and dirty court about two o'clock in the morning, we heard a loud laugh from a room in which there were lights. We were informed by the officer who accompanied us, that it was called the painted chamber, from the walls being covered with rude drawings, principally, as I recollect, of ships and portraits. In the room were about eight beds, in each of which was a man with a lighted candle over his head, and a pipe in his mouth, enjoying and contributing to the wit of the party. After talking with them for some time we left them to their mirth. These men were by profession beggars, and were the choice spirits of their order—no doubt as much exclusives as the most select circles in the west. It can only be in a neglected state of society that talent can be so degraded.

SAYINGS. Many people are dreadfully shocked at anything like insolence. It does not affect me at all, but I have a horror of servility. The former often partakes of the nature of independence; the latter always of that of meanness.

I do not mind a man not taking off his hat to me; but one that will not put it


in spite of all I can say, is a great annoyance. I do not dislike a little vanity ; it is ever an ingredient in the composition of agreeableness. But humility makes me shudder, as being a sort of reptile that I am always afraid of treading upon ; besides, like many other reptiles, it is very venomous at times. There is a sweetish, pulpy manner, which I have observed uniformly covers, both in men and women, a bitter kernel. What I most depend upon is a sort of slow, substantial, John Bullish civility.

Few men ever enjoyed marked popular favour for their own merits, but out of opposition to others. The English ladies, who during the war had the bad taste to place Bonaparte's bust in their houses, did it not out of admiration for him, but out of hatred to those who were opposing him.

HORRORS OF WAR. The letter from which the annexed extract is made came accidentally into my hands. It is from an officer to his brother-inlaw. Having shown it to a friend of mine, it appeared in the · Times' newspaper, in 1830, with the following preface :“ Though the following extract refers to an event of no very recent date, yet there is something so characteristic in its military bluntness and simplicity, and so impressive in its powerful but unaffected description of the horrors of war, that our readers will, we dare say, not think their time wasted in perusing it.”

“Camp near Bhurtpore, Feb. 7, 1826. 6 The Jauts profess to neither give nor receive quarter, and the most horrible sight I ever saw was the following day of the storm: I went round the walls, and found five or six thousand of the garrison lying dead—the artillery-men under their guns, which they had never thought of quitting—the sepoys strewed in every direction, so as to make it difficult to pass without treading on a body. A soldier's blood by this time is as cool as yours, Jack, and you may judge of my feelings by your own, when I tell you that at each gateway there were five or six hundred carcasses, lying one upon another in all the attitudes of death you can imagine a human being to exhibit on such an occasion ; and as in sudden death the countenance retains the expression of the last moments of feeling, you might read defiance, fear, resignation, and fury in the same assemblage. The expression of agony and pain was beyond description. These gallant soldiers wore a dress made like an Englishwoman's warm winter pelisse, of two pieces of coloured calico, and stuffed with raw cotton and quilted, which garment was intended to serve the double purpose of warmth and armour, as a sword would not cut through. In consequence, when our people came in close contact with them at those gateways where the enemy could retreat no further, their dress caught fire, and as hundreds fell one upon the other many were burnt both of the wounded and the dead. I was so horror-struck that I could have knelt down, resigned my cominission, and forsworn war in all its circumstances; and I am not very squeamish either, for I have seen many horrible sights in my time, but none like this."

ADDRESS TO LABOURERS. The following address to a number of pauperised labourers (taken from the Appendix to my pamphlet on Pauperism) was written with a view to particular application, but owing to circumstances was never made use of. It was intended for the commencement of an improvement of system. I insert it here principally for the purpose of inculcating what I conceive to be right notions into the minds of those who, with the best intentions, are apt to mislead the labouring classes, and to uphold them in courses most detrimental to their welfare.

I wish to talk to you a little about your condition, which I would willingly help you to mend.

You ought to be better fed, better clothed, and better lodged. Every labourer in the land should be able to earn sufficient

I dare say you

wages to procure himself a constant supply of comfortable clothing and nourishing food; he ought to have the means of bringing up his children decently, and of teaching them what is suitable to their condition; he should be able to provide against the common accidents and sicknesses of life, and also to lay by a sufficient store to maintain his old age in comfort.

All this he should be able to do by his own industry. There are many things to be considered, and many things to be done, in order to bring about this change. Let us begin with considering parish relief, what it is, and what effect it produces. There is nothing which concerns you more. think parish relief is something in addition to wages. You are mistaken—it is chiefly a part of wages, but given in a manner most hurtful to those who receive and those who pay. I will try to make this matter plain to you. Let us suppose there to be two parishes, each containing twenty farms and one hundred labourers, and suppose the labour of each man to cost the farmer 28. a-day; but that in one parish the labourer only receives 1s. 6d., the 6d. being kept back and put into a fund, to be paid to him

upon certain conditions. Suppose, also, that in the other parish at the end of each week each man receives for each day he has worked his full wages of 2s., and suppose that he has nothing farther to look to. You understand, as he does his work, he receives the whole of his wages of 2s. a-day; and upon his

wages alone he is to depend in sickness and in health, whether he has work or whether he has none, and for the maintenance of his family, whether large or small, and in his old age he is to have nothing to look to but the savings of his youth. Let us see how it is likely he will conduct himself. As he has good wages he will be able to live well and to work hard ;* now, as there is nothing so good for health as hard work with good living, he will seldom lose any time from sickness, or be at any expense for the doctor. As he will have no pay if he cannot get work, he will take care to keep a good character and satisfy his employer. As he will have no allowance for a large family, he will not marry till a reasonable time, and will most likely look out for a wife like himself, who can work hard and manage well. As he knows the comforts of his old age must depend entirely upon the prudence of his early years, he will constantly be laying by part of his wages ; and as a steady man generally keeps his strength long, he will be able to save enough to spend his latter days in ease and independence. In such a parish is not this the way that people would generally go on?

* This was written in a country where living is very cheap and wages low.


Lerici, January 16, 1822. Yesterday we travelled on horseback all day over wild and barren mountains, the road often very steep and rugged; but where it would permit we generally went at full gallop. We changed horses at every post, and a man, meant for a postilion, though perfectly unlike our idea of one, rode before us. The cattle and furniture were of the most curious description-rather of a beggarly description, or rather, they beggar description ; however, the beasts get along and are much safer than they look. A priest, and a lady riding astride, or rather sitting on the top of her horse with one foot on each side, as is the manner here, accompanied us part of the way. The felucca arrived this morning with our carriage ; but because the captain had taken a passenger on board who was not mentioned in his papers, a council of health deliberated before it could be landed. You have no idea how strict they are on this coast, for fear of infection.

Florence, February 2nd. I do not like Florence as a city so much as I expected; but the statues and paintings are above all praise. I idolize the Venus, and go to worship her almost every morning. There is an air of divinity about her, which did not break in upon me till after repeated contemplation, and which, I dare say, the many never discover at all, though they praise her as if they did. Pieced, restored, discoloured, what must she have been when fresh from the sculptor's chisel ?—On Thursday we went to a grand ball, given by the Prince Borghese, Bonaparte's brotherin-law, on the opening of his palace, after a complete refitting. He is the richest man in Florence. All the best people here, both natives and foreigners, with many ladies from Sienna and Bologna, were present. The vestibule was filled with orange trees, so as to form a delicious grove for the company to pass through, and the staircase was lined with beautiful plants and flowers, amongst which was a profusion of the finest lilies of the valley I ever saw. There were sixteen rooms open, all newly and superbly decorated. The ball-room, which is large, lofty, and well proportioned, is lined, as far as is seen, with mirrors, partially concealed by pink and white silk hangings. The ceiling is newly painted with the triumph of Scipio. The whole was most brilliantly lighted, the music excellent, and the company in their best. The Englishmen were superior in appearance to the Englishwomen—the contrary as to the Florentines. The Italian ladies dress beautifully, especially the head. Indeed this is truly the land of taste, and I never saw such a display of it as the other

night, in many particulars. Several of the Italian women were very fine-looking-two beautiful ; one so much so, that she was constantly the centre of a circle of gazers, in which situation custom, I suppose, had made her perfectly, but becomingly, at her ease. I preferred the other, from a nameless something in her appearance, and I was glad to learn that, though of high rank and great riches, her fame is as fair as her person-a very singular case here. I am happy to say my companion was the most elegant man in the room by much, and I think the most gentleman-like dancer. The Italians do not appear to me to dance well, and, what surprised me, I observed several out of time.

Italian horses do not well understand English riding, and many are the accidents in consequence. I was one of a party the other day in the Cascine, or Hyde Park, of Florence, when it was proposed to charge a ditch. The foremost horse fell, and in rising contrived to drive in with his forefoot the lower part of his rider's

's nose, so as in appearance utterly to annihilate it. He was horribly disfigured ; and as he is a young and gay fellow, when he felt the full extent of the injury, he was naturally a good deal affected. He had all our sympathies. Two of us galloped off for medical assistance, and the rest put him into a carriage, which a Russian nobleman lent on the occasion. By the time the patient arrived, in our zeal we had collected five doctors, surgeons, and apothecaries, English and Italian, but happily little remained for them to do. During his melancholy progress, accompanied by one of the party, the sufferer, by an irresistible impulse, kept applying his hand to the part affected, till most unexpectedly, and precisely after the manner of the toy called Jack-in-the-box, the nose started into its proper place again, and at the same instant despair was converted into extravagant joy. This accident has had the effect of making us rather more careful hitherto, which may contribute to the safety of others, as well as our own. A few days since, in making a sharp turn quick, I was very near riding over the Grand Duke, who was walking with his family. Such things, which might be attended with unpleasant consequences to natives, are overlooked in the English; partly, I suppose, from consideration of our national character, and partly, no doubt, from motives of interest. I must give you another little anecdote of the hero of the nose. One day, when a party of us had sat at table till after midnight, he sallied forth alone, and “ hot with the Tuscan grape.” Apprehensive of the consequences, I followed him, and found him on one of the bridges over the Arno, engaged with a solitary Frenchman, with

The whom he was insisting upon having a boxing match. Frenchman, with the instinctive horror of his nation of an

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