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king of Naples and his family arrived where thousands had assembled waving in Rome, and the historian witnessed white banners, Gregorovius, from with emotion the end of this memora- Monte Pincio, saw the sun go down ble kingdom, whose foundation by the ominously in an eclipse near the VatiNormans he had lately been describ- can. ing. On Palm Sunday he saw them all The fourth volume of the “ History" in St. Peter's, and they appeared to was now in full progress, and in this him like a heap of faded leaves scat- great work lay the true life of Gregotered by the storm. Francis II. knelt rovius. The summer of 1862 found before the pope to receive the palm. him at St. Moritz, where he learned "A fallen king who takes the palm of the Romance language. He was struck resignatiou from the hands of a totter- with the large emigration to Australia ing pope is a sight of historic value, and California.

“ It is strange to and this accompanied by the magnific think that this heroic nature turns out cent strains of the Stabat Mater.' confectioners.' He proceeded to Mu

History moves so fast that the recol- nich, met again the Grand Duchess lection of these events, so stirring at Helena, and learned from her that the time, scarcely moves us now. Garibaldi had been taken prisoner and

Gregorovius caunot accept Rome as wounded at Aspromonte. “He played the capital of a secular kingdom. It on those shores the ballad of the bad been too long and too much im- ' Diver,' but the gods forgive reckless pregnated with religious and ecclesias- folly only once.” Later on he writes : tical traditions, and “a freshly risen “Women swarm round the wounded kingdom requires for its capital a light hero like flies about a wound.” Mamaterial like Berlin, Paris, or Peters- dame Schwabe nursed him.

" He is burg, upon which it can rapidly impress usually silent, never speaks of politics, itself. The king of Italy will only cut and reads Tacitus, as Cola di Rienzi a small figure here, like one of the read Livy in prison." The following Dacian prisoners on the Arch of Tra- words sound almost prophetic : Julius jan. Rome will lose everything

von Mohl said the Rhine was an axion its republican air, its cosmopolitan in France. Napoleon will there play breadth, its tragic peace.” His view his last card. This I fear also. Bad always was, he writes later on, “to times are before us, but our nationality declare Rome a republic, to leave the must rise triumphant out of it all. pope, the city, and its district, but to After that he saw." the two cradles of give the Romans the Italian citizen- the French Revolution — Ferney and ship. Thus Rome would preserve its the house of Rousseau at Geneva.' cosmopolitan character. When that is In the spring of 1863 he witnessed extinguished there will be a gap in the sudden death in Rome of Munch, European society."

the Norwegian historian. " He could On June 6, 1861, Cavour died. “The not have died a more beautiful death master-builder has fallen from his than here in Rome, at the height of his structure ; who will continue the work, fame, beloved by his country, which he lead the revolution, keep the parties in had only just left.” Norway adopted check, unravel the machinations of his children and made them a rich leg. Bonapartism ?"

His dying as a Cath- acy. In the summer Gregorovius saw olic, and the sight of his corpse with the excavations of the villa of Livia at the crucifix in his hands, made a favor- Prima Porta, with its beautiful fresco able impression. The pope said he was paintings, now believed to be by the not one of the worst enemies of the contemporary Roman painter Ludius. Church, and he had a mass said for his He worked for some time in the library soul. The end of this year was marked at Munich and met Giesebrecht, “ Dölby an eclipse which coincided with a linger, a refined, cold, dry man, who great legitimist demonstration. While expresses himself shrewdly, and recthe pope drove to the Church of Gesù, 'ognizes the impartiality of the history

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of Rome." He next worked in the with in life ; even her deceptions had Archives at Bologna, Sienna, Orvieto, not embittered her, but had made her the latter in “indescribable confusion,” more noble and entirely unselfish.” In and the 1st November found him back after years he frequently visited her in Rome. In the following winter Am- tomb. père died, "a mau of rare culture, Gregorovius's views of the romance encyclopædic knowledge, and incred- of life are condensed in a few words. ible vivacity of mind, with a most When the Princess Wittgenstein was amiable character, and a benevolence writing an article on friendship, he arising from the uutainted freshness of said to her, “Friendship to be real his nature, independent in relation to requires half a lifetime, love needs but the Napoleonic government.” The a moment. How precious is friendthought that he had died before having ship, and how divine is love 1" finished his history discouraged Grego- Shortly after the death of “ Pauline" rovius. Garibaldi was in England at he lost his brother. He thought much that time, “led through the drawing- of both, but the stirring times raised rooms like a lion held by a string of him above personal sorrow and made it

The summer found Gregoro- easier to bear. vius as usual travelling. He visits

Upon such a shrine, Assisi. The paintings of Giotto, espe- What are our petty griefs, let me not numcially the wedding of St. Francis with

ber mine. poverty, greatly impress him by their These were the days of Königgratz elevated simplicity, so full of deep and Sadowa, of Prussia's triumph and meaning. He goes to Naples, revisits Austria's humiliation. "It is the Pompeii, thinks of his own past, much spectacle of a torrent of political events of which lies buried in ashes. The breakivg out after long stagnation in following winter he finished the fifth Germany. The pulse of history beats volume. In the summer of 1865 Gre- quicker through telegraphs, railways, gorovius was offered a professorship, inventions, knowledge, and political but he felt that his vocation did not lie maturity. What took Frederick the there, and preferred his independent Great seven years is accomplished by studies. Kuno Fischer, who was a his grandsons in seven days. professor at Jena, and who accompa- what happens now is only what has nied the hereditary Grand Duke of been long preparing ; everything is Weimar to Rome, in the winter of ripe, hence these mighty electric 1865 described to him the narrow uni- blows." The Empress Charlotte visversity life of Jena, and congratulated ited the pope in her extreme distress. him on bis freedom. Two years after Her deranged mind looked to him for he met Auerbach at Stuttgart, who the protection refused to her by France. complimented him on his youthful She would scarcely leave the Vatican. looks, and attributed them to his not “ Tutto ci viene a noi," said the unforhaving become professor.

tunate pope ;

" ci mancava ancora, che A friendship with a noble woman una donna s'impazzisse al Vaticano.” was woven like a golden thread through The Austrians leave Venice the his life. After a long illness she died French leave Rome, a death blow to the on April 3, 1866. "A good genius has temporal power. "

“ Mexico, Prussia, departed from me. She was a true Rome, are the lines of retreat of the friend to me, great in thought and power of Napoleon, whose star is setfeeling, free from most of the faults of ting. Great times are coming. They women, without vanity or egotism, of a will move round the new German world rare clear-headeduess. She took a power and Catholic Reform. At this part in my spiritual life, and that had period, 1864 and 1867, the conversations compensated her for the loss of her of Gregorovius with Gervinus show hopes after B— had forsaken her. the strong current of feeling against She was the most elevated soul I met 'the rising power of Prussia. " He

Besides, [Gervinus) is an enemy of all that has The criticisms of Gregorovius about been accomplished through Prussia. some of his fellow historians are at He prophesies evil, from the unitica- once appreciative and discriminating. tion of Germany through this power. He and Gervinus agree in their opinion His ideal is the United States ; and of Ranke. 6 Ranke only knows diploaccording to his view Germany should macy in history, the people he does not be a federal state.” But his judgment know. He has the most subtle gift of was determined besides by his dislike combination and logical acuteness, but to the policy of Bismarck. His sense he has no power of constructing. His of right was deeply shocked. He be- men and things show their inner fibres, lieved there was an impassable abyss but only as in an anatomical theatre. between South Germany and Prussia. Ranke goes through history as through Gregorovius also considered the federal a picture-gallery, writing interesting constitution to have an historic basis in potes. I compare him as an historian Germany, but be takes into account the to what Alfieri is as a poet." When changes brought about by progress and he made the acquaintance of Ranke rapid communication through steam some years after, he found him exand electricity, and the great agglom- ceedingly interesting, sparkling with erations of population with which witty talk, and even, to his astonishstatesmen have now to deal, and he ment, an enthusiast. bas confidence in the growing strength Of Gervinus he says that, like most of the national feeling to prevent the learned Germans, he applied the theschism between North and South Ger-ories of the study to practical life, and many which Gervinus feared.

judged contemporary events too much On visiting Stuttgart in the summer by the sayings of a few. He described of 1867, he was struck by the feeling of him as a stately man of remarkable unity, combined, however, with a appearance, but with professorial heavdread of Prussian militarism and abso- iness. Gervinus lived for a time in lutism. This fear did not diminish. modest retirement in Rome. He had In the autumn of 1869, he writes from a passion for Handel's music, which Munich, “ It seems to me as if Berlin his wife constantly played to him. A Prussianism is loathsome to the south, warm friendship grew up between him and will long remain so.” It required and Gregorovius. When the latter the great war of 1871, when the exist- worked in the library at Heidelberg in ence of Germany itself was threatened, 1867, he spent his leisure hours in to weld together the various discordant Gervinus's family circle. After the elements, at first in self-defence, and death of Gervinus in 1871, Gregorovius finally in a victory dearly bought and said of him : " Gervinus was a noble never to be forgotten.

man in the full sepse of the word, with When the present German emperor firm convictions, a wide intellectual first visited Hanover in 1889, there was grasp, a great prosaic cast of mind”. among the many inscriptions which prose,” he says elsewhere, “in the

intertwined with the green noblest and most powerful form." boughs and flowers to welcome him, a

" He leaves his country an enduring very significant one :

monument of his great intellect and Wer auf das Ganze den Blick gerichtet

patriotism : the history of national Dem ist schon im Busen der Streit gesch- poetry, which he has treated on a phillichtet.

osophical basis.”

In the year 1869 Gregorovius reached No less eloquent in their silence and the end of his history, but a fit of insolitude were the deserted balls and tense depression came over him, and gardens of the royal palace of Her- he delayed the finishing touches. This renbausen. The wheel of necessity was the year when the Council met. mercilessly crushes all that stands in Döllinger wished Gregorovius to send

him reports of its doings in order that

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he might utilize them, but Gregorovius In July the war broke out and disdeclined. He felt that silence alone placed everything else. “The spirit of was becoming to him on account of his 1813 is awake an enthusiasm as in scientific and social position in Rome. the days of our fathers.” " All Ger“Janus,” with its uncompromising at- many has risen like one man against tacks upon the Papacy, was making a France. It was never so strong begreat stir, and was put in the Index. cause it was never so united. There is Though published anonymously, it was a feeling of confidence in the issue.” at once recognized to have been in- The pages describing day by day the spired if not written by Döllinger. events that some of us have lived The Donauzeitung challenged Döllinger through are replete with interest. He to admit or contradict the authorship, cannot work, but “ what is the pen and but he did not reply. The Council the word to-day ? Action overshadows inspired Gregorovius with no real in- it. France totters like a bull on whose terest; even Strossmayer, whom he forehead fell the blow of a giant.” describes as man with “ the high Mindful of his French friends, he forehead of the clear thinker, quiet and feels for the overwhelming misfortunes firm,” he believed to be at bottom a of France, and calls Ampère happy priest, “full of vanity and ambition.” that he is dead. His brother served He describes the Council scene, where in the campaign and was nearly killed Strossmayer defended the Protestants before Amiens. At the sight of all the against some violent attacks, and was misery of the French people, he wrote hooted down with clenched tists and home, “I should like to be well out of the cries “Tu es protestans ; tu es the wretched affairs of this world." hæreticus, descendas : " " Strossmayer Gregorovius, in those days, sent variis the hero of the Council, and but for ous articles about the war to the Allgehis being able to fall back on Austria, meine Zeitung. he would now probably share the fate On January 19, 1871, he reached his of the two Armenian bishops who are fiftieth birthday. “ In honor of this incarcerated in the Palace of the Inqui- event I finished the History,' leaving sition.” “Fanaticism is boundless,” he only the revision to be done before writes in June, 1870. “ We have lost printing.” Rome had now become the the feeling of security, and after eigh- capital of Italy, and on July 2 the teen years spent in Rome, I feel more king made his entry. “ If we Gerof a stranger than the first day. The mans had not shattered the French air has been morally poisoned.” power,” he writes, “ Victor Emanuel

The Old Catholic movement was, he would not this day have entered Rome. thought, started

false basis. The Italian nation which our old em. “ They represent their condition since perors of the Holy Roman Empire the dogma of the Infallibility in such governed so long also received its new a way as if behind this limit lay a future at the hands of the new German golden age, in front of it nothing but National Empire.” He compares the ruin. But this limit is ludicrously fan- situation in Rome to that in Japan, ciful. An Austrian said to me lately : with a worldly and a spiritual power* Before the Infallibility the Catholics a taikoon and a mikado. Each has its believed, by order of the pope, that two embassies. He did not think the Italand two make seven ; now that he ians capable of reforming Catholicism. wishes them to believe that twice four “ They mercilessly criticise themselves, make nine, they refuse to do so.?! | and confess that the moral condition of Döllinger was too purely intellectual to the people is in contradiction with its inspire enthusiasm. “Without the political achievements, and it is an unfire of faith that flows from the heart deniable fact that a political revolution it is impossible to imagine a reformer. remains fruitless without an Döllinger does not possess a single panying moral one." Faith in a high quality for it.”

moral ideal was wanting.

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Rome had now lost all charm and over it that I was able to accomplish it interest for him, and he was thinking undisturbed, and at the very moment of leaving it to settle again in Ger- when the papal dominion broke down. many. "The Middle Ages bave been If the priests had put my history to the swept away as if by a tramontana, with interdict after the first volume had all the historical spirit of the past.”' appeared, the work would not exist He was glad to have lived so long in to-day, for all the libraries of Rome the old Rome, as there only he could would have been closed to me. Ever have written his history. Meanwhile since the Jesuits denounced me in the the Italian Professor Ciampi suggested Civiltà Cattolica I lived for years in that some acknowledgment should be expectation that this thunderbolt would made to Gregorovius for his “History strike me. ... Only now the dart has of the City of Rome," and this proposal been shot — not so much against me as found general support. At first there against Prussia, where Bismarck, like a was some idea of asking the municipal- new Diocletian, persecutes Christianity to confer the Roman citizenship on ity, as the priests cry, and possibly him. Gregorovius does not conceal also against the municipality of Rome, that he would have considered this as at whose expense the publication in the highest honor that could be be- Venice is carried out. My work is stowed on him, but this plan was accomplished and spreads through the dropped, and the municipality decided world, and the pope is helping to adto publish the Italian translation at vertise it. Many people wrote about their expense.

Gregorovius had al- the decree. Mariano wrote an excellent ready conceded the right of publishing article in the Diritto. All congratulate the translation to a Venetian publisher, me on the deserved honor.” and though he could not cancel this July 14, 1874, was his last day in arrangement, it was now settled that Rome. He had made up his inind to the Roman municipality should become live with his relations in Germany, he responsible for the expense. He ended felt his mission was at an end. He the year 1872 with the happy conscious- had cleared up eleven dark ages of the ness of having finished his life work in city. “This is my monument here." a way which Rome considered worthy But the thought of breaking with this of itself.

memorable period of his life filled him Wbile reading in the Archives for the with emotion day and night, and often

History " another work had shaped roused him with a start in his sleep. itself out before him, the “Life of It was a sudden wrench, like that of a Lucretia Borgia.” “I have mastered tree uprooted by the storm, the vanishthe material,” he says, " and the writing of a whole world, like that of Prosing of it is but play.” He finished it pero in the “ Tempest." in December, 1873. On March 1, 1874, he learned that the “History" had been put in the Iudex, and this news greatly exlilarated him. According to

From The Gentleman's Magazine. custom the decree was placarded on the

“THE DARKNESS BEHIND THE STARS.” 1 doors of the three great basilicas, St. PEOPLE who do not give the matter Peter, the Lateran, and St. Maria Mag- sufficient consideration seem to think giore. He went to St. Peter, where he that the number of the stars is pracsaw it.

“I suddenly felt a personal tically infinite ; but this idea is totally relation to the venerable dome. I incorrect, and due to complete ignonever walked through it in such an rance of telescopic revelations. It is exalted frame of mind. I thought of certainly true that the larger the teleall my labor, my sufferings, my joys, scope used in the examination of the my great passion — all I had thrown

1 The title of this article was suggested by a into this work, and I praised the good passage in Mr. H. Rider Haggard's interesting genii who seemed to have watched' work, “Montezuma's Daughter," p. 186.

LIVING AGE. VOL. IV. 196

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