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to wealth. So far as equality of style prevails in London society it may be said, in general, to be the result rather of slavery to fashion than of pride, and often of fear of causing disappointment. I have heretofore touched upon what I conceive to be its disadvantages. It is pity that, with the enjoyment of more political liberty than any other nation, we should make ourselves the slaves of so many absurd customs and fashions, and that, with courage enough against a foreign enemy, we should display such cowardice at home. It is to be hoped that in time we shall be able to do as we please, domestically as well as politically, provided we cause no inconvenience to others. At present, with a great deal that is reasonable, we live under a combination of restraints.
SAYINGS. In order to enjoy the present, it is necessary to be intent on the present. To be doing one thing, and thinking of another, is a very unsatisfactory mode of spending life. Some people are always wishing themselves somewhere but where they are, or thinking of something else than what they are doing, or of somebody else than to whom they are speaking. This is the way to enjoy nothing, to do nothing well, and to please nobody. It is better to be interested with inferior persons and inferior things than to be indifferent with the best. A principal cause of this indifference is the adoption of other people's tastes instead of the cultivation of our own,-the pursuit after that for which we are not fitted, and to which, consequently, we are not in reality inclined. This folly pervades, more or less, all classes, and arises from the error of building our enjoyment on the false foundation of the world's opinion, instead of being, with due regard to others, each our own world. The hunters after the world's opinion lose themselves in diffusion of society and pursuits, and do not care for what they are doing, but for what will be thought of what they are doing: whereas, compactness and independence are absolute essentials to happiness, and compactness and independence are precisely the two things which the generality of mankind most of all neglect, or even frequently study to destroy.
Temperance makes the faculties clear, and exercise makes them vigorous; it is temperance and exercise united, that can alone ensure the fittest state for mental or bodily exertion.
THE ART OF ATTAINING HIGH HEALTH—(continued.) Having finished what I had to say on the subject of dinners, which I consider as an essential part of my articles on health,
I proceed to the few remaining topics I mean to touch upon. The first I shall take is exercise. Upon this depends vigour of body, and if the mind can be vigorous without, it can be much more so with it. The efficacy of exercise depends upon the time, the quantity, and the manner. The most invigorating time, I should say from experience, is decidedly that during the freshness of the morning air, and before breakfast; but this will not do for invalids, or persons of very weak constitutions, though many underrate their own powers, and think that that is weakness which is only the effect of habit. They should try their strength by degrees, taking moderate doses of exercise at first, and after a small quantity of food, or, what I have before recommended, a few drops of the spirit of lavender on a lump of sugar, the efficacy of which, in preventing faintness or a distressing craving, is great. A few drops of lavender, and a short walk or gentle ride on a fine morning, will give a real appetite to beginners, which may tempt them to persevere till they can perform with ease and pleasure what would have distressed them exceedingly, or been wholly impracticable in the first instance. I always observe, that being well braced by morning exercise produces an effect that lasts the whole day, and it gives a bloom to the countenance, and causes a general glow, which exercise at no other time can. I have heretofore spoken at large of taking exercise with reference to meals, both before and after. As to the other parts of the day besides morning, the time most fit for exercise must depend greatly upon the season. In the depth of winter it is good to catch as much sun as possible, and in the heat of summer to pursue the opposite course. The coldest parts of the day, as a rule, are just before sunrise and sunset, especially the former, and I believe they are the most unwholesome to take exercise in. The French, who observe rules respecting health more strictly than we do, are particularly cautious about sunset, on account of the vapour which usually rises at that time, and which they call le serein. The morning air just before sunrise is often, even in warm weather, dreadfully chilly and raw, but there is no great danger of people in general exposing themselves to it. It is different at sunset, and it is then well to be on one's guard, especially if there is any feeling of damp; and particular care should be taken not to rest after exercise, or to do anything to check perspiration at that time, from which the most dangerous, and often fatal, maladies originate. Though I think the fresh morning air is the most invigorating in its effects, there is no period when I have felt actually so much alacrity and energy, as when taking exercise, either on foot or horseback, at the dead of night, providing the night is clear and dry, and most especially during a fine frost. The body and mind seem to me to be more in unison under such circumstances than at any other time; and I suppose from such effects that exercise must then be wholesome, but I think it should be after a generous meal, taken some time before. I have mentioned this effect of the night air in a former number, when speaking of digestion. Persons of different constitutions must judge for themselves at what periods of the day exercise best suits them, but taking care, I must repeat, not to confound the nature of the constitution with the force of habit. The best tests that they are right, will be keenness of appetite, lightness of digestion, and consequent buoyancy of spirits.
No. XXIV.-WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 28, 1835.
LIBERTY. LIBERTY is a super-excellent thing, very much talked about, and very little understood, generally least of all by those who make the most noise about it; indeed, I should say, it is an unerring rule, that a noisy advocate for liberty is never a sincere
Noise comes of ignorance, interest or passion ; but the true love of liberty dwells only in the bosoms of the pure and reasonable.
Licence they mean, when they cry liberty.;
For who loves that, must first be wise and good. The vital maxim of the worshippers of liberty is the Christian one-Let us do unto others as we would they should do unto us; all else who profess their devotion, are tyrants in disguise, which disguise they throw off the moment they attain the power against which they have been exclaiming. The essence of liberty is division and order, and its preserving principle, self-government. In proportion as this combination is perfect, the state of liberty will be perfect. The ignorant cannot keep this in view, and the designing will not; in consequence of which, instead of the readaptation of sound principles as circumstances require, they are frequently abandoned, and expedients of a contrary tendency introduced, sometimes with specious effect in the first instance, but with certain evil eventually. The present times are peculiarly illustrative of this, in the desire manifested to adopt the centralization, and ochlocratic or mob principles. The centralization principle is the exact opposite of the principle of division, under which last the nation grew to be what it is; and its in
requires a re-adaptation to continue its glory, instead of an abandonment to destroy it. The ochlocratic or mob principle,
though it may appear to be founded on the principle of selfgovernment, is virtually the reverse, and for this reason, that its tendency is to throw the management of affairs into the hands of a few, and those the most unworthy; whilst apathy and disgust keep the best as much aloof, as if they were by law excluded from interference. This is an inevitable result in the long run. It is witnessed continually in ochlocratically organized parishes and corporations, and has, from the first, been visible in different degrees in the new overgrown parliamentary constituencies. The excitement of the moment is producing a partial activity, but which is factitious, and not essential. The cumbrous machines will only be towed into action by party steamers, in the shape of clubs and associations, and, in ordinary times, will be completely water-logged, while corruption and misrule will gradually creep in undisturbed. It will require far more statesman-like contrivances to draw men from their business, their pleasure, and their ease, and induce them sufficiently to interest themselves in public affairs to keep public affairs in their proper course.
The spirit of party will not accomplish this.
Zealots in liberty are apt to suppose that it consists entirely in independence of all government; that is, that the less power is lodged with government, the more freedom is left to the citizens. But the most perfect state of liberty consists in the most complete security of person and property, not only from government, but from individuals ; and in this point of view, I apprehend, liberty is enjoyed to far greater extent in England than in any other country in the world. In this point of view, honesty and peaceable behaviour are essential to the enjoyment of liberty. Robbery, fraud, assassination, murder, assault, even exposure to duels, are all destructive of a state of liberty; and, taking exemption from these evils, as well as from any arbitrary interference on the part of government, I cannot doubt but that the balance is greatly in our favour, though we have great room for improvement. If in any other country there is greater security from individual invasion of person or property, it is enjoyed at an annoying and dangerous sacrifice of public liberty, for which there can be no compensation. Besides, as in despotic countries there is no publicity as there is in this, it is doubtful whether appearances are not often contrary to the reality. For instance, it has latterly been discovered, contrary to all former supposition, that there are more suicides, in proportion to population, in Paris than in London ; and I will add, though it has nothing to do with my subject, that there are more in London in July than in November, which is contrary to all former supposition also. Whether a man has his pocket picked by a sharper, or by an
oppressive impost; whether his plate or jewels are seized by an order of government, or are carried away by a housebreaker ; whether his estate is cleared of its game by the king's purveyor, or by a gang of poachers; or whether he is confined to his house after a certain hour by a regulation of police, or by the fear of being robbed or murdered, -in neither predicament can he be said to enjoy perfect liberty, which consists in security of person and property, without molestation or restraint, provided there is no molestation or restraint of others. To attain this liberty, strong government is necessary, but strong without being vexatious, and the only form is that which, in the true spirit of our constitution, consists of a simple supreme government, presiding over and keeping duly organized a scale of self-governments below it. It is by moral influence alone that liberty, as I have just defined it, can be secured, and it is only in self-governments that the proper moral influence exists. In proportion as the supreme government takes upon itself the control of local affairs, apathy, feebleness, and corruption will creep in, and our increasing wealth, which should prove a blessing, will only hasten our ruin. I refer those who interest themselves in this subject, to the article on the Principles of Government in my first number, and to my different articles on Parochial Government. I intend, ere long, to consider the forms of government most applicable to towns and counties.
THE ART OF ATTAINING HIGH HEALTH-(continued.) Having treated in my last number of the times for taking exercise, I proceed to the consideration of the proper quantity. The qnantity of exercise desirable depends upon constitution, time of life, occupation, season, and kind and degree. I am unable to say with precision what kinds of constitution require the most exercise. Persons in health, of compact or light frame, seem the best adapted to take a great deal with benefit to themselves. Weakly and heavy people are generally distressed by much exertion; but then it is difficult to distinguish what is the effect of habit, and what of natural constitution. Those who appear to be weak, often make themselves strong by a ji dicious course of management, and the heavy frequently improve astonishingly in activity, by good training. One thing may be taken as certain, and that is, that it is wise to go on by degrees, and to increase the quantity of exercise as it is found to be beneficial ; the best tests of which, are keenness of appetite and soundness of sleep. Over-exercise ought always to be avoided ; but that often depends more upon the manner than the quantity. The same