Oldalképek
PDF
ePub

According to the Japanese accounts the never rode out without a servant fol. Chinese envoys presented the siogun lowing him with a flagon of water that with a crown, a robe, and a golden seal, he might not lack the means of perand after a splendid banquet Taicosama forming the rite upon any children ordered two learned men to read the whom he met. Many of the Corean letter from the emperor of China, prisoners and slaves were baptized. which was found to run somewhat as Some boys were sent by Don Augustin follows: “ We specially invest you to be educated by the Jesuits, and later with the dignity of ruler of Japan and on their names are found recorded as have sent our commission for this pur- missionaries and martyrs. For nine pose. We also send you a crown and a years the Jesuits had managed to evade robe, so that you may be in agreement the edicts against them in a very politic with our ancient customs. Be careful manner, but Taicosama, seeing that to act in a way that is worthy of your they still persevered in their work of position as our minister. Be grateful conversion, caused six Franciscans, for the imperial favor bestowed upon three Jesuits, and fifteen lay members you. Follow always our orders.” Tai- of the wission to be impaled alive at cosama waxed furious at this insolent Nag ki the 3rd of January, 1597. letter. “I am already king of Niphon,” Meanwhile the Japanese troops had he cried. “I am so alone, and if it is been resting secure in their fortresses necessary, I shall know how to change along the Corean coast; and large reinplaces, making Tai-Ming my vassal.” forcements were now sent over to The Chinese say that Taicosama ac- rekindle the war. The command of cepted the honor bestowed upon him the whole army was given to Quiuby their emperor, but was offended by dono, a cousin of the siogun's wife. the low rank of the Corean envoys and Don Augustin was ordered to act upon the meanness of their gifts. The Jesuit the seacoast, and gained a great vicaccounts on the other hand maintain tory over a Chinese fleet of eighty sail, that Taicosama, though displeased with while two divisious of the army adthe scanty deference of the Coreans, vauced once more upon Seoul. The dismissed the Chinese envoys after king offered to pay a yearly tribute having made a peace with the emperor, and to give his two sons as hostages if and sent a message after them, which Taicosama would recall his army, but reached them at Sacay, asking if there his offers were rejected. A Chinese was any further favor which they could force was, however, more persuasive, request. The ambassadors, anxious to and the Japanese were compelled to make the best of the opportunity, an- fall back upon two of their forts ; in swered that it would crown the whole one of which, Wei-Chan, near the negotiation if the siogun would raze south-west extremity of Corea, they the forts and withdraw his troops from successfully withstood an assault, killCorea.

ing, it is said, no less than ten thouIt seems certain, however, that Tai- sand of the enemy. A second attack cosama was so much provoked by the was made upon the strong position into Chinese embassy that he gave orders which Don Augustin had retired, restto renew the war. In the mean time ing on the port of Ning-hai. The Chithe Jesuits had to suffer some persecu- nese confess that their commander, tions in Japan, but they were not so Leou Ting, invited Hing Tchang (Don severe or sustained as to check the Augustin) to an entertainment in his work of propagandism, and the good camp. The Chinese general caused fathers were moreover mightily cheered one of his officers to take his place and by the hopes that the Christian sol- name, that he might with more condiers of Don Augustin might be venience give the signal to set upon spreading the true faith in Corea. One the Japanese chief, who had only fifty Japanese cavalier was indeed so zeal- horsemen with him ; but Don Augusous in baptizing the natives that lieltin becoming suspicious, the signal was

[ocr errors]

.

given somewhat too early. The Japan-| fourteen fortified ports. The military ese leaped on his horse, and his attend governor of Tsusima, however, still ants, forming a triangular squadron, held the right of keeping some huncut their way with great slaughter dreds of Japanese soldiers at Fusan. through the Chinese, and got clear Europe has now been startled by the off. Don Augustin on his return to the news that the descendant of the dairis, fort sent Leou a woman's headdress ; again grasping the power of his remote whereupou the Chinese general imme- ancestors, has renewed the invasion of diately ordered an assault, only to be Taicosama, and that the Manchu sucdriven back with heavy loss. The fur-cessors of the dynasty of Ming are ther prosecution of the war was now gathering their hosts to meet the Japslackened by the illness of Taicosama, anese on the old battleground where who died on September 15th, 1598, at the Chinese fought them three hunthe age of sixty-four. A magnificent dred years ago. What changes have temple was raised over his tomb attaken place since then have been Meaco, and divine honors paid to his mainly for the advantage of Japan. memory. Within its walls was shown They seen at present to have the conthe place where were buried the ears mand of the sea, and the Chinese, if and poses of three thousand Coreans obliged to send their troops by land to who had been massacred at one time. Corea, will be exposed to the same He left behind him only one son, a difficulties as the Russians were in the child of six years old, whom he com- Crimean war. As in the days of Taimitted to the care of Ijejas, king of cosama the Japanese have gained couKuanto, who was declared regent. It siderable advantages at the outset; but is said that Taicosama before he died if the struggle be prolonged I am inbad given orders that his troops should clined to think that they will fail to be withdrawn from Corea. At any keep the peninsula of Corea against rate this was soon done by Ijejas, who the mig of China. had other ends in view than prosecut

WILLIAM W. IRELAND. ing so wasteful an undertaking. Two hundred thousand troops bad been employed in the war, and the loss of life had been very great.

From Longman's Magazine. The energics of the Japanese were

THE ROMAN JOURNAL OF GREGOROVIUS. now engaged in a civil war in which Don Augustin took sides against Ije- In the autumn of 1893 a second

but he was defeated, made pris- edition appeared of the “Römische oner, and beheaded, dying like a good Tagebücher" of Gregorovius. This Catholic with the words Jesu Maria journal dates from 1852 to 1874, the upon his lips. Ijejas, best known iu most momentous period of his life. history as Daifusama, in the end got He bequeathed it to his friend, Prorid of Fide Jori, son of Taicosama, and fessor Althaus, who prefaces it with a founded a new line of sioguns. Peace biographical sketch. Gregorovius left was made with China in 1607, but hos- no directions for the publication of the tilities continued between Japan and journal, but the fact that he carefully Corea till 1615; and trade between the revised it, while he destroyed his other two countries was always kept under papers and his friends' correspondence, jealous restrictions.

speaks for itself. The journal reflects We are informed in the “Aperçu the many-sided culture of the writer, Général des Trois Royaumes,” trans- the temperament of the poet, combined lated from the original Japanese by with the depth and thoroughness of the Klaproth, that the miseries they en- historian. It records the great events dured from this invasion awoke the of the day. It gives us glimpses of the military spirit of the Coreans, so that remarkable men with whom he came they bad in 1786 a formidable fleet and in contact. To those who only care for

BY MRS. W. E. H. LECKY.

jas;

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

the objective side of an author, its | seems to me, the highest calling ; yea, thoughtful introspection may some- an injunction from the Capitoline Jupitimes appear egotistical. Others, who ter himself. The thought struck me, like to follow the inner workings of impressed by the sight of the city from the mind in the conception and execu- the island bridge of S. Bartolomeo, I tion of a great work, will find a special must undertake something great which interest in those passages.

will give substance to my life. I comThe place where Gregorovius was municated the plan to Dr. Braun, secreborn had an important influence on his tary of the Archeological Institute. intellectual development. His father He reflected and said, “This is an atwas counsellor at Neidenburg, where tempt in which every one must fail." stood the ruins of a medieval castle of But nothing daunted, Gregorovius the Teutonic knights. He was the began to collect his materials, while means of procuring its restoration, and working at the same time at various when it was completed the law offices other thivgs, chiefly poems. April 30, were transferred thither, and the coun- 1856, we read : “Rome is the demon sellor with his numerous family took with which I wrestle. If I am victoup his abode in it. Such surroundings rious in the struggle, that is, if I sucgave the youngest son, the future his- ceed in subduing this overwhelming torian of Rome, an early interest in world power by making it a subject of the Middle Ages. He used to say that searching inquiry and artistic treatbut for his having spent his youth in ment, I shall be a conqueror indeed.” this castle, the history of Rome might On September 25, 1856, he writes from never have been written. Ferdinand Genazzano : “ To-morrow I return to Gregorovius first studied theology, but Rome, where I will begin the first volsoon found himself unfit for it, and ume of the history of the city in the gave himself up to philosophy and his- Middle Ages. I shall soon see whether tory. After teaching some years at the by God's grace I am destined for this University of Königsberg, where his work or not.” first books appeared, he felt himself The journal suffers a good deal irresistibly drawn to Italy, and in spite of interruption, as Gregorovius now of small means he migrated thither in plunges into his new work, finishing 1852, following in the footsteps of a at the same time “ The Tombs of the friend, the young historical painter, Popes,” and the poem “Euphorion,” Bornträger. The latter died before the which both appeared in 1857. In 1858 arrival of Gregorovius, and this, and the first two volumes of the history the death of a promising nephew, at were completed. He read parts aloud first so deeply colored his thoughts that to the Grand Duchess Helena of Rus. he failed to find the stimulus which he sia, who was then staying in Rome. expected from Italian surroundings. He describes that remarkable princess Time, however, softened the blow, and as “ a stately, beautiful woman, of rare in May, 1853, he says : “ The Roman culture, and with vivid interests for all air has on me the effect of champagne, branches of knowledge.”

“ Nothing This sunny atmosphere penetrates me calls the attention better to defects of as if from distant happy regions. He form than reading aloud to attentive went to Naples, Pompeii, La Cava, listeners. The grand duchess remarked Salerno, Pæstum. He found the three to me that my style was tendu. She temples magnificent and grand, like a hit on the right criticism. In the first trilogy of Æschylus. “ Soon I shall chapters I am uncertain and therefore see Syracuse. I rejoice like a child at labored. I must become lighter." He the prospect of breathing the air of also read to Ampère, one of the most Greece.” On October 3, 1854, we find genial of Frenchmen, good-natured, the momentous passage : “I intend kind, vivacious, and, what is writing the history of Rome in the among them, without vanity." He Middle Ages. This work requires, it I made the acquaintance of Baron von

[ocr errors]

rare

or

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Haxthausen, a Westphalian, the well- | able glimpse into the monastic life of kuown writer on Russia, who had a the Middle Ages," and the beauty of tendency to spiritualism and was inex- the place enchanted him. His room haustible iu ghost stories. Gregorovius reminded him of his paternal Castle of himself was a great dreamer. In the Neidenburg, and in the companionship early part of the journal he tells an ex- of the illustrious Tosti he found the perience which might be recorded in greatest enjoyment. " In this extraorthe annals of the Psychical Society. dinary man,” he says, 66 there burns a When he was a boy at the Gymnasium, deep and beautiful mind. Everything before his Abiturienten examination is intuition with him, he works the equivalent of matriculation - he studies little, he draws everything out dreamt that the professor gave him the of himself. He laughs heartily when “ Ode of Horace, " Justum ac tena- he speaks ; it is the laugh of a happy cem propositi virun,” to explain. "I mind which is never tormented by amstudied it well,” he says, “and when bition. Nevertheless, there is in his on the day of the examination I en- look something of a superior ability, tered the ball with my schoolfellows, I which suddenly betrays the material told them in what way I had learned for a prince of the Church. He has what I was going to be examined in the inherited spirit of the Benedictine They laughed at me. Professor Pe- aristocracy. Tosti lives in connection trany took up Horace and said to me : with the minds which have influenced "Open at the Ode, “Justum ac tena- the world from Monte Casino.” When cei propositi virum.'” The others Gregorovius saw to his surprise the looked at me in astonishment, and I portrait of the Police Minister del Capassed brilliantly."

retto in full uniform in the Archive On April 29, 1859, the Allgemeine room, it was explained to himn how this Zeitung announced the publication of man, before the Revolution of 1848, the first volume of the “ History of the had granted the monastery a printingCity of Rome in the Middle Ages.” press and had assented to a proposal of “ Thus the beginning coincides with Tosti and the abbot for founding a what appears to be a complete revolu- paper, the Athenaeum of Italy, in which tion of Italy.” The events of this all Italian savants, even those who had momentous year keenly interested Gre- been exiled, should write, Rosmini, gorovius : “I look upon the indepen- Silvio Pellico, Manzoni, Cantù, all dence of Italy as a sacred national wished to contribute, and thus the right,” he says, “and were every Aus- unification movement began in the trian in Lombardy my own brother, I monastery. However, an attack upon would urge the Italians to drive him the Jesuits by Gioberti caused bad away. But I cannot bear the thought blood. Monte Casino was denounced that a man like Napoleon should take as the centre of uubelief and democthe glory of having liberated a people. racy, the printing-press taken away, Germany will renew its youth ; Prussia and several of the monks — among is its Piedmont. The Protestant prin- others, Tosti were banished. The ciple will triumph ; but, by the possible portrait of Caretto remained as the destruction of the temporal power of monument of a promising scheme, to the pope, Catholicism will concentrate which the notorious minister had unitself energetically, and a struggle of consciously contributed. Since ten religious principles is at hand." years the relations between the monas

In October of the same year Grego-tery and the government had not been rovius spent twelve days at Monte re-established, and Tosti called this il Casino, to which the librarian Kalefati decennio plumbeo. had invited him. There he distinctly "A philosophic tradition, which heard the cannonading at Gaeta. If dates from the days of Pythagoras, has the Archives did not contain much that been kept alive in South Italy, which was of use to him, he had “an invalu- ' has produced Thomas Aquinas, Gior

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

dano Bruno, Campanelli, Genovesi, and not moved me as much as this garden finally, Galuppi. . . . He has the merit where I played my youthful games." of having revived the philosophic stud- He visits friends iu Polaud, aud feels ies."

The day before his departure renewed sympathy for this unhappy Gregorovius partook of a solemn his people. “I wished them resurrection, toric meal with Tosti, Kalefati, and if ever the dead rise again.” But we Wandel, and on October 18, he left are not surprised to hear that he soon Monte Casino. As he descended into longs to get back to his work. By the the mist of the Campagna, the monas- light of later events it is curious to read tery stood out clear and bright. On the following passage on his return; arriving at the foggy San Germano, the journey : “I remained but three hours contrast reminded him of the two parts at Strasburg, full of sorrow that this of Raphael's “ Transfiguration.” The beautiful German town must now resummer of this year, he records, had main French forever." been one of the pleasantest of his wan- On his return in October, 1860, be dering life, and its culminating point found the national cause in Italy develMonte Casino.

oping fast.

" It is a wonderful spectaOn December 22 he finished the cle,” he says, " to see the new kingdom third volume of the “History.” Not of Italy rise up as if by enchantment. long after this he received, through the When time shall have obliterated all influence of Bunsen, a yearly subsidy the meaner elements in the struggle, of four hundred thalers for two years Cavour, Victor Emanuel, and Garibaldi towards the writing of the “ History." will stand out as heroes of this era. To In 1860 le paid a visit to Königsberg : the student of the struggles of Rome After eight years of pilgrimage and in the past, the sight of the present, hard struggle, I shall see my native which accomplishes a work of which land again.” He wished to spend his the ages had despaired, is invaluable." last night in Italy, in the charming At a later period he writes : “ It was island Isola Bella. He was now so the year 1859 which lifted a veil from fully under the spell of the south, that my eyes, so that I could recognize more among the Swiss Alps depression over- clearly the fundamental ideas of the came him at having left it, and he Middle Ages, and especially the relalonged to return. He stops at Stutt- tion of the papacy to Rome.” The gart, Nuremberg, Leipzig, Danzig, and part played by Napoleon was a mystififinally reaches Königsberg. Here much cation. "Not even Tiberius had thus had changed. “I can go about un- understood the art of acting double. known, as if I wore a mask; and those He plays with both parties. He has changes have come about in eight given up the Marshes and Umbria to years.” But he also finds friends who Victor Emanuel, and allowed the Papal had remained stationary at the point army to be destroyed at Castel Fidardo, where he had left them, while to him and at the same time he forces the the eight years had been “ a great, yea, pope to acknowledge that he is his an immeasurable, epoch.” In his na- only protector; for Goyon has driven tive home, too, all is altered. Of his the Piedmontese from the Southern father's world but a shadow remains. Marshes, and invested Terracina, as He revisits Gumbinuen, where he was he had done Viterbo. Napoleon simulat the Gymnasium from the ages of taneously promotes and hinders the eleven to seventeen, and where he had Italian Revolution." Gregorovius linds not been for twenty-one years. His three constantly recurring types in the uncle's house had been rebuilt, the history of Italy, Macchiavelli, Cæsar poplars cut down, but the homely ave- Borgia, and the condottieri. nue of shady beeches welcomes him, The 13th of February, 1861, brought and he finds birds' nests in the same the news of the fall of Gaeta. When trees. “The experiences of childhood Pius IX. heard it he said, Adesso overwhelmed me. Even Pompeii has tocca a noi.” On the 15th, the last,

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
« ElőzőTovább »