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fore of the lesser brethren not much is of a bolt driven home the rhythmic writ.
traffic of life to slay life ! To-day, many a time, Domenico Has Florence no beart? Is gratitude would have broken out into bitter dumb memory dead? Is there not words, for all his soul was shaking a soul in this accursed city that remem. with wrath ; not for himself, but for bers? Aye, there is one.
Oh, pure, the prior of his adoring love. But with pale face, and sorrowful, deep eyes ! a touch Girolamo subdued him, if not But the hammering and turmoil of this to peace at least to silence. A strong red, funeral horror will not let me rest, soul, Domevico ; yet had there been no with its passionate, insistent voice. I Girolamo, Domenico had lived and died must leave it all for to-night, or I shall the pope's very humble servant.
As for Silvestro, he trembled like a reed, a mere physical reaction, as I May 23rd. — All night long the brute think, for the spirit was unbowed. city has prowled round the square, The face might be pale, as whose howling like a famished beast, restless, might not at such a time? But the and on the alert for blood. All night eyes which looked at Romolino up and long, through the hoarse outcry, has down had no terror in them.
rolled the din of labor. Rasp of saw What a companionship must be theirs -clang of iron, and the hurrying feet to-night, though not one of words, I trampling the hollow plauks. think! There is but little room for No peace without or within, for all words where the energy of faith crys- night long I have cried into the darktallizes into death. One of spirit ness, and there is none to hearken. rather, and that strength which comes Dimly the light has crept in, seeming of union.
to bear upon its wings, more shrill and I would I were with them, then I clear than in the gloom, the voise of might fight down the devil better than the cager, life-thirsty floodtide of wrath
What a pendulum is man! Let outside. In this I am steadfast : not me set it down, that I may look the even the general himself shall drag me truth in the face.
out to see the hungry lust for murder Leaving the hall with all the exalta- in the eyes of those who have been tion of rage and pity beating at my loved so well. brain, there looked out of the crowd Ha ! how the tumult swells into a about the doorway that sorrowful, roar, and dies away in a gasp of silence sweet face which has haunted me these as if the breath were choked down ten three times. The blood surged to my thousand throats. heart and eyes like a wave flood, so I can hear their feet — the shuffle on that I gasped, and staggered - blinded. the planks!
The exaltation crumbled to despair, Is that the murmur of the office for and all for a woman's face.
the deal ? Oh, God in heaven, shrive See thou to that -- prayer and fast-them! Oh, God in heaven, receive ing! See thou to that – trample na- them ! ture under foot and rise to heaven upon
There is a buzz of exit! But heaven seems near at hand! pectation. The ladder See thou to that! How? — How ? the struggle. – Prayer and fasting, prayer and fast- What is that? The crackle and roar ing! See thou to that!
of fire already, and a new red light that What an echo rumbles from the dances horribly on the wall ! square! There is the thud of a mal- Down on tliy knees, Giovanni, and let; there the crash of a plank flung weep. Who weeps with thee but that from shoulder high — the sharp ring one sorrowful, pale face ?
It dies away
- the rope —
From Blackwood's Magazine, exercised particular influence on the STREETS OF PARIS FORTY YEARS look of the streets as on the home con
tacts of the inhabitants, and needs to THE changes which have come about be borne always in mind in endeavoring during the last forty years in the aspect to reconstitute the former aspects of of the streets of Paris have been vastly the place. Of course there were, in more marked thau those which have those days as always, certain quarters occurred in Loudon within the same of the town which were tenanted experiod. The two main reasons of the clusively by the poor ; but the great difference are : firstly, that London set feature was that the poor were not to work to modify its ways at a much restricted to those special quarters ; earlier date than Paris, and that Paris they lodged everywhere else as well, still retained, at the commencement of wherever they found themselves in the fifties, many reminders of ancient proximity to their work, in the most sights and customs, and still presented aristocratic as in the lowest districts. many characteristics of past days, In almost every house in the fashionwbich, on this side of the Channel, had able parts of Paris the successive or's faded out long before ; secondly, that, were inhabited by a regular gradation when transformation did at last begin of classes from the bottom to the top ; in Paris, it was far more sudden and over the rich people on the first and violent, far more universal and radical, second floors were clerks and tradesthan the mild gradual variations we people en chambre on the third and have introduced in London, and that, fourth, and workmen of all sorts on the in consequence of the utterness of that fifth and sixth.
Thorough mingling of transformation, an entire city was vir- ranks under the same roof was the rule tually swept away and a new one put in of life ; all the lodgers used the same
: its place. The Paris of the First En- stairs (in those days back staircases pire was still visible in 1850, almost scarcely existed); all tramped up and unaltered in its essential features ; old down amidst the careless spillings and houses, old roadways, old vehicles, old droppings of the less clean portion of cheapuesses, old particularities of all the inmates. The most finished of the sorts, had been faithfully preserved, women of the period thought it natand struck both the eye and the pocket ural to use the same flight as the dirty of the new-comer as signs of another children from above them ; a lady goepoch. It was not till Haussmann being out to dinner in white satin did gan, in 1854, the reconstruction, not not feel shocked at meeting a mason only of so many of the buildings of in white calico coming in ; nodding Paris, but — what was far more grave acquaintances between fellow-lodgers
- of its conditions, and practices, and were formed when time had taught order of existence, that the relics of them each other's faces. The effect foriner life, former manners, and of this amalgamation in the houses former economies found themselves stretched out naturally into the streets, successively crushed out, and that the where, in consequence of the nearness brilliant, extravagant Paris of Napoleon of their homes, the various strata of III. was evolved from the ruins.
the population of each quarter were At the commencement of the Second thrown together far more promiscuously Empire Paris was still a city of many than they are now. The workers have mean streets and a few grand ones ; no place in the new houses, which are still a city of rare pavements, rough built for the rich alone; they have stones, stagnant gutters, and scarcely been driven to the outskirts, instead of any drainage ; still a city of uncom- being spread, more or less, over the fortable homes, of varied snells, of whole town; the classes and the relatively simple life, and of close masses live now entirely apart, in disintermixture of classes. This last ele- tricts remote from each other, and the ment - the intermixture of classes - growing hate of the masses for the
classes has been considerably stimu- | before. Stores, in the English sense, lated by the separation. A totally have never become acclimatized in altered social relationship, a far less Paris (though several attempts have friendly attitude and feeling between been made to introduce them), mainly the top and the bottom, has resulted because the cooks refuse to purchase from the expulsion of so many of the food in places where they can get no poor from their old homes.
commission for themselves ; but the The good streets of Paris forty years growth of the Bon Marché and the ago were therefore far more generally Louvre, which has been entirely efrepresentative than they are to-day. fected within the last forty years, supThey exhibited the various components plies evidence enough that in Paris, as of the community with more abun- in London, the tendency of the period dance, more accuracy, and a truer - outside the cooks — is towards comaverage ; universal blending was their prehensive establishments, where obnormal condition. The stranger learntjects of many natures can be found at more from them in a day about types low prices under the same roof. Potin, and categories than he can now learn the universal grocer, supplies even an in a week, for in the present state example of success in spite of the of things there are, in one direction, cooks. Yet, notwithstanding the comregions where a cloth coat is never petition of the new menageries of beheld, and, in another, districts where goods, most of the shop windows on a blouse is almost unknown. And the Boulevards and in the Rue de la when to this former medley of persons Paix seem to indicate that the comand castes we add the notable differ- merce inside is still prosperous. Cerences of dress, of bearing, of occupa- tain sorts of shops have, it is true, tions of the passers-by from those entirely, or almost entirely disapwhich prevail in the rich quarters now, peared, partly from the general change the contrast of general effect may of ways of life, partly from the absorpeasily be imagined. Forty years are tion of their business by larger traders. but an instant in the history of a For instance, I believe I am correct in nation, and yet the last forty years saying that there is not now one single have sufficed to produce an organic glove-shop left in Paris (I meau a shop change in the appearance of the streets in which gloves alone are kept, as used of Paris.
to be the case iu former times). The The change extends to everything - high-class special dealers in lace, in to the houses, the shops, the public cachemire shawls, in silks, have melted and private carriages, the soldiers, the away. At the other end of the scale policemen, the hawkers' barrow and the herboristes, who sold medicinal the aspect of the men and women. herbs, have vanished too,; the rotisNearly everything has grown smarter, seurs, who had blazing fires behind but everything without exception has their windows, and supplied roast grown dearer. Whether the former chickens off the spit, have abandoned compensates for the latter is a question business ; even the liot-chestnut dealer which every one must decide for him of the winter nights is rarely to be disself according to his personal view. covered now. Specialities, excepting
The shops were of course inferior to jewellery, are ceasing to be able to hold what they are now. The show in the their own; emporiums are choking windows — the montre, as the French them. Measuring the old shops all call it — was less brilliant and less round — in showiness, in variety of artempting. They were, however, the ticles, in extent of business — they prettiest of their time in Europe ; and were incontestably inferior to those of all that they have done since has been to-day, though not more so than in any to march onward with the century, other capital. and, amidst the general progress of the
The look of the private carriages world, to keep the front place they held I was also far less bright. They were
less well turned out; the horses were effect (the Viennese are generally put, heavier; the servants were often badly secoud, though lengths bebivd); the dressed ; the driving was, if possible, other, that at no time within living more careless. French carriages (like memory have they contributed French plates and kuives) have always largely, so exclusively indeed, to that been more lightly made than those of effect as they did half a century ago. England, and at that time the differ- Their performance indoors is not inence was more marked, because English cluded iu the present matter ; it is not carriages were more massive than now. their talk but their walk, not their The omnibuses and cabs were dirty home manner but their out-door mainand uncomfortable ; ancient shapes still tien, not their social action in private existed, and, certainly, they did not aid but their physical effect in public, that to adorn the streets.
concern us here. In general terms it may be said that, The results, to the eye of the passerin Paris as everywhere else – but wore by, were admirable ; and so were the perhaps in Paris than elsewhere processes by which the results were
in comparison with to-day, reached. The period of Louis Philess smartness, less alertness, less lippe had been essentially honest and hurry, and of course less movement, respectable ; it had discouraged vanfor the population was much smaller, ities and follies; it had encouraged and the city was still limited by the moderation and prudence ; it had reoctroi wall. The relative absence of acted on the wliole organization of the bustle produced, however, no dulness ; life of the time, and, amongst other the streets were not so noisy, not so things, on women's dress. It was a crowded, not so business-like as they season of economy, of frank acceptance have become since; but I think it is of the fruits of small money, and of an quite true to say that they were as astonishing handiness in making the bright. The brightness came from one most out of little. When we look back special cause, from a spring of action (with the ideas of to-day) to the condiproper to the time, which produced an tions of expenditure which prevailed aspect unlike that of other days. The then, it is difficult to believe that, with great peculiarity, the striking mark and such limited resources, the woman of badge, which distinguished the streets the time can have won such a place in of then from the streets of now, were the admiration of the world. I am cersupplied by a something which was tainly not far wrong in affirming that nationally proper to the France of the the majority of the women of the period, by a something which none of upper classes who ambled about the us will see at work again in the same streets in those days had not spent ten form — by the type of the Paris women pounds each on their entire toilette, of the time.
every detail of it included. The tenThe question of the ivfluence of dency of the epoch was lowards ex
on the aspect of out-of-door treme refinement, but towards equally life has always occupied the attention extreme simplicity as the basis of the of travellers. I have discussed it — refinement. There was no parade of and, especially, the comparative attrac- stuffs, or colors, or of façons; there tiveness of European women of dif- was scarcely any costly material ; but ferent races and epochs - with many there was a perfume of high, breeding cosmopolitan observers, including old and a daintiness of small viceties that diplomatists from various lauds, who, were most satisfying to the critical beas a class, are experienced artistes en holder. Finish not flourish, distinction femmes and profound students of “the not display, grace not glitter, were the eternal feminine," and I have found a aims pursued. The great ambition concordancy of opinion on two points : indeed, the one ambition — was to be one, that the women of Paris have comme il faut ; that phrase expressed always stood first as regards open-air the perfection of feminine possibilities
as the generation understood them. I meaning of comme il faut ; if the young And they were comme il faut! Never ones were acquainted with it they has delicate femininity reached such a would only scorn it. As the Figaro height, never has the ideal 66 lady” observed some years ago, “la femme been so consummately achieved. That comme il faut est remplacée par la ideal (by its nature purely conven- femme comme il en faut." When the tional) has never been either conceived streels were peopled by the “femme or worked out identically in all coun- comme il faut,” it was a privilege and tries simultaneously ; local variety has a lesson to walk in them. always existed ; the Russian lady, the 1
And yet, if she could be called to life German lady, the English lady, the again, the streets of 10-day would only French lady - I mean, of course, laugh at her. Paris has grown accuswomen of social position — have never tomed to another theory of woman, been precisely like each other; the aud would have no applause to offer to differences are diminishing with facili- a revival of the past. The eye addicts ties of communication and more fre- itself to what it sees each day, mistakes quent contacts, but they still exist | mere habit for reasoned preference, perceptibly, and half a century ago and likes or dislikes, admires or conwere clearly marked. The French lady temns, by sheer force of contact ; but
; of the time was most distinctly herself, surely it will be owned, even by those not the same as the contemporaneous who are completely under present inlady of other lands, and the feeling fluences, that the principles of dress of the judges to whom I have already and bearing which were applied in referred was that, out of doors, she Paris in the second quarter of the cenbeat them all. I personally remember tury had at all events a value which her (I was young then, and probably has become rare since. Women atsomewhat enthusiastic) as a dream of lained charm without expense,
but charm, and feminine beyond anything with strong personality, for the reason I have seen or heard of since.
that they manufactured it for themConceive the effect she produced in selves, and did not ask their tailor to the streets ! Conceive the sensation supply it. It was a delicious pattern of strolling in a crowd in which every while it lasted, and while it correwoman had done her utmost to be sponded to the weeds of a time ; but comme il faut ; in which, as a natural the time has passed, the pattern has result, a good many looked" born;” in become antiquated, and, in every way, which a fair minority might have car- Paris has lost largely by the change. ried on their persons the famous lines Unhappily there was a fault in this inscribed on one of the arabesqued attractive picture ; but as it was fault walls of the Alhambra, “Look at my common to all Europe then, and was in elegance ; thou wilt reap from it the no way special to the French, it did not benefit of a commentary on decora-strike the foreign spectator of those
The fashions of the time aided days, because he was accustomed to it in the production of the effect sought everywhere. The fault was that it was for ; they were quiet, simple, subdued ; the fashion to look insipid ! The por
; and they were so because the women traits of the period testify amply to the who adopted them had the good sense fact, for they depict the least expresto take calm, simplicity, sobriety for sive looking generation that ever had their rules.
itself painted. Bothringlets and flat Alas ! the expression comme il faut bandeaux lent their aid successively to bas disappeared from the French lan- the fabrication of the air of weakness. guage, just as the type and the ideas The Parisienne, with all her natural of which I have been speaking have vivacity, could not escape from the unidisappeared from French life. Some-versal taint; in comparison with what thing very different is wanted now. she has been at other times and is toNone but old people know the ancient day, there was about her a feebleness