summit. These nine lines carry on an | carried by the force of gravity, is to average twenty-three hundred tons of revolve the endless cord by a drum ore a day, none of which touches the worked by steam. But a recent and level of the ground till it has travelled ingenious invention promises a further some five miles through space. The development of aerial lines. The steel appearance of these multiplex lines of rope is charged with an electric curwire, stretching from tower to tower of rent, and the cars themselves carry a light trellised iron, and hung at inter- motor which “ picks up” its power as vals with hundreds of ore-carriages in it travels along the wire. constant motion, one of the strangest The limits of usefulness of the aerial spectacles in modern mining enterprise. railway have not yet been reached. The double line of iron scaffolds, where Probably great weights will never be it leaves the terminus in the valley, carried on the lines in single cars. But looks like the support for some enor- the transport of smaller quantities on mous viaduct, festooned with wires the endless ropes cau be multiplied slung with rows of pendent buckets. almost without limit by increasing the Higher up the mountain, where deep number of parallel lines. It is not only ravines cut the face of the hill, the the cheapest, but often the only postrestles tower to such a height, that the sible form of transport in places inactravelling loads of ore look like little cessible to ordinary railways ; and the black balls against the sky. When the absence of danger from collision more different levels of the mine are reached, than compensates for the first trial to the lines of the wireway diverge, and the nerves made in the aerial transit. are carried to nine separate points in For ordinary ferry-work across rivers, the workings. Yet the traffic is con- the system is probably too like a maketrolled with little difficulty, and there shift to satisfy the English mind. But is no risk of any serious stoppage by it is as an auxiliary transport, cheap accident, as in the case of a breakdown and convenient, that it deserves a place on the trunk lines of a great railway. among the every-day expedients of At the worst, one or two lines only modern life. In commercial cities it would be blocked, leaving the others would supply a means of parcel-transfree for use. It is calculated that one port by the shortest route, from point hundred thousand tons of ore can be to point, above the houses, with little carried on each of these cables before greater disturbance than that caused it becomes unfit for service. In cross- by erecting telephone wires ; and in ing wild ravines or rivers, where one its simplest form it would be a useful bank is lower than another, the aerial auxiliary on every large farm in which line is used exactly as the old-fashioned manure and food has to be transported funicular railway works, the descend- up-hill, sand or seaweed carried up ing load being used to haul up the from the shore, or water drawn and ascending car. In the Alps, the Pyre- taken to a distance. These are some nees, and in the bridging of deep river- of the obvious uses for the aerial railbeds, this is the simplest and cheapest way in this country. In the colonies form of transport known. In the and abroad, it will take a vastly more Italian Alps, a span of fifteen hundred important place ; and the little Brighton yards is crossed without a support, and line will have served its purpose if it this “gossamer" transport is soon to reminds Englishmen from time to time be applied to distances of two thousand that there is yet another form of transyards. The usual means of drawing port than that by sea and on railway the load on level lines where it is not embankments.

Sixth Series,
Volume IV.


No. 2631.- December 8, 1894.:

From Beginning,




579 597



Edinburgh Review, II. THE SILENT POOLS, ;

Cornhill Magazine,
17:1592. By William W. Ireland,

Macmillan's Magazine,
VIUS. By Mrs. W. E. H. Lecky,

Longman's Magazine,
By J. E. Gore,

Gentleman's Magazine,
C. H. Firth,

Macmillan's Magazine,

Edwardes, .


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“A noble life is this we lead ! You never loved me, but you saw in me

The guards of true propriety, Reflected all the flowers your own soul Rewarding good or evil deed, bore ;

And punishing iniquity.
You saw your eyes in mine, and so you Yet there are trials ; 'tis a bore

That loving wives must weep alone." That only eyes like those your stars should Ah, Brigadier," replies Pandore, be.

* Brigadier, vous avez raison !" You leaned your flower-soft face toward 'Sometimes I dream of early youth my face,

(For past days never come again); I waited, heart-sick, for the crowning Some follies few and light, in truth, hour;

I had ; we are like other men. You looked and longed and loved not Our hearts are open as the skies, me, fair flower

They love to change their garrison." You loved the mirror of your own great “ True, true !" the faithful gensdarme grace.

sighs, You leaned down with the lily that you

“Brigadier, vous avez raison !” wore —

Glory is but a fading cloud ! Had I but leaped to meet your kiss

Yet rose and laurel both are dear. divine,

To Venus and Bellona vowed You and your flower of love had now

A husband I, and Brigadier ! been mine,

And yet I work for glory's prize, Drowned in my love — to waken never

And by the crimson path march on."

· Ah, Brigadier !” Pandore replies, But as it is – ah ! love, you know the rest ! Brigadier, vous avez raison." Robbed of your image, how the pool seemed base !

Then on they ride in silent thought, You will find many a mirror for your They make their rounds, by duty taught,

The horses plod their weary way, face, But no more flowers will lean across my But when Aurora trims the skies

And peaceful is the sergeant's sway. breast ! Athenæum.


That droning voice is heard anon
“Ah, Brigadier,” he still replies,
“Brigadier, vous avez raison !"


Temple Bar.

Down the elm-guarded village street

AN ARAB PROVERB. -"MEN ARE FOUR." (Where years go by with silent feet) Two gallant gensdarmes rode along ;

The man who knows not that he knows The sergeant's brow was firm and bold,

not aught The constable of gentler mould.

He is a fool; no light shall ever reach The bells rang out their matin song ;

him, Then spoke the chief from wisdom's store, Who knows he knows not, and would fain "The day is fine, though summer's

be taught gone."

He is but simple ; take thou him and "Ah, Brigadier," replied Pandore,

teach him. Brigadier, vous avez raison !"

But whoso, knowing, knows not that he The sun sets in a golden band,

knows – All silent is the nesting bird,

He is asleep ; go thou to him and wake But through the peaceful twilight land

him. The chief's sonorous voice is heard. The truly wise both knows, and knows he "You see those rosy clouds,” he cries,

knows“They take their coloring from the sun. Cleave thou to him, and nevermore for"Ah, Brigadier,” Pandore replies,

sake him. Brigadier, vous avez raison !”!


C. E. J.


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From The Edinburgh Review. which the towns hold in the early ENGLISH TOWNS IN THE FIFTEENTH political aud social history of our coun

try. Mrs. Green, while wisely refrainTHE good that a man does lives after ing from large generalizations, has him is a saying of the truth of which sometimes allowed her interest in her this book is an instance. For though subject to bias her judgment; but she it is the work of Mrs. Greeu, it owes bas, on the other hand, illuminated her its being to the example and the bid collection of materials with pertinent ding of her husband. " When Mr. and well-timed remarks, which put the Green's work was over he asked of me reader in the way to forın his own cona promise that I would try to study clusions, and to draw his own pictures some of those problems in medieval from the facts which are collected in history where there seemed to him so these pages. much that still needed to be done, aud

It may perhaps be asked why Mrs. so much to be yet discovered. In this Green has chosen to write the history book I bave made my first beginning of English towns in the fifteenth centoward the fulfilment of that promise." tury. We may give her answer in her It is a tribute to the memory, and a

own words : continuation of the method, of an hislorian whose life was too short, but There is no better starting point for the who has done very much to vivify En- study of town life in England than the glish history, and who viewed facts and fifteenth century itself, when, with ages of events in their true proportions. To restless growth lying behind them, and him is due, wrote the late Mr. Free- with their societies as yet untouched by man in the introduction to his “ English Reformation or the new commercial sys

the influences of the Renascence or the Towns and Districts,” “the happy tem, the boroughs had reached their prosphrase the making of England,' to

perous maturity. It would be vain to describe the process in which many attempt any reconstruction of their earlier of the towns and districts here spoken history without having first stood, as it of played no small part." It is a were, in the very midst of that turbulent phrase which causes us to regard his- society, and by watching the infinite variety torical facts from quite a different point of constitutional development learned to of view from that which was at one search out and estimate the manifold forces time common. Great events and con- which had been at work to bring about so stitutional conflicts, the policies and complex a result ; and no study of their the deeds of statesmen and of kings, standing of the prodigious vitality of the

later history is possible without an underhave now found their proper place in medieval municipalities. (Vol. i., p. 9.) the making of England side by side with the apparently insignificant move. It is the age at which the English ments of trade and commerce, with the boroughs had reached a period of gradual growth of borough and port, prosperity, after which their history is and with the broadening of freedom more interwoven with the general from precedent to precedent among history of the nation. Thenceforth, burghers and townsmen. To this ap- also, new forces were to affect the preciation of some of the less striking, towns individually, so as, in but not less important, elements in the instances, to produce a still larger making of England these volumes are growth ; in others, 10 hasten their dean important contribution, since they cay. Up to this time “the burghers place before us the materials which went on filling their purses, on the one enable us to realize both the growth hand, and drawing up constitutions for and the character of town life in the their towns on the other, till, in the fifteenth century, and, to understand, fifteenth century, they were, in fact, looking before and after, the place the guardians of English wealth and

1 Town Life in the Fifteenth Century. By Mrs. the arbiters of English politics." This J. R. Green. In two vols. London : 1894.

is too broad a statement, though it is a

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striking way of emphasizing the fact the royal demesne than by those on that the English towns, by their cor- land of which a noble or an ecclesiasporate growth, and by the comfort and tical dignitary was the lord. As bethe wealth of their inhabitants, had tween towns on the two latter kind attained a place which caused them of estates, commercial prosperity was henceforth to be important factors in greatest on Church estates, but municithe politics of the age and vital elements pal freedom was as difficult of attainin the social system of the country. ment there as under a feudal noble ; At the same time, it is necessary to the latter was jealous of civic freedom, guard against the idea that there was a and he was so straitened for money uniformity in the growth of the English that he was always squeezing the last towns, or that there was, in their ma- farthing from towns on his estates. turity, a complete similarity either in Noblemen of the fifteenth had often as their constitutions or their customs. little spare money as many of the arisIt is, in fact, the marked difference tocracy of the nineteenth century ; between them which renders necessary they were hard pressed to find the a careful study of each borouglı, if we means of maintaining their position would understand correctly the making and of supplying fighting men for their of England. In some respects the king : title of this book must put the student The conditions under which the great on his guard. He will be inclined to landowners were living at this time were expect a single view of the English indeed singularly unfavorable. With the towns at a particular period ; he will new trade they had comparatively little to hope to catch them, if we may so say, do, and the noble, with his throng of defor the moment stationary. In this he pendents and his show of state, was really will be disappointed, for he will have living from hand to mouth on the harvests to watch their growth, and their from his fields and the plunder he got in

After the fashion of the time the changes during the whole of the fifteenth century, and he will have to his great oak chests ; splendid robes, cloth

treasure of the family was hoarded up in do more — he will have, in some in- of gold, figured satins, Eastern damasks stances, to go back to yet earlier years, and Sicilian silks, velvets and Flemish in which the cardinal events in the cloths, tapestries and fine linen, were wediæval history of some of the Eu- heaped together with rich furs of marten glish towns are to be found ; and he and beaver. Golden chains and collars of will be fortunate if, while endeavoring

" the old fashion” and “the new,'' rings to draw some general conclusion, he and brooches adorned with precious stones, does not find that each fresh town that girdles of gold or silver gilt by famous for he brings within his review alters the eign makers, were stored away in his generalizations which he is formulat- strong boxes, or in the safe rooms of mon

asteries, along with ewers and goblets and ing

basins of gold and silver, pounced and Thie want of similarity in growth, to embossed with great large enamels" which we just now alluded, is well ex- covered with silver of "Paris touch." But emplified in those pages in which Mrs. the owner of all this unproductive treasure Green treats' of towns ou three differ- scarcely knew where to turn for a little eut kinds of estates — namely, those ready money. The produce of the estate on the royal demesne, those on feudal, sufficed for the needs of the household, and and 'those on Church estates. It is if the lord was called away on the king's

had to attend Parliament, a supdangerous to generalize on the subject, service, and Mrs. Green has in this part of her ply of oats was carried for the horses " to work perhaps endeavored to make save the expense of his purse ;” and an these divisions too marked; but, no wards continually to fetch provisions from

army of servants rode backwards and fordoubt, some difference is evident in a fields and ponds and salting tubs at home, more rapid growth and a quicker attain- so that he should never be driven to buy ment both of municipal freedom and for money from the baker or at the market. commercial prosperity by the towns on | The crowd of dependents who swelled his



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