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of, 94

found an academy in England, 487 troversy respecting, cxxxv. 14;
(see Academy, Royal) ; self-educa- the 'George Ludwig MS.,' ib., 18;
tion of, 493

Eastern Turkestan, 20; early
Artois (Count d'). See Charles X. Christian communities in, 23–27 ;
Arts, Society of, first exhibition of sorceries and jugglery, ib.; mediæ-

British painters in 1760, cxviii. 487 val legends, 30
Arundel (Thomas Howard, Earl of,

prospects of Russian com-
d. 1646), his collection of gems, merce with, cxxxix. 325, 326;
cxxiv. 519, 520

English trade with, viá India, 327,
Arundell of Wardour, Lords, family 330. See Toorkistan, Eastern

names preserved in London streets, Asôka (d. B.C. 226), his history
cxxxi. 183

illustrated by Buddhist inscrip-
Aryans, their place in Indian eth- tions, cxxii. 379; Sir E. Perry's
nology, cxxx. 496

history of, ib. 382
Aryan language, the term explained, Aspirate, the, misuse of, on early
cxv. 85; stages in the growth Christian epitaphs at Rome, cxx.

235
mythology, Mr. Cox's work Assam, discovery of tea-plantations
on, cxxxii. 330; the compara- in, cxix. 102; the “Assam Com-
tive theory criticised, 333; con- pany' formed, 103
nexion of, with Greek myths, 341 ; Assaye, battle of, the battle-field
the theory applies to “Othello,' described, cxxii. 375
347

Assent, definitions of, by Dr. New-
Asceticism, its idea of the spiritual man and Locke, cxxxii. 397, 398;

efficacy of physical pain, cxx. 108 compared with Inference, ib.;
Ascham (Roger, 1515-1508) on the absolute character of, 399

study of grammar, cxx. 178; and Assi, Communist leader in 1871,
of Latin composition, 179

cxxxiv. 535; his character and
his sketch of Charles V., antecedents, 536
cxxxii. 77

Assignats, extravagant issue of, by
Asconius Pedianus (Quintus, first the French Convention, cxviii.

century), MS. of, found by Poggio, 132; the Maximum,' ib.
cxxxvii, 72

Assignment, convict system of, in
Ased (d. 828), his character, cxvi. Australia, cxxi. 353

360; commands the Muesulman Assisi, Giotto's frescoes at, cxxii. 89
expedition to Sicily, 364 ; his Assurance (Life), effects of deprecia-
death before Syracuse, 366

tion of currency on, cxii. 29
Ashantees, the, Mr. Bowdich's mis- Assyrian Empire, the, inconsistencies

sion to, cxxxviii. 575; article in the history of, cxi. 56; rela-
thereon in vol. xxxii. referred to, tions with Babylonia, 61; date of
ib.; the treaty of 1817, ib.; Coo- its commencement, 62 ; removals
massie at that time, ib.; present of the capital, 63; the Babylonian
war with, 576, 588. See Gold revolt, 64
Coast

Assyria, astrological system derived
Asia, irregular geographical know- from, cxvi. 99
ledge of, cxii. 313

Assyrians, Mr. Rawlinson's conjec-
disturbing effects of European tural history of, cxxv. 114; union
intervention in, cxxii. 177, 179 of the Chaldæan kingdom, ib.;
Asia (Central), geographical con- restoration of ancient monarchy

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at Babylon, ib.; fictitious chronology of Berosus, 120; royal names, 123; imperfect evidence of inscriptions, 125, 126; M. Gutschmid's method of chronology, 127, 128; Greek historians of, 141; rise of the Empire, 142; chaotic state of subsequent annals, 143; inscription of Tiglathpileser I., 144; his successors, ib., 149; Scythian irruption, 150; traditions of the fall of the empire, 151; extent of their

civilisation, 153 Astbury, reveals the secret of Eler's

pottery-work, cxxvi. 211; bis

improvements in pottery, 212 Astrology, Assyrian system of, cxvi. 99

Italian belief in, in the sixteenth century, cxxx. 32 Astronomer Royal, origin of the

office, cxl. 94; various holders thereof, ib.-98; long average

length of service, 99 Astronomy, different views of the

science of, cxvi. 80; its bearing on ancient chronology, 82; theories in ancient Greece, 91; speculative views of, opposed by Socrates, 92. See Lewis, Sir G. C.

its precedence in Comte's hierarchy of sciences, cxxvii. 327

bearings of recent researches in, on geology, cxxxi. 54; doctrine of elemental identity of heavenly

bodies, 63 * Atavism,' recent theory of, in rela

tion to heredity, cxxxii. 119 Athanasian Creed, permissive read

ing of, advocated, cxiii. 20;" Essays

and Reviews' on, 494 Athanasius (Saint, of Alexandria,

296-373), persecution of, by the Arians, cxiii. 467

impulse given by him to monasticism, cxiv. 329 Athanasius (made Patriarch of Con

stantinople in 1289), his quarrel

Atlantic telegraphs, hasty construc

tion of the first cable, cxiii. 127; unsuccessful attempts to lay it, 128; the expedition renewed in 1858, 130; the Queen's message to the President, 132; causes of failure, 133

early history of,cxxxii. 229, 233; recovery of the 1865 cable,

234, 236. Atomic theory, the foundation of

modern chemistry, cxxxiii. 156; its method of research, ib. -158; new modes of analysis, ib.; applied

to gases, 159 Attainder, Acts of, early instances of,

cxxv. 88 Atterbury (Francis, Bishop of

Rochester, 1662-1731), his attempted vindication of Convocation as a spiritual Parliament, cxl.

430 'Auchterarder Case,' the, cxl. 277 Auckland (William Eden, 1st Lord,

1745-1814), his 'Journal and Correspondence,' Vols. I. II., cxiii. 360; confidential adviser of Lord North, 367; his daring change of Irish policy, ib.; active part in the Coalition, 369; vice-treasurer of Ireland, 370; his knowledge of finance, ib. ; negotiates the commercial treaty with France, 371 ; ib.; his death, 273 ; regarded as a
scientific naturalist, ib. ; plates in
his Birds of America,' 274; care-

ful editorship of his works, 275
Augustine (Saint, 354-430), on the

doctrinal authority of miracles,
cxiii. 486

his opinion of polygamy,

cxv. 206

his free-trade principles, 372 ;
ambassador at Madrid, 373; ap-
pointed to the Hague, 378; his sub-
ordinate position in the ministry,

384; character of his letters, 385
Auckland (Lord), his · Journal and

Correspondence,' Vols. III. IV.,
edited by the Bishop of Bath and
Wells,cxvi. 113; conduct regarding
Miss Eden and Pitt, 119; on Tithe
Commutation, 130; his scheme
for the partition of France, 140;

his Irish intrigues, 150
Audley (Sir Thomas), his house in

London, cxxxi. 175
Audran (Gerard, 1640-1703), his

work on the proportions of the

human figure, cxl. 185, 186
Audubon (John James, 1780-1851),

Life and Adventurers of, edited
by Mr. Buchanan, cxxxii. 250;
his personal appearance, ib.; paren-
tage, ib. ; early love of nature,
251; bird collections in youth,
252; at Mr. Bakewell's, ib.; his
marriage, 254; sojourn at Louis-
ville, ib.; meeting with the poet
Wilson, 255; removal to the Mis-
sissippi, 256; adventures with
Indians, 257 ; business troubles,
258; devotion to hunting and
birds, ib. ; introduced to Rafin-
isque, 259; his fluctuating for-
tunes, 260; interview with Lucien
Buonaparte, 262; turns dancing-
master, 263; bis kind reception at
Liverpool, ib. ; his pictures ex-
hibited, ib. ; at Edinburgh, 264;
loss of his ringlets, 265; meeting
with Sir T. Lawrence, ib.; in
London, ib. ; visit to Paris, 266;
Cuvier's eulogy of his · Birds,
267; returns to America, ib.; re-
visits England with his wife, 268;
again returns to America, ib.; hur-
ricane off Florida, 269; birds of
Labrador, 271 ; relations with
Rothschild, 272; his last 'great
journey' to the Western Prairie,

on the importance of study-
ing the meaning of the Gospels,

cxix. 588.
Augustus (Cresar, Roman Emperor,

B.C. 63-A.D. 13), his share in the
reconstruction of society, cxxix.
85; survey of the empire in his
time, ib.; bis uncontrolled power,
87; his system necessary for the
time, 93

his palace at Rome, cxxxv.
306
Aumale (Duc d'), his · Histoire des

Princes de Condé, pendant les
XVI. et XVII. Siècles,' Vols.
I. II., cxxx. 355 ; arbitrary
seizure of his proof-sheets, ib. ;
his patriotic spirit, ib.; literary
merits, 356 ; unconscious partisan-
ship in the Huguenot insurrection,
366; reflections on Coligny, 371;
his estimate of the first Prince of
Condé, 377; his sketch of Henry
I. of Conde, 343; estimate of
Henry IV. in 1610, 388; his mas-

terly narrative, 389
Aurelius Antoninus (Marcus, Roman

Emperor, 121-180), his simple

habits, cxix. 56
Aureole, early use of, round the

head of saints, cxxxi. 225
Aurignac (France), sepulchral cave

discorered at, cxviii. 283; cxxxii.

460
Aurora Borealis, its connexion with

magnetic disturbance, cxxxvi. 420

note.
Aurungzebe (Emperor of Hindoos-

tan, 1614–1707), his burial-place,
cxxii. 374

Austerlitz, battle of (1805), Napo

leon's pride in his victory, cxxiii. 113, 114; Baron Ambert's account of, ib. ; later influence of French

tactics at, 115 Austin (John, 1790-1859), his 'Pro

vince of Jurisprudence determined,' cxiv. 456 ; his quiet and solitary career, 460; his wide grasp of mind, 461; his original design unfinished, ib.; vastness of his scheme, 462; definitions of leading terms, 463 ; his precision of thought, 467 ; on the four branches of law, ib.; definition of •Right,' 468; on the notion of Sovereignty, 470; on Liberty and Justice, 472 ; his work compared to Butler's Analogy,' 473; laborious exactness of his style a difficulty to readers, 474; bis analytical method, 480

his lectures at the London University, cxviii. 162; his . Lectures and Fragment on the Study of Jurisprudence,' 439; his power of precise thought, ib.; educational value of his labours, ib.; his genius compared with that of Bentham, 440; the logic of law his special subject, 441 ; supplementary character of his present work, ib.; his treatment of positive law compared with that of Mr. Maine, 442, 443; bis principles founded on the Roman law, 445; clearness of his juristical conceptions, 448; his lectures incomplete, ib. ; his first drafts and finished performances, ib. 449; tension of mind required by his precise style, ib.; his Province of Jurisprudence' a definition of Law, ib.; on the Laws of God, 450 ; on the notions involved in Duties and Rights, 452 ; bis definition of a legal right, ib.; his negative definition of Rights criticised, 453; on fiduciary rights, 16.-455;

his definition of Wrongs, ib, ; on the sources of Law, 456, 457; on the fallacies attached to customary law, ib.; on the Jus Gentium, 459; on the origin of the term Equity, 460; on statute and judiciary law, 463-467 ; on the evils of judicial legislation, ib.; on codification, ib., 470; on the Law of Persons and of Things, 471 ; his definition of quasi-contracts, 473; division of Rights into Primary and Sanctioning, ib. 474; outline of his distribution of the field of law, ib.; his treatment of Property and Easement, ib. ; his groundwork of Rights criticised, 476; objections to his distribution of Wrongs and Remedies, 477; incompleteness of his labours, 480; his language clear and vigorous, ib., 481; harsh epithets not due to acrimony, ib. ; his appreciation of

great qualities in other writers, 482 Austin (John), his return to London

from Bonn, cxxxix. 116; influence of German literature and society, ib. ; progress of toleration and definite faith in his later years, 117

(Mrs., wife of preceding, 1793-1867), her kindness to J. S.

Mill, cxxxix. 116 Australia, gold-fields of, cxii. 8; first

English settlers in, 326; ignorance of its interior, 327; existence of a central desert, ib.; will probably remain a Coast empire, 328; settlement on the northern coast desirable, ib.

difficulties of Church union in, cxii. 6

military defence of, cxv. 110; prospects of cotton culture, 482

narratives of expeditions in, cxvi. 1 : rapid progress of occupation, 3; first settlements, 4; want of water, ib.; river explorations, 5; theory of an inland sea, 5; Captain Sturt's expedition, ib.; the Mur

com-

rumbidgee explored, 6; discovery
of the river Murray, 7; settlement
of South Australia, 8; Major
Mitchell's expeditions, 9; the
sonth-east group of settlements,
10; mountain ranges, ib. ; Count
Strzelecki's explorations, ib.; Swan
River Settlement, 13; Captain
Grey's expedition, 14; occupation
of Australia Felix, 17; Mr. Eyre's
Northern Exploring Expedition,
18; exploration of the interior,
27; Dr. Leichhardt's expedition,
35 ; Sir T. Mitchell, 36; question
of an overland route to the Gulf
of Carpentaria, 37; tragedy at
York peninsula, 38; disaster on
the Victoria River, 40; efforts of
Adelaide at extension, 43; pro-
blems of exploration, ib.; charac-

ter of Central Australia, 45
Australia, its coast-range described,

cxvii. 90; volcanic action in, 97;
gold-mining operations, 105. See
Victoria

intercolonial jealousies in,
cxviii. 307; rival claims of New
South Wales and Queensland,
308; proposed colony of Capri-
cornia, 310; extension of local
self-government, 311 and note;
protest against threatened renewal
of transportation to, 312; its capa-
bilities for cereal crops, 314, 315
note; winding course of its rivers,
317; its water-system vindicated,
318; Australian and American
squatters compared, 320; sources
of society in, 321; progress of
sheep-farming, ib.; squatting re-
gulations, 323; immense conces-
sions to squatters, 324; their
monopoly of land, ib.; discovery
of gold, 325; changes in the land
system, 330; auction system abo-
lished, ib.; recent progress of ex-
ploration, 331 ; salubrious climate
of, 334 ; white and coloured labour
in, 335

Australia, effect of human agency on

animal and vegetable life in, cxx.
496, 497

physical features
pared with America, cxxi. 350;
early convict settiements in, 351 ;
military despotism in, 354; the
squatter class, ib. ; growth of aris-
tocratic government, 355; the
franchise, 356, 357 ; immigration
for gold, ib.; popular grievances,
358; representative government
introduced, 359; vote by ballot,
360; constitution of the Upper
House, 364; impediments to popu-
lar legislation, 365; primary edu-
cation, 366; rivalry under the
denominational system, 367 ; libe-
rality of the Legislature, 368;
uniformity introduced, ib.; high
school system, 369; universities,
ib. ; public works, 370; telegraphic
system, 371; water-supplies, 372;
the Civil Service, 373; home-
defence, 374; prosperity of the
gold-fields, 375; increase of reve-
nue, ib.; sources of income, 376;
want of unpaid officials, 378;
constitutional home-ties, 379;
question of independence, 380;
tendencies adverse to Federation,
ib. ; value of home connexion,
381; position of the Governor, ib.;
experiment of self-government, 382

the Irish in, cxxvii. 524, 525

first visits to, by Europeans,
cxxviii. 232

Mr. Dilke on the physical
condition of Europeans in, cxxix.
465; Protectionist policy in, 466;
resistance to Chinese immigration,
468; scarcity of women in, 472;
healthy vigour of political life in,
473; love of social enjoyment, ib.;
attachment to English forms and
fashions, 474

Mr. Huxley's theory of a
primæval Australoid' race, cxxxir.
224, 227

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