means of attack were by the latIt is related by some historians, that Edward, besides the re

ter invention made to operate at a distance, corressources which he found in his own genius and presence of mind, ponding means of defence became necessary, and employed also a new invention against the enemy, and placed in trunks of trees interlaced with branches and supported his front some pieces of artillery, the first that had yet been with earth, constituted the first fortification ; which made use of in Europe. Hume's Hist. of England, p. 432.

was afterwards improved by substituting a wall with And if thou bast the mettle of a king,

a parapet, for shooting arrows at the assailants. Being wrong'd as we are by this peeuish toune;

Afterwards the walls were carried higher, and holes Turne thou the mouth of thy artillerie,

left in them of sufficient size only to enable the archers As we will ours, against these sawcie walles.

to discharge their arrows effectually upon an enemy.
Shakespeare's King John, fol. 6.

To attack, therefore, with any chance of success,
As when two black clouds
With heav'n's artillery fraught, come rattling on

some powerful engine became necessary to batter Over the Caspian, then stand front to front

down the walls ; this gave rise to the battering ram, Hov'ring a space, till winds the signal blow

which was probably one of the first engines of To joyn their dark encounter in mid air.

ancient artillery. To what date we are to refer the Milton's Par. Lost, book ii.

invention of this powerful machine is uncertain. We Now was Eretria by all forcible means assaulted, for not only are informed in the Second Book of Chronicles that the vessels of three joynt navies had brought thither all sorts of Uzziah, who began his reign 809 years before the engins and artillerie devised for to shake and batter the walls of cities, but also the fields and country hard by, yeelded them plentie Christian era, "made in Jerusalem engines, invented of timber and other matter to make new.

by cunning men, to be upon the towers and upon the

Holland's Livy. bulwarks to shoot arrows and great stones withal." Artillery, is originally a French word, signi- It is therefore probable, that the ram was at least fying archery, and was formely used to denote all the known in those days, although we have no distinct offensive apparatus of war, particularly those of the mention of it till the time of Pericles the Athenian, missile kind. At present we employ it only to the 409 years, B. C. To oppose this powerful engine of larger firearms, as cannon, mortars, howitzers, &c. attack farther means of defence became necessary, Rockets are also now considered as forming a part of and the invention of ballistæ and catapultæ resulted artillery.

probably from this necessity. But these soon became Artillery likewise signifies the art or science which instruments, not only of defence, but of attack; for has for its object the management, arrangement, and in the siege of Motya, about 370 years before Christ. application of the above arms to the purposes of of- Dionysius, after having battered down the fortification fence and defence, and hence that part of the army with his rams, advanced to the walls towers rolled which is specifically charged with this service is called upon wheels, whence he galled the besieged with the artillery.

continual vollies of stones and darts, thrown from his According to the latter extended signification of catapultæ. Anc. Univ. Hist. vol. vi. this term, it includes Gunnery, or the art of throwing A number of other instances are mentioned soon balls, shells, &c. with accuracy and precision ; Pye after this time, in which machines of various descriptions rotechny, or the composition of fireworks, as rockets, were employed both for defence and attack, of which


ARTIL- we may mention in particular the seige of Saguntum place, they would throw into it from the ballistæ dead
LERY., by Hannibal, 219 B. c., in which the Saguntines pre- bodies of men and horses, heads and detached limbs.

vented his soldiers from using the battering ram, by Athenæus mentions one of these ballistæ that threw
a continual hurling of darts, stones, and other missiles. a stone of three talents, viz. about 360lbs. weight.
From this time, these warlike engines increased both Cæsar employed these machines not only to destroy
in number and in magnitude, to an almost incredible men, but to batter down strong and high towers. We
extent; of which the reader may form some idea by have already mentioned the machines employed by
the inventory that different historians have given us Titus against Jerusalem, some of which Josephus
of those found in certain cities, which had been states, projected stones of a hundred weight, and
obliged to capitulate to the enemy; and by the enu- Archimedes is said to have cast bodies of 1,200 lbs.,
meration of those which accompanied particular by means of his ballistæ, against the Roman fleet, in
armies. Thus we are informed, that Titus employed his defence of Syracuse.
in the siege of Jerusalem three hundred catapultæ of Description of the Ballista, A A A (fig. 1.) is a
divers magnitudes, and forty ballistæ, of which the strong frame work, susceptible of easy separation, for
least projected stones of 751b. weight. And when the the purpose of conveyance, and then of being rejoined
consul Čensorius marched against Carthage, and in frame. The upper beams are pierced on the oppo-
obliged the inhabitants to give up their arms, they site sides of the frame with two orifices as at the
surrendered to him two thousand machines proper for points, B B. Two toothed wheels, y, have the form
throwing darts and stones : and afterwards, when shewn at Fig. 2, in which may be seen a strong cross
Scipio made himself master of the same city, there piece. A strong cord, well stretched, passes several
were no less than one hundred and twenty catapultæ times from the cross piece of one wheel to that of the
of the larger size, two hundred and eighty-one of the opposite wheel, and form thus several intersecting
smaller ; twenty-three of the larger ballistæ, fifty-two twists; at the centre of one of which is inserted the
of a smaller kind, and an innumerable number of handle or stem cc, of the capacivus spoon S. The
scorpions of different sizes, arms, and missile weapons. leaves of the pinion X, play into the teeth of the

Two years previous to this, Marcellus had laid siege wheel y. And thus, by turning the pinion through
to Syracuse, a city proverbially fatal to the armies that the intervention of the handle, the wheel y is turned,
attacked it. Archimedes was at that time resident in and the cords fastened to its cross piece a, are made
the city; and, at the earnest solicitation of Hiero, to twist more and more about each other. When by
king of Sicily, exerted the powers of his mind in the this process the twisted cords have received a suffici-
invention of artillery, and other warlike instruments. ent tension, the wheels and pinions are retained in
Marcellus had brought with him an enormous engine their places by the application of a pall or rachet.
mounted on eight gallies, called sambuca, which This done, the stem cc, which has waxed cord coiled
Archimedes destroyed by discharging at it single closely about it to give it additional strength, is
stones of enormous weight, while it was at a consi- brought down to the horizontal position by means of
derable distance from the walls : this was effected by the windlass w r, and retained there by another pall or
ballistæ; but he also employed crows, grapples, and detent. In this state of things the body, which it is
scorpions ; by the former of which the Roman vessels intended to throw from the ballista, is placed in the
were lifted out of the water by the prow, and plunged cavity S. At a given word the detent is struck away
to the bottom of the sea.

with a mallet, and the stem c c, obeying the enormous
It would be useless to record the numerous other elastic force which now acts upon it, remounts and
sieges, which took place between this period and the discharges the projectile with great impetuosity. At
invention of cannon, where these instruments were the moment of the discharge, the stem cc strikes
employed. We shall therefore now endeavour to against the frame at F (whose position evidently
present the reader with the description and figure of affects the length of the range): where to soften down
these several machines according to the best autho- the shock a thick horse hair

cushion is placed.
rities ; at the same time it must be acknowledged, The machines called by the Romans tormentum,
that the account of many of them is so very obscure, were only varieties of the ballista, and served to pro-
that it may be questionable whether they are precisely ject stones and other ponderous masses : according to
such as those described by the ancient historians. Vitruvius the cords employed in these machines were

The ancient artillery may be divided into three made sometimes of hair, at others of the bowels of
classes of machines ; viz. first, those intended for animals prepared like our cat-gut. All were not
projecting bodies; secondly, those for approach and twisted by the same process; but sometimes by means
demolition; thirdly, a miscellaneous class, used for of a windlass, at others by toothed wheels. The ulti-
various offensive operations.

mate effects, however, were the same in all cases.
Of the first class, the most important are the bal- Of the Catapultæ. These, as we have before ob-
listæ and catapultæ ; which are, by some authors, served, were employed in throwing darts or arrows;
confounded with each other; but, according to their which, it is said, were sometimes poisoned, and at
etymology, ballistæ, from Ballw, to shoot or throw, others set on fire.
is an engine for propelling stones, called also 10oßolos, A Catapulta of the smaller kind is shown in fig. 2-a.
Tetpoßolos, Petraria, &c. ; while catapultæ, in Greek, It consists merely of an immense bow of elastic wicker
katané!tns, from retns, a spear or dart, was an in- work, placed on a suitable carriage, and having its
strument employed to dart forth spears or arrows. upper part drawn down by the force of several men

The force of the ballistæ was prodigious. The stones applied to a strong rope. Several arrows are lodged
east from them were of enormous weight, and of any upon a suitable frame, and at different elevations. The
form; and for the further annoyance of the besieged tightened cord being set at liberty by drawing out a

ARTIL pin, the bent surface recovering itself by its natural charged by another stone. This is by some authors ArtilLERI. elasticity, advances to its original vertical position, called a fundiballe.

LERY. and thus drives before it all the arrows with consider- The arcoballista is a smaller propelling apparatus, able velocity. This kind of catapulta is mentioned by which might be worked by one man ; it is litile more Diodorus Siculus, as being employed at the siege of than a fixed bow with a simple mechanical contriCyprus.

vance for bringing back the line, as shown in fig. 5. Catapults of the larger kind were much more pow- The above are the principal machines which the erful, and were used to shoot darts and arrows of great ancients possessed for distant means of annoyance; it length and weight. One of these is represented in

still remains for us to describe those employed on a fig. 3. It is not unaptly assimilated to a broken bow, near approach to an enemy's works for the demolition although there is this difference, that in the latter the of the same, and the opposing engines of the beelastic force resides in the bow itself, whereas, here, sieged. as in the ballista, the elastic force is in the twisted cords ; between which the two arms are inserted, not

Machines of Approach and Demolition. vertically as in the stem of the ballista, but horizon- of the Battering Ram. The ancients employed two tally. At the extremity of the two arms a a, is at- different machines of this kind ; the one suspended, tached a strong rope b. The twisted cords cc, re- and which was vibrated after the manner of a penduceive their tension by means of the wheel work at dd; lum, and the other moveable on rollers. These were and are kept at the requisite twist by means of de- denominated the swinging and rolling ram; and when tents as in the ballista; the arms are also strengthened either of these was worked under a cover or shed to by ligatures of waxed cord as in the latter machine. protect the assailants from the annoyance of the be

When the engine is at rest, the two arms a a, rest sieged, they were denominated tortoise rams, from the against the cushions at mm, and as the twisting of shed being assimilated to the tortoise shell. the cords cc, proceeds by means of the toothed The swinging ram, fig. 6, resembled, as well in its wheels d d, these arms press more and more against magnitude as in its form, the mast of a large vessel, their respective cushions. Then drawing the rope b, suspended horizontally at its centre of gravity, by by means of the grappling hook x, and cord, worked chains or cords from a moveable frame of carpentry. by the windlass y, a projecting pin detains the cord b, Ligatures of waxed cord surrounded the beam at short at an assigned point, where it is known to have ac- intervals, and cords at the extremity farthest from the quired the requisite tension. The darts are then head, served for the purpose of applying human force placed in the grooves rr; and the pin being struck to supply the oscillatory motion. Other cords at interfrom its place, the arms a a, yielding to the elastic mediate distances were also sometimes thus employed. impulse of the twisted cords, move rapidly till they The frame of carpentry was often encased at its sides strike the cushions mm; the cord b, as rapidly tight- by a double cover of wicker work, between which ened strikes the darts, and sends them forth with asto- horsehair and marine herbs were stuffed. The top nishing velocity ; which might however be modified was covered with sloping hurdles plastered with to greater or less by different degrees of tension. mortar, and in case of necessity, the whole was kept

The impulsive energy of these machines far exceeds moist by vinegar, to prevent its being set on fire by the the ideas we should form of them from their descrip- enemy. In this form it became what was denominated tion. It is said that Montfaucon possessed a small the tortoise ram. See fig. 8. model of a catapulta, only five inches in length, which The rolling ram was much the same as the above in projected its dart to the distance of 400 feet; and Fo- its general construction; except that instead of relard, the learned editor of Polybius, had a model only ceiving a pendulous motion, it was a motion of simple a foot in each dimension, which propelled its dart alternation produced by the strength of men applied with such force as to cause it to enter and remain in to cords passing over the pulleys PP. fig. 7. This hard freestone at the distance of 1300 feet; Cæsar also construction seems to have been first employed at the relates that at the seige of Marseilles the besieged siege of Byzantium. propelled from the top of their walls, beams of 12 These machines were often extremely ponderous, feet long, armed at one end by pointed iron heads, Appian declares, that at the siege of Carthage he saw which pierced four ranks of stout hurdles and then two rams so colossal that one hundred men were emstuck firmly into the earth.

ployed in working each. And Vitruvius affirms that Of the scorpion. This is another of the propelling the beam was often from 100 to 120 feet in length, machines of the ancients, and is probably of anterior and Justus Lipsius describes some as 180 feet long, date to those we have been describing, being far infe- and 2 feet 4 inches in diameter, with an iron head rior to them in its action, although still a very power- weighing at least a ton and a half. ful engine. "We have represented one of the forms of In contrasting the effects of the battring ram with the scorpion in fig. 4. by which it will be perceived, those of the modern artillery, we must not merely that the propelling power was produced by the de- judge of them by the mechanical measure of their scent of the weight placed at the shorter arm of the respective momenta. Such a ram as one of those demachine, which raising the longer arm, the stone was scribed by Lipsius, would weigh more than delivered from the sling attached to it with a very 45,000 lbs., and the momentum of this, supposing its considerable force ; but as we have stated above, by velocity to be about two yards per second, would be a very inferior one to that produced bf the twisted nearly quadruple, the momentum of a 40 lb. ball, cord in the ballista and catapulta. It is needless to moving with a velocity of 1600 feet per second. But add that the stone being discharged, the long arm was what would be the different operation of these bodies drawn down by manual strength, and the machine re- upon a wall. The ball would penetrate the opposing

ARTIL- substance, and pursue the almost undisturbed tenor besieged city, it was natural, that the latter should ARTILLERY. of its way ; but this is not the case with the ram. Its attempt a means of annoyance, or defence against LERY,

efficacy in the work of demolition would depend upon their enemy, wḥich might counteract their efforts. the due apportioning its intervals of oscillation. At This probably gave rise to the machines we are about first it would produce no obvious effect upon the to describe, which were of different kinds, some being: wall; but the judicious repetition of its blows, would used in sieges, and others in engagements at sea. in a short time give motion to the wall itself. First, The description we have of these engines, and of the there would be just perceptible tremors, then more effects produced by them is scarcely credible. Pluextensive vibrations; these being evident, the men tarch informs us, that when Marcellus had advanced would adjust the oscillations of the ram to that of the his galleys close under the walls of Syracuse, Archiwall, till, at length, a large portion of it, partaking of medes directed against them enormous machines, the vibratory impulse, would, by a well timed blow, which being projected forward, there were let down fall to the earth at once. This recorded effect of the suddenly from them large beams, from which were ram has nothing analogous in the results of modern suspended long vertical arms of rope, terminated with machinery.

grappling hooks; which laying hold of the vessels, Moveable Towers, Tortoises, &c. The moveable and rapidly elevating them by the operation of countowers employed by the ancients in their sieges, and ter weights, upset and sunk them to the bottom of which they called Helepoles, were often of an astonish- the sea; or, after raising them by their prows, and ing magnitude, Vegetius describes them as being setting them as it were on their poops, plunged them formed of strong planks. To preserve them from endwise into the water. Others, it is said, he swung risk of fire thrown from the walls of the besieged round towards the shore by the application of his place, they were covered with raw hides, or with cranes, and after whirling them in the air, dashed pieces of woven horse hair. Their height was pro- them to pieces on the rocks beneath. Although it is portional to the dimensions of their bases, which were impossible not to suspect some degree of exaggerasometimes 30 feet square, and their height 40 or 50 tion in these statements, yet we cannot at the same feet. Sometimes their height was still greater, that time doubt, that very powerful means of this kind they might be above the walls, and even above the were employed in this celebrated siege; in which stone towers of the city. They were supported upon Archimedes, the prince of Grecian mathematicians, several small wheels, by means of which they might performed an important part, and where he at length be moved from place to place, notwithstanding their fell beneath the sword of one of the soldiers of the enormous size and weight. It was generally reckoned conqueror. that the besieged place was in eminent danger when- A more simple engine of this description is shown in ever the besiegers had succeeded in placing one of (fig. 12), it consisted of a long and strong perch, these near the walls. The helepole was supplied with armed by a strong iron crow head, and suspended on ladders, by which to mount from stage to stage, and a moveable carriage. It was employed principally for each stage presented its particular means of attack. destroying the parapets of walls, for dismantling the In the lower one there was commonly a ram ; and sides of the sheds under which the rams were worked, the middle stage, or a higher one, was furnished with and for other similar purposes. a bridge, made of mutually intersecting levers, which The telleno, fig. 13, was a machine employed for could be easily projected out, and thereby form a raising a few soldiers higher than the top of the communication between the tower and the wall. enemy's wall, to ascertain what was going on within Sometimes baskets fixed to projecting levers, carried them, and sometimes for taking possession of them, men who were let down upon the wall. On the and thus facilitating the escalade. In the former inupper stages were soldiers armed with halberts, and stance, it was formed by a great pile driven into the archers who continually played upon the besieged. ground, which served as a fulcrum, to a long lever,

Vitruvius states, that the weight of the helepolis which was placed across it, and balanced. At one of brought against Rhodes by Demetrius weighed its extremities was a light wooden, or wicker case, 260,000 lbs., and that to man and manæuvre it, cm- capable of holding a certain number of men, who ployed 3400 soldiers. (See figs. 10, 11).

when the opposite end was drawn down by cords, The Tortoise, as we have already stated, was a kind were raised so as to be enabled to look over the of moving sheet, used to defend the assailants in their walls, or to mount upon them. Others were mounted advance upon the place, these were also of great mag- on carriages, as shown in the figure. nitude. One of those employed by Cæsar, at the Such was the artillery of the ancients, or their seige of Marseilles, was 60 feet long, and served to machines of attack and defence, which the invention cover the space between the helepolis and the city of gunpowder has rendered useless and obsolete. In wall. In some instances a long rank of these was fact, few of the machines we have described are suffiplaced end to end, and served as a complete protec- ciently illustrated by the early historians, to enable tion to the soldiers. They were covered, as we have us to say with certainty that our representation is peralready said, with raw hides or with moistened horse fectly correct, and some are mentioned, of which only hair, to protect them from the fire of the besieged. the names remain. What we have given are drawn (See figs. 8, 9).

from the most authentic sources, and for most of

which we are indebted to Dr. Gregory, who has been Miscellaneous Machines.

at considerable pains in collecting them for his Of Crows (Corvi) and Cranes. As in the application lecture on the ancient artillery, delivered at the Royal of the engines last described, it was necessary for the Military Academy, and who has very obligingly besiegers to approach close under the walls of the ailowed us the perusal of his manuscript.

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