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of retaining a regard to James and his service. He had frequently disappointed the expectations of the associate Protestants, obliged them to abandon posts thought sufficiently tenable, and by an inactive and irresolute conduct, which was not attributed to any defect of courage, became generally suspected. William in his embarrassments was obliged to trust and to employ him; and, when an officer of the name of Hamilton was sent to Derry with arms, ammunition, and money, a commission from the new King was delivered to Lundy to command in the town, and to administer the oaths to all officers, civil and military. Some refused the oaths; Lundy would not consent to take them publicly, al. leging, that he had already sworn on board Hamilton's vessel. Murmurings and discontents were thus excited among the people: some prepared to abandon a city ready to be betrayed, when Cairnes, their agent, happily arrived from London, with assurances from King William, that troops and supplies were prepared for their relief, and the general service of Ireland. He conjured them by no means to desert a cause so glorious, and which must speedily prove so triumphant. They forgot their suspicions; they declared for a brave defence; the garrison was regulated ; provisions distributed; Lundy seemed to have caught the spirit of the people, and announced his resolution of marching to engage the enemy.
In such circumstances, the garrison received a new alarm, and the enemy became still more formidable. James had cast himself into the arms of the French king. Louis commiserated his fallen state, and hated William, who had just declared war against him. Preparations were made for the service of the royal exile; and James, after a mortifying attendance on the ministers, and after various difficulties and obstacles raised by their intrigues, at length effected his embarkation. He sailed from Brest, and on the 12th day of March landed at Kinsale, resolving, contrary to the sentiments of some of his adherents, to make Ireland the scene of his operations, where his party was numerous, and where he might support a brilliant appearance of royalty. At Cork, Tyrconnel appeared to congratulate his master, and expressed his zeal by ordering a magistrate to execution, who had declared for the Prince of Orange. James instantly created him a duke. In a stately progress he arrived at the capital ; and on the 24th day of the same month made his triumphal entry, followed by a splendid train of French, British, and Irish, attended by the Count d'Avaux in the character of ambassador of France, met by the magistrates, and the whole body of Popish ecclesiastics, secular and regular, in their proper habits, with the Host borne in solemn procession, and adored devoutly by the King, amidst the acclamations of those who favoured his cause, and those who could not resist his power.
Addresses were instantly poured upon him from all orders of people. That of the Protestant established clergy touched gently on the distraci tion of the times, and the grievances they had experienced. He assured them of protection and redress. To the university he was still more gracious; he promised to defend, and even to enlarge their privileges. But his fairest declarations were received with coldness and suspicion, when all the remaining Protestants of the Privy Council were removed, and their places supplied by d'Avaux, Powis, Berwick, the Bishop of Chester, and others of his zealous adherents. He now issued five several proclamations : by the first, he ordered all Protestants, who had lately abandoned the kingdom, to return and accept his protection, under the severest penalties, and that his subjects of every persuasion should unite against the Prince of Orange: the second was calculated to suppress robberies, commanding all Catholics, not of his army, to lay up their arms in their several abodes: a third invited the country to carry provisions to his troops: by the fourth he raised the value of money: and the last summoned a parliament to meet at Dublin on the 7th day of May. · After these first formal acts of sovereignty, James naturally deemed the reduction of the Northerns a peculiar object of his attention. With respect to Derry, the great seat of what in his court was called rebellion, we are told that different counsels were proposed. Some declared for sending an irresistible force, which should at once take the city by storm; others were for blocking it up, and reducing it by famine; others again for pressing it by a slow siege, so as to inure the Irish forces to fatigue and discipline, and to teach them the arts of war. Fatally for the interests of James, this last measure was adopted; but to encourage the besiegers, and to confound the stubborn insurgents, he resolved to appear in person, and lead his forces to the walls. * Among these resolute and active Northerns who took arms against Tyrconnel and his master, was George Walker, a clergyman of a Yorkshire family, and rector of a parish in the county of Tyrone. The danger and turbulence of the time, when the assistance of every man became necessary, called him forth in defence of law, liberty, and religion; and in a cause the most glorious that a citizen can espouse, he was zeal. ous and indefatigable. He raised a regiment, and commanded it. He few from post to post, conferred with the leaders, and animated the people, who were the more convinced of their danger, when a man of his peaceable profession appeared in arms. As the enemy grew more formidable by the arrival of James, he felt an increasing ardour. He hastened to Derry; he informed Lundy of the approach of this king, reminded him of his former declarations, entreated him to give the enemy battle before their whole strength was collected, and his garrison diminished. Lundy still affected vigour: as the Irish had passed the Bann, he was now to prevent them from crossing the Finn-water: he stationed his forces for this purpose; but, in the hour of danger, he refused to support them, shamefully abandoned his own post, and hid himself within the walls of Derry, shutting the gates against many of those who sought the same refuge. - In the mean time, two English colonels, Cunningham and Richards,
arrived in Lake Foyle with two English regiments. They notified their "arrival to Lundy, whose orders they were to obey, advising him to secure the passes he had already abandoned, that, if a battle should be necessary, he might engage to more advantage with their reinforcement to support him. On his return to Derry he received their letler ; his written answer directed them to land; his messenger delivered his orders, that they should leave their men on board, and come to the city with some of their officers to consult on the measures necessary in the present juncture, when there were not provisions for ten days, though all
unnecessary persons should be removed. Eleven officers from the ships and five of the town formed a council of war, in which it was readily agreed, in consequence of Lundy's representation, that the place was by no means tenable; that the English regiments should not land ; that the principal officers should privately withdraw from the town, and leave the inhabitants to make the best conditions in their power with the enemy. These resolutions were communicated to the Town Council, where it was resolved to offer terms of capitulation to James, who now advanced slowly towards the city.
These proceedings were not long a secret to the people: they saw their leaders flying, the English regiments preparing to return to Eng. land with all the provisions intended for their relief, although Lundy assured them they should land. They exclaimed against the Governor, the Council, and every suspected officer ; they roared for vengeance against their betrayers. In the phrensy of rage and terror, they slew one officer as he was hastening to escape from the city, another they wounded. In this moment of distraction, Murray, a brave and popular captain, arrived at the head of a reinforcement, and, although Lundy commanded him to retire, insisted on entering the town, and was received with acclamations. To the soldiers, who eagerly crowded around him, he inveighed against the base purpose of surrendering to a cruel and perfidious enemy, and was heard with rapture. While he expostulated with Lundy, they rushed to the walls, pointed their cannon, and fired on James and his advanced party, who approached to take pos. session of the city. While the more cautious and timid sent a deputation to apologize for this violence of a headstrong populace, they with one voice declared for defence. Governor, councils, magistrates, at once lost all authority. Lundy resigned all care of the city, and concealed himself in his own house. The garrison chose for themselves two new Governors, Walker, the gallant ecclesiastic, and one Major Baker, that if either should fall they might not be left without command. By direction of these men they were formed into eight regiments, amounting to seven thousand and twenty men, and three hundred and forty-one officers. · When the first sudden agitation had subsided, their resolution grew composed and deliberate. They suffered the timid to depart unmolested. Lundy, by connivance of the new Governors, escaped to the ships in a disguise suited to his meanness, bending under a load of match. The stores were viewed, orders issued, and obeyed with regularity ; each regiment had its own ground, each company knew its own bastion; they repaired each to their post without any military parade, but without confusion or disorder. Eighteen Clergymen of the Established church and seven Non-conformist teachers cheerfully shared the labours and dangers of the siege; and, in their turns, every day collected the people in the Cathedral church, and by the fervour of their devotions, and those strains of eloquence which their circumstances inspired, animated and inflamed their hearers. Some jealousies, however, broke out from these different religious parties, even in the hour of their common danger; and one dissenting teacher pronounced those unworthy to fight for the Protestant cause, who should refuse to take the covenant !--But the discreet and pious of both parties prevailed,
preached obedience and mutual union, and laboured to elevate the people to the utmost pitch of that devotional spirit which renders courage irresistible.
And here one might dwell with astonishment on this desperate attempt of a garrison, in a town meanly fortified and miserably supplied; and yet encumbered with 30,000 fugitives who could give them no assistance, and assailed by 20,000 besiegers. But the plain, unstudied, unadorned effusions of their brave Governor Walker rise above all elaborate description : “ It did beget (saith he) some disorder among us and confusion, when we looked about us and saw what we were doing, our enemies all about us, and our friends running away from us. A garrison we had, composed of a number of poor people frightened from their own homes, and who seemed more fit to hide themselves than to face an enemy When we considered, that we had no persons of any experience in war among us, and those very persons, that were sent to assist us, had so little confidence in the place, that they no sooner saw it but they thought fit to leave it; that we had, but few horse to sally out with, and no forage; no engineers to instruct us in our works; no fire-works, not so much as a hand grenade to annoy the enemy; not a gun well mounted in the whole town; that we had so many mouths to feed, and not above ten days provision for them in the opinion of our former Governors ; that every day several left us, and gave constant intelligence to the enemy; that they had so many opportunities to divide us, and so often endeavoured it, and to betray the Governors ; that they were so numerous, so powerful, and well appointed an army, that in all human probability we could not think ourselves in less danger than the Israelites at the Red Sea ; when we considered all this, it was obvious enough, what a dangerous undertaking we had ventured upon. But the resolution and courage of our people, and the necessity we were under, and the great confidence and dependence among us on God Almighty, that he would take care of us and preserve us, made us overlook all those difficulties.” · With minds thus possessed, they resisted both the persuasions and the assaults of their besiegers. They made their sallies in a manner unauthorized by military rules. Any officer that could be spared engaged in the adventure, and any soldiers who pleased followed his standard. Such were the repeated successes of this irregular war, that when the besiegers battered the walls, the garrison had the hardiness to advise them to spare their labour and expense, as their gates were ever open, and wider than any breach they could make. Eleven days James continued his assaults with repeated mortifications, and without any prospect of success. Impatient of his disappointments, he left the camp and returned to Dublin, peevishly exclaiming, that if his army had been English they would have brought him the town piece-meal. The only exploit performed in his Northern expedition was that of reducing the fort of Culmore, and this he was suspected to have achieved by the help of money.
The garrison of Derry still continued to defeat all the attempts of their besiegers, and to harass them by successful sallies. But they were soon threatened with more terrible enemies, disease and famine. The heats of summer proved even pestilential to men fatigued and confined, and their scanty and unwholesome diet inflamed their disorders. In the heaviness of their affliction, and their melancholy forebodings, they discovered in Lake Foyle thirty ships, which they doubted not had been sent to their relief from England. These indeed contained troops, arms, ammunition, and provisions, under the command of Kirk; but Kirk was too inuch hardened against the distresses of his fellow creatures to make any hazardous attempt in favour of the garrison. He was alarmed at magnificent accounts of the force and dispositions of an enemy, who were cast into consternation at his appearance. He hesitated, and returned no cheerful answer to the signals of the besieged. The enemy, encouraged by this irresolution, prepared to oppose his passage. Their batteries were planted, and their forces ranged on each side the lake where it grew narrow towards the city, and from two opposite forts they stretched a boom across the water, formed of strong timber, joined by iron chains, and strengthened by thick cables.
The fleet, to which the garrison looked for relief, set sail and disappeared. With great difficulty, and after repeated disappointments, they at length received the afflicting intelligence from Kirk, that, as he found it impossible to force a passage by the river for his stores and victuals, he had sailed round to Lake Swilly, if by any means he might give some diversion to the enemy, and send supplies to the Protestant forces collected at Enniskillen. He comforted them, at the same time, with an assurance that he would still relieve them; that more forces were hourly expected from England ; that both there and in Scotland, affairs were entirely favourable to the new government; that, by the intelligence he had gained, the besiegers could not long continue to invest them; advising them, at the same time, “to be good husbands of their provisions.” From this advice they drew a melancholy presage of all their future sufferings. · Every day the garrison was lessened by disease, and the wretched survivors more and more enfeebled by fatigue and hunger. Baker, one of their Governors, died; they chose an officer of the name of Mitchelburn, to succeed him. When numbers of them were scarcely able to support their arms, they threatened death to any one who should mention a surrender. General Hamilton endeavoured to move them by persuasion; they reproached him with his own treachery, Rosen, who was sent to command the siege, and conducted it with vigour and address, thundered out dreadful menaces against them; and thus, by convincing them that no mercy was to be expected, confirmed their resolution. Outrageous at this obstinacy, he declared, that if the town were not surrendered by the 1st day of July, all of their faction through the whole country to Ballyshannon, Charlemont, Belfast, Ennishowen, protected and unprotected alike, should be given up to plunder, and driven under their walls, there to perish, unless relieved by a surrender of the town. The appointed day arrived, but the garrison continued their defence. On the next morning a confused multitude was seen hurrying towards the walls. At a distance they were mistaken for enemies; the garrison fired on them, but happily without any damage to the thousands of miserable Protestants, of all ages and