Alphonso (Henriques, King of Por-

tugal). See Alfonso
Alpine Club, the, its vitality and
success, cxiii. 224

its origin, cxxx. 121 ; foreign
imitations of, ib.; its researches be-
yond Switzerland and Tyrol, 337;

exploration of the Caucasus, ib.
Alps, the, their attractions for tra-

vellers, cxiii. 223 ; beauty of snow
scenery, ib.; rapid increase of
Alpine climbing, 224; neglect of
scientific observation, 225; the
glacier of Mont Dolent, 229

military roads across, cxxii.

recent books of travel on,
cxxx. 118; past indifference to
Alpine scenery, 119; the Monte
Rosa group explored, 120; explo-
rations of Dr. Forbes, ib.; Alpine
clubs, 121; merits of local guides,
ib.; guide-books, 122 (see Ball,
Mr. J.); beauty of Cormayeur,
123; the Dauphiné range little
visited, ib.; imposing precipices
of Monte Rosa, 124; tour round
it, 125; the Matterhorn, 126;
grandeur of the Val d'Anniviers,
127; Mr. Reilly's excellent maps,
128; merits of the Engadine, 129;
view from the Piz Languard, 131;
the Rhotian Alps, 133; travels of
Mr. Tuckett in the Orteler group,
ib. ; the Eastern Alps, 134; Gen-

eral Dufour's map of, 135.
Alsace, mortgaged to Charles the

Bold by Sigismund of Austria,
cxix. 559-568 ; Ilagenbach's
government of, ib.; alliance of
free towns with Swiss confederacy,
569; entry of Charles, ib. ; revolts

against him, 571
Alsace and Lorraine, cession of, to

France, cxxxiii. 478–479; recent
German claims to, founded merely
on conquest, ib.480

-- population of, when ceded
to Germany, cxl. 385

Alt-Rognitz, Austrian defeat at

(1866), cxxv. 376
Althorp (John Charles, Lord, after-

wards Earl Spencer, 1782-1845),
his conduct in 1831 on Reform,
cxxxiii. 306–309; generous con-
duct to Mr. Littleton, 314

Lord Cockburn's eulogy of
his oratory, cxl. 272
Amari (Michele), his History of the

Mussulmans in Sicily, cxvi. 348;
his mastery of Arabic scholarship,
ib. ; on Arab rule in Africa, 357 ;

intended scope of his work, 377
Ambassador, Wotton's sarcastic defi-

nition of, cxxvi. 252
Ambert (General Baron), his Tacti-

cal Studies,' cxxiii. 95; his mas-
terly account of Austerlitz, 114;
on the modern use of artillery,

Amboise, Huguenot conspiracy of

(1560), cxxx. 302; Edict of (1563),

Ambrose (Saint, 310-397), his in-

fluence on Western monachism,

cxiv. 329.
Ameer Khan, Governor of Canda-

har, cxxv. 17, 18; revolts against
Shere Ali, 22 ; his death in battle,

America, Spanish claims to the whole
continent, cxv. 8

alleged discovery of, by the
Basques, cxix. 383
America (North), archeology of,

cxxv. 332; richness of ancient
remains in, ib.; condition of, on
the arrival of the Spaniards, 333
(see Mexico); European igno-
rance of its early history, 338;
aboriginal monuments, ib.; three
pre-Columbian epochs, 339; civili-
sation in Yucatan and Panama,
ib.; ancient buildings in Central
America, 340; the temple of
Palenqué, 341, 342 ; architecture
of the Aztecas, 343; Casas Grandes
of the Indians, ib.; varieties of

pueblos,' 344; primitive stone
structures, 345; Estufas of the
Intermediate Period, 346; tradi-
tions of Montezuma, ib.; remains
of the Earliest Period, 347 ; viz.,
sacred and sacrificial mounds, ib.-
350 ; military works in Ohio, ib.;
copper ornaments, 351 ; high per-
fection of pottery, ib.; Indian
'garden beds,' 352; theories of
aboriginal races, 354; Asiatic
immigration, 355; visited by an-
cient Japanese, ib.; primitive links
with the Old World, 356; worship
of the phallus, 357; polytheism,
ib.; pyramidal ruins in Yucatan
ascribed to Egypt, 359; the pyra-
mid of Xochicalco, 360; similari-
ties of early tribes, ib.; unity of
races inferred from language, 361;
primitive immigrants, 362; main
courses of population, ib. ; Oriental
source proved by ancient monu-

ments, 363
America (United States), Federal

and State taxation in, cxi. 243; tax-
able property in, 244; taxation com-
pared with that in England, 246

increase of brain disorders in,
cxii. 526; condition of, under Mr.
Buchanan's presidency, 547. See
Buchanan, J. Percival

limited power of the Presi-
dent, cxiii. 557; dangers of presi-
dential elections, 558; causes of
secession deep-seated, 559; prin-
ciples of early abolitionists, 560;
Squatter Sovereignty introduced,
563; slavery the cause of disrup-
tion, 566-573; Southern views of
Federation, 574; their reasons for
secession unsound, 577; the 'Peace
Congress' at Washington, 578;
difficulties of coercion by the
Northern States, 579; separation
preferable to civil war, 581 ; per-
petual union impossible, 586

aspects of, to French and
English travellers, cxv. 187

America (United States), Sir

Cornewall Lewis's criticism of
the system of presidential elec-
tion, cxviii. 145; democracy not
to be tested by its results in,
146; evils of the Caucus system,
ib.; the War of Secession ascribed
to Federalism, 147 ; separation of
free and slave states advocated by
Sir G. C. Lewis, 150

Episcopal Church of, mixed
synods of clergy and laity in, cxviii.
576; was never a branch of the
State Church of England, ib.; the
"General Convention,' 577; dis-
cipline enforced by law, ib.

first steps towards slave
emancipation in, cxix. 205; one-
third of, unfitted for man, 474;
limits of the Great American
Desert, 475

corruptions of English lan-
guage in, cxx. 42; disintegrating
effects of democracy on social life,
191 ; the Alien and Sedition Laws,
194; co-operative societies in, re-
semble trades' unions, 432; ex-
change of vegetable products with,
495, 496

idiot institutions in, cxxii.
41, 42; specimens of idiots in, 62,

Northern indifference to the
Union at one time, cxxiii. 525;
change of feeling, 526; blind policy
of Mr. Buchanan, ib. 527; his suc-
cessors, 528; improved moral tone
of the presidency, ib. ; immediate
results of the late war, 529; diffi-
culties of re-construction, ib. ;
anomalous aspect of parties, 530;
altered doctrine of State Sove-
reignty, ib. 531; restoration of
seceded states, 532; theory of
Mr. Sumner, ib.; policy of Mr.
Johnson, 533; limited power of
Congress, ib.; dangers of central
government after the war, 534;
Radical policy criticised, 535; co-

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ordination of State powers, ib.; Bureau of Refugees, 536 (see Mississippi); terms of re-admission to the Union, ib.; question of guarantees, 537; required reaffirmation of laws of Congress by restored States, 538; distribution of the public debt, ib.; repudiation of Confederate debt, ib. ; votes originally granted to slaves, 540; disproportionate power of Southern whites, ib.; proposed re-adjustment of voting power, 541; reconstruction of the labour system, 542; recuperative energy of the South, 513; their social materials for re-construction, 544; class of Southern loyalists, ib.; Southerners who accept defeat, 545; discontented planters, ib.; the mean whites, 546; coloured freedmen, ib.; position of negroes since the war, 517; protective legislation, ib.; General Howard's report of the Freedmen's Bureau, 548; exceptional powers of Congress over Southern States, 551 ; schemes of

negro enfranchisement, ib. 551 America (United States), codification of law in, cxxvi. 362

the Irish in, cxxvii. 505,521

church in, cxxviii. 279; inadequacy of the voluntary system, ib.; described as a "sandhill of sects,' 280

financial reports, 1865-1869, cxxix. 504; growth of the public debt from 1860 to 1865, ib.; financial scheme of Mr. Chase, 505; interference of Congress with Mr. McCulloch, 506; financial problems after the war, 508; embarrassment of the Treasury, 509; contraction of the currency adopted as a step to specie payments, 511; piecemeal policy of Congress, ib.; the Act of 1866, 513; contraction abandoned in 1868, ib. ; disposal of the floating debt, ib.;

Treasury gold reserve fund, 514; the 5.20 bonds, 515; the democratic.greenback party,'516; Bill of Mr. Sherman, ib.; General Butler's proposed tax, 517; contest between the House and Committee, ib.; repudiation rejected at the elections of 1868, 518; Mr. Johnson's mesenge to Congress, ib. ; surplus revenue after the war, 519; mischievous mode of taxation, ib.; demoralisation of trade, 520; first reduction of taxes, 522 ; budget of 1867, ib.; corruption of the revenue system, ib.; duty on distilled spirits, 523; indifference to official venality, 525; evils of presidential patronage, ib.; tardy reforms of Congress, 526; budget of 1867-8, 527 and note; reduction of debt in 1869, 528; difficulties of excise taxes, ib.; duties on lumber, salt, and pig iron, 529, 530; recklessness of the tariff therein, ib.; collection of customs-duties, ib.; Mr. Well's report, ib.; increased expenses of life to intermediate classes, 532; vices of financial

government, 533 America (United States), M. Jac

quemont's sketches of, cxxx. 63, 69

State authority weakened by presidential elections, cxxxiii. 11; conduct of legislative business in, 74, 75

claims against England arising out of the civil war, cxxxv. 549. See Geneva Arbitration

waning influence of the Irish element in, cxxxvii. 152; decreasing hostility to England, ib.

Ninth Census of, cxxxix. 130; value of the reports, ib.; rast experiment of slave emancipation, ib.; revolution caused by the late war, 131; date of the Census, 133; present condition of the Southern negroes, ib.; coloured and white

populations, 134; waste of negro
life by reckless mode of emancipa-
tion, 136; retardation in increase
of negroes, ib.; sufferings of run-
aways, 137; prospects of the negro
race in the South, 138, 139; evi-
dence of their improvement, ib. ;
progress of education, ib.; em-
ployment of female blacks, 140;
favourable condition, on the whole,
of the freedmen, 141; blessings of
abolition of slavery, 142 ; its ques-
tionable advantages to the South-
ern whites, ib.; deterioration of
Southern property since 1860, 144;
their tremendous losses, ib. ; agri-
cultural retrogression, ib.; oppres-
sive taxation, 145; causes of
Southern distress, viz., "carpet-
bag'misrule and white ruffianism,
146; first difficulties of re-con-
struction, 147; the “Ku-Klux-
Klan,' 149; back-stairs influence
in Congress, ib. ; recent deteriora-
tion in character of public men,
150; possibility of a new party of

reform, ib.
America (Southern States), difficul-

ties of negro, emancipation, cxv.

scanty knowledge of, since
the late war, cxxxvi. 148; gene-
ral need of re-construction, 149;
desolation in Tennessee, 150; Mr.
Well's picture, 151; liberated
negroes, ib.; observations of Mr.
Somers, 153; spirit of isolation,
zb.; profuse natural resources, 154;
the land question in Virginia, 155;
want of capital and labour, 156;
fertility of the soil, ib.; coal-fields,
157; white labour needed in
Alabama, ib.; re-organisation of
agricultural labour, 158; public
opinion reconciled to free negro
labour, 159; their value in cotton
cultivation, ib.; their condition
improved by liberation, 161; their
position as agricultural labourers,

163; revival of cotton culture,
164-170; exceptional legislation
due to Southern whites, ib.; the
Ku-Klux-Klan, 171 ; recent legis-
lation thereon, 172, 173; obstacles
to complete restoration of pros-
perity, 174; question of tariffs, ib.;
financial discontent, 175; irritating
policy of the North, 176; pros-
pects of domestic politics, 177;
need of more direct trade with
Europe, 178; problem of cheap

production of cotton, 179
America (British North), enormous

extent of, cxix. 442; original
definition of Rupert's Land, 443;
the Hudson's Bay and North-West
Companies, 444; fluctuations in
the lake system of, 445; rival
explorations of the two companies,
446; their final union, 447 (see
Hudson's Bay Company); failure
of attempts to colonise Vancouver
Island, 448-451; British Columbia
made a colony, 451; gold-mining
in the Fraser river, ib. ; the
Cariboo gold-field, 468; the Lau-
rentides, 477 ; the Fertile Belt,
478; dangers of a population of
adventurers, 479

seasonable proposals for a
Federation, cxxi. 182; resolutions
at the Quebec Conference, 185-
189; proposed Federal Parliament,
186; its legislative powers, ib.,
187; local legislation, 188; powers
of taxation, 189; omissions in the
resolutions, 190 note; their Con-
servative character, 190, 191 ;
completion of the Intercolonial
Railway, ib. ; general result of the
proposals, 192 ; difficulties of ad-
justing relations between Imperial,
Federal, and Local Governments,
ib., 193; novelty of the scheme,
ib.; theory of responsible Govern-
ment,' 194; its difficulties illus-
trated, 195; definition of the
Federal Executive required, ib.;

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proposed form of imperial sore-
reignty, 197; anticipated inde-

pendence of, 199
America (Spanish South), revolt of

the colonies, cxxviii. 138; their
independence recognised by Eng-

land, 140
America (Spanish). See Spain, Nero
American artillery-failure of huge

guns against Fort Sumter,cxix.513
American House of Representatives;

rule for limitation of speeches,
cxxxiii. 75

practice regarding Bills,
cxxxiv. 588; the previous ques-
tion,' 589 note; divisions in Com-

mittee, 590
American navy, its important services

in the late war, cxxiv. 185 (see
American War of Secession); penury
of resources when the war began
186; the Powhatan,' 190; its
strength at the accession of Lin-
coln, 192; disaffection among naval
officers, ib.; first ironclad vessels,
193; the 'Monitor,' ib.; vigour of
the department under Mr. Welles,
194; rapid growth of, in 1862, 196;
appointment of rear-admirals, 198
note; first trial of rams by the
Confederates, 199; fire-rafts at
New Orleans, 206 ; the “Monitor”
and · Merrimac,' 213; the Mian-
tonomah,' 226; use

of heavy
smooth-bore guns,
American railways—legislation re-

specting, cxxv. 103; unsystematic
construction of, 104; position of

Congress, ib.
American War of Independence,

weakness of the British army in,
cxvi. 141

inferiority of British generals
in, cxxvi. 39

the cause of independence
gained by the English Opposition,
cxxxix. 188; Irish feeling towards

the English in, 487
American War of Secession, valuable

work of Mr. Ellison on, cxiv. 556;
public opinion on, in England,
558; the question of slavery, 559;
high prerogative claims of Fede-
ralists, ib.; State and Federal
Sovereignties, 561; causes of dis-
union, 563; crisis at President
Lincoln's election, ib.; mistaken
doctrines respecting 'Secession,
564 ; Mr. Douglas' speech in 1861,
567; the struggle anticipated by
the Edinburgh Review in October
1856, 569; political blindness in
America thereto, ib.; impossible
permanence of a Southern Slave
Confederacy, 570; dangers of suc-
cess to the North, ib. ; horrors of

emancipation by war,' 571 ;
Congress powerless to abolish
slavery, 572; intemperate procla-
mation of General Fremont, 573 ;
different American versions of the
causes of the war, ib.; insufficient
grievances of the Southern States,
574; the contest one for territorial
dominion, 575; English aversion
to the war, 578; exhausting
nature of the struggle, 580; mu-
tual confiscations, 581; delusive
notion of a perpetual union, ib.;
bitter feeling against England,
582; the Queen's proclamation
misinterpreted, 583; precedents of
American jurists, 584; recognition
of the South must depend on
events, 586 ; probable short dura-
tion of the war, 587 ; mutual sepa-
ration anticipated, ib.

aspect of the contest at its
beginning, cxvi. 549; preponderant
value of Southern votes, 551 ; sla-
very the origin of the war, 553;
English sympathy with the South,
560; democracy as a

cause of
disruption, 561; doctrine of the
perpetuity of the Union, 564;
schemes of government before
the Convention, 566; sovereign
character of the states, 508; ac-


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