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Josef Land, cailing en route at Archan- specific. The use of alcohol and togel. Many of the equipments of the bacco, which has recently been entirely expedition were exhibited to a select discarded in Arctic work, is one of the party at an “at home” given by Mr. peculiar and probably not unpopular and Mrs. Harmsworth at the Grafton features of the present attempt on the Galleries on Friday evening, and on the Pole. Monday last a number of visitors were The arrangements for travelling inshown over the ship in the Shadwell clude boats for crossing open water. Basin, when the special arrangements One of aluminium, measuring eighteen for the expedition were more fully ex- feet by five feet, weighs only one hunplained. The staff which has been dred and fifty pounds, and can carry finally selected by Mr. Jackson to ac- twenty people ; it is made in three seccompany him on his projected land tions for convenience of transport on journey in the far North includes the sledges, and each section will float by following: Mr. Albert Armitage, sec- itself. A similar copper boat, weighond in command, a young officer of the ing about two hundred pounds, is also P. and 0. Company's service, who is a carried, and three light wooden Norpractical navigator and trained in as- wegian boats. A fast steam-launch, tronomical and magnetic observations ; appropriately named the Markham, is Dr. Kettlits, medical officer ; Captain expected to be of service if it is found Schlosshauer, a merchant skipper; Mr. possible to proceed from the base for Fisher, curator of the Nottingham Mu- some distance by sea, or up Austria seum, as scientific collector ; Mr. Bur- Sound. Eighteen sledges of excepgess, who has had some previous Arctic tionally light and strong construction, experience, and will act as cook; Mr. each calculated to carry one thousand Childs, who undertakes mineralogical pounds weight if necessary, are taken ; work and plotography; and Mr. Duns- these are to be drawn by Siberian dogs ford, who, like Mr. Jackson and Mr. or ponies. There are three collapsible Armitage, has a knowledge of survey-tents, and suits of Samoyed clothing ing. Some friends of the explorers sail for use in winter, the cumbrous-looking with the party, intending to return from garb of these Siberian nomads being Archangel. Several previous expedi- considered better adapted for rough tions have acquired some knowledge of work in bad weather than the tighterthe natural conditions of Franz Josef titting costume of the Eskimo pattern. Land, and it is confidently expected The scientific instruments carried are that game, in the shape of bears, seals, perhaps the finest that have ever been and birds, will be abundant. Accord- taken into the far North, the extensive ingly a complete outfit of sporting guns, use of aluminium ensuring a lightness rifles, harpoons, etc. is being taken. and strength never before attained in The expedition is, however, fully pro- Arctic exploration. visioned for four years with the most After landing the exploring party in highly condensed and thoroughly pre- Franz Josef Land about the end of served foods obtainable. Much reli- August the Windward will return to ance is placed on the fresh bear and England, if possible, and sail again seal meat, expected to be shot, for the next year with fresh supplies. The prevention of scurvy, but Mr. Jackson whole cost of the expedition is estialso proposes to use port wine as al mated at £25,000.

THREE Norwegian whalers have at- 69° or 70° without finding enough ice to tempted seal fishery in the Antarctic make sealing profitable, and it is reported waters south of the Falkland islands dur- that a considerable extent of new land has ing the southern summer now ending. been discovered and charted. One of these vessels was as far south as


Sixth Series,
Volume IV.


No. 2626.- November 3, 1894.


From Beginning,


259 267




282 286

Hall Caine,

New Review,

Blackwood's Magazine, III. RAVENNA AND HER Ghosts. By Vernon Lee,


NAPOLEON. By Neville G. Lyttelton, New Review, V. BY THE LIGHT OF A CAMP FIRE,

fred Austin,

Blackwood's Magazine,
Cope Cornford, .

Longman's Magazine,

ISLANDS. By William C. Preston, Sunday Magazine,

Macmillan's Magazine,


Cornhill Magazine,

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258 | AUTUMN,





TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EighT DOLLARS remitteii directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postuye.

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Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.


Here hopes are pure, and aims are cool My orchard blooms with high September

and high ; light,

Here Pisgah-glints of Heaven may Opal and topaz star the burning grass ; greet our view; The hedgerow-fluted meadows climb the O come and in green light of glory lie, height,

And talk of song and death, without or And into gulfs of silver'd azure pass ;

flush or sigh.

Athenæum. The glittering hawk-weed turns to

EDMUND GOSSE golden glass The dew'd enamel of the rough pale field ; With laden boughs, a lichen-hoary mass,

AUTUMN. Rolls the arch'd canopy of autumn's yield,

Thou burden of all songs the earth hath And hides a liquid gloom beneath its leafy sung, shield.

Thou retrospect in Time's reverted eyes,

Thou metaphor of everything that dies, Come to me now, while all the winds are That dies ill-starred, or dies beloved and dumb,

young, And, floating in this earthly hyaline,

And therefore blest and wise Bring me no whisper of the harsh world's

O be less beautiful, or be less brief, hum,

Thou tragic splendor, strange and full of But, with an indolence attuned to

fear ! mine,

In vain her pageant shall the Summer Pass to my soul the thoughts that wave

rear ! in thine ; Like those twin brooks that stir our field At thy mute signal, leaf by golden leaf,

Crumbles the gorgeous year. below Whose sparkles meet in music, they Ah, ghostly as remembered mirth, the divine

tale No first nor second place, but all they

Of Summer's bloom, the legend of the know

Spring ! Is that with doubled strength they seaward

And thou, too, flutterest an impatient leap and flow.

wing, Come to me now ; come from the mart Thou presence yet more fugitive and frail,

Thou most unbodied thing, To this monastic court of apple-trees.

Whose very being is thy going hence, See, the grey heron rises from the fen, And passage and departure all thy And mark ! his slower mate by long

theme; degrees

Whose life doth still a splendid dying Follows and flaps to stiller shades than

seem, these ;

And thou at height of thy magnificence They wing their lonesome meditative A figment and a dream. way

Stilled is the virgin rapture that was To some hush'd elbow of the reedy


And cold is August's panting heart of O let us lose ourselves in flight, as they Their hearts' sequestered law thus tenderly

And in the storm-dismantled forestobey.

choir Here all is gained we waste our lives de- For thine own elegy the winds attune manding ;

Their wild and wizard lyre ; Here all things meet that, feverish, we And poignant grows the charm of thy depursue ;

cay, The peace of God that passeth under- The pathos of thy beauty, and the sting, standing

Thou parable of greatness vanishing ! Falls on this place, and like a chrism For me, thy woods of gold and skies of of dew,

grey Without a murmur, steeps us thro' With speech fantastic ring. and thro' ;


of men,

leas ;

fire ;

From The New Review.

there ; it does not pass away ; it domiTHE NOVELIST IN SHAKESPEARE.1 nates everything.

Is this too bold a figure to describe Two years ago I was sailing off the the position of Shakespeare in literanorth-east coast of Denniark. A thick ture? It is three centuries since he mist enveloped the ship, and the cap- first appeared, and where he stood tain slacked speed, saying he would go then he is still standing. Other figures no farther, for the land must be some have arisen and disappeared. The where thereabout. Presently the help- great figures of his own time have less void began to break. A dim nearly all crumbled away. If they reshadow crept along our side to the main, it is only as ruins, haunted by west. The shadow took first the shape the literary antiquary. But he is where of a low mountain, then of broken he was, our beacon, our stronghold, cliffs, finally of ruined walls.

“That's and our greatest literary monument. Elsinore,” said the captain, and in a The iestiwal we are here to celebrate moment we were standing out to sea. is not a new one. After iniriy-seven

Will you think me very weak that I anniversaries, and as many speeches wanted to go down on my knees on the from the chair, it is manifestly difficult deck ? The vapory shadow of the to say anything that shall be at once walls of Elsinore was like the ghost of original and worthy to be remembered. Hamlet, of Shakespeare, coming down I am satisfied that if there is any new through the mists of three hundred thought on Shakespeare, it lies someyears.

where at the surface and needs no At my home in the Isle of Man, digging for. Therefore, I content mydirectly facing the window of the room self with the idea that is nearest — the in which I work, there is another idea that is suggested by the daily occastle, built by the Danes. They say cupations of my own life. I ask you it is precisely on the model of the to consider with me whether ShakeCastle of Elsinore. It stands on an speare, who was the greatest of Enisland rock, and looks back at the town glish dramatists, was not also the first and out on the sea. I have seen this of English novelists. old castle every day for about a year, It will be necessary to clear the and I have never been neighbor to any ground by some general definition of inanimate thing that has had a stronger the novel and the drama. For this effect on my mind. It would be hard


I propose to take the wellto say what that effect has been. I

known passage from the fifth book of think its steadfastness has produced “ Meister's Apprenticeship.” the most abiding impression. What

"One evening a dispute arose among our little town was like when the castle our friends about the novel and the was built, no one kuows. How many drama, and which of them deserved houses and streets have risen and fallen the preference. They conversed toto ruins since then we cannot tell. gether long upon the matter; and in But the castle remains. There it

fine, the following was nearly the restands, and has stood for ten centuries, sult of their discussion : In the novel with its round tower against the sky. as well as in the drama it is human The sun rises on the face of it, and nature and human action that we see. then it is grey ; the sun sets at the back

.. But in the novel it is chiefly sentiof it, and then it is black. On misty ments and events that are exhibited ; in days it is only a ghostly white shape the drama it is characters and deeds. bebind clouds of vapor ; when storms The novel must go slowly forward, and are raging it is only a rock for the big the sentiments of the hero, by some means seas to break over. But it is always or other, must restrain the tendency of

the whole to unfold itself and to conclude. 1 An address delivered at the Shakespeare Birthday Dinner, April 23rd, 1894, Anderton's Hotel, The drama, on the other hand, must

hasten, and the character of the bero



must press forward to the end. ...mists of the past. We dip into its The novel-lero must be suffering, at history at a notable point. It is the least he must not in a high degree be period immediately preceding the Elizactive, in the dramatic one, we must abethau dramatists. There were plays look for activity and deeds."

founded on Italian tales of love, on I am not going to discuss this as Spanish voyages, on the death of Julius a theory. I will ask you to accept it Cæsar, on a Scottish thane who killed as a touchstone by which, to judge his king, on a Danish prince who preof Shakespeare's art, Goethe may be tended to be mad, and on a young girl wrong ; if so, the greater part of the who pretended to be dead. These world is wrong with him. Pretty ac- plays were very rough affairs, and a curately he expresses the general feel- harum-scarum lot of vagabonds had ing.

got tattered copies of them. They Now if we were asked by a foreigner acted them in sheds, in the open yards to give an account of the origin of the of inns, and in the penny enclosures at English novel, I suppose we should say country fairs. Of course the great that, after various trial trips with Sir folks did not go to see them, or if they Philip Sidney, Defoe, and others, it did they were careful to wear masks. began with Richardson and Fielding. The intellectual world, according to its In these two writers it leapt to a great wont, regarded these children of the maturity. But it was still very simple imagination with great disdain. Bacon in structure ; it was still epic, and told kuew nothing about such its tale precisely as you would tell a But every Londou 'prentice knew them tale to a child, beginning “Once upon by heart, and could tell their stories a time there lived a man.”

backwards. Then came writers of various merit, And then came along a group of and presently a great man, a mighty young men of brilliant gifts, but not magician, a wonderful zar

— Walter too much scholarship. One of them Scott. Scott did more than write a was a gravedigger, another had been a group of the linest novels in the lan- bricklayer, a third a butcher, and the guage ; he enlarged the art of fiction. ablest of the brotherhood was a counThis he did by adding to the epic try lad, son of a farmer, and nothing method the dramatic method. The else in particular. These boys cast in tale did not begin, “ Once upon a time their lot with the London 'prentice. there lived a man.” It began, so to They took the tattered copies of those speak, “On a certain day, etc., etc., old plays, one by one, and transfigured when the sun was dipping over the them, put character, and atmosphere, hill, etc., etc., etc., a solitary horseman and politics, and religion into them. might have been seen, etc., etc.” You They had only been boys' stories beknow the way of it. This dropped you fore, but now they became real dramas. down into a story, precisely as a drama The 'prentices liked them just as much does, when the curtain rises and you as ever, perhaps rather better, and the sit and watch for the plot.

great multitude of the people found Such is the state of the English novel that they liked them no less. Theatres at the present hour. We have got no were then built; the tatterdemalion further than Scott. A novel, then, at ragamuffins became a recognized proits best, is now a drama written out full fession, and the English drama was length, with scenery and scene-shift- afoot. ing, and music, and the actors' dresses, But what were the conditions of its and the actors' voices, all reproduced existence ? They were very primitive. in words.

A piece of dramatic writing to be anyAud, now, for a moment, I will ask thing had to be everything. It must not you to hark back. Let us glance at the only tell a story, it must criticise it. It origin of the English drama. Its lit- must not only present a character, it eral origin is lost somewhere in the must tell you if the character was good

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