ate, and the control and strict supervision Commerce and manufactures moved only of the sovereign power, which Mobammed in the old grooves, slowly and with diffihad enjoined, was accepted in principle culty. The genius of the people in cenbut neglected in practice, the despotism tral Asia is not wanting in taste and and tyranny which prevailed at the centre ability, industry and perseverance. But of the empire must necessarily become every innovation was systematically diseven more outrageous in the distant re couraged. Clothing, house-furniture, and gions on the frontier. In Bagdad the jewelry were forced to keep their timetottering throne of consecrated tyrants was honored forms and their primitive methods overthrown by Mongol hordes; in Tehe. of manufacture. So that even before the ran, in Stambul, in Cairo, and elsewhere Russian conquest of the country the na. the influence of the West, every day be. tive artificers themselves avowed their coming stronger, has compelled the adop- inability to compete with the foreign goods tion of better methods of government, and imported from the north, south, and west, has loosened the grip of despotism; wbile and during the time of my visit lamented in central Asia the old state of things still their approaching ruin. The merchant prevailed. It is true that here, too, Mon- boldly undertook the month-long journeys gols and Turko-Tartars have in the course with the caravans, and braved the dangers of history overthrown monarchies and set caused by the severity of the climate and up new dynasties; but here, with every the rapacity of the pomads, but could change in the ruler, the old despotic sys. hardly succeed in protecting his bales of tem planted itself all the more firmly, and merchandise, which had escaped the on the very eve of the Russian occupation storms of the desert and the armed bands I was confronted in Turkestan with the of the Alamans and the Barantas, from most horrible exhibition of Asiatic tyr- the arbitrary exactions of the customs anny and barbarism. Religion, which, officers of the khanates. If in spite of according to its original intention, should all these obstacles he succeeded in enhave acted as a check on tyradnical exer- riching himself, he was still in perpetual cise of power, had become in central Asia danger of being plundered by the covetous a support of despotism, and the pious men, sovereign of his own country. who were in full possession of the confi. The agriculturist was not much better dence of the people, emulated the officials off. The soil, although cultivated with of the emirs and the khans in plundering the most primitive implements, such as the masses entrusted to their spiritual had been in use for thousands of years, care. Among the principal religious per- still yielded in abundance the manifold sons whom I met in Turkestan I do not blessings of nature ; for, as. I observed remember a single kazi-kelan or ishan many years ago, the oases of central Asia (chief of a religious order) or one single are like precious stones in a setting of mollah who ever felt himself moved to sand. Yet what availed the prodigality of express the slightest disapproval of the nature in a country where the husband. conduct of the officers of the government, man knew not how to turn the surplus however great the cruelty with which the produce to good account, where the fertil. latter behaved. The whole attention of izing system of irrigation, neglected by those religious men was directed to the the government, is abandoned to the care maintenance of superstition, the suppres of the several communes, where the fearsion of all individual liberty and the ex. ful prospect of being sanded up grows clusion of the last gleam of enlightenment. every year more imminent? It can be Where the spiritual and temporal powers shown with historical certainty that four care only for their own interests, have in hundred years ago the cultivated region view only the plunder of the people and in the north and north-east of the khanthe continuance of their own power and ates of Khiva and Bokhara extended from influence, there can be no hope of any ten to twenty geographical miles further moral elevation of the masses, of any im. than is at present the case. Mention is provement of their economical condition. I made of flourishing and populous cities,

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where nothing is now to be seen but an | regarded as superfluous, day, even as forunfathomed desert of sand. The prevail. bidden. Such was the intellectual atmoing wind in that region blows from the sphere which pervaded the studies of the north-east, bringing with it masses of sand, two or three thousand students in the which smother one field after another, colleges of central Asia. As for what continually contracting the extent of culti. went on in the world outside the bounds vable land, until the husbandman in de- of Islam, what humanity has done in these spair gives up the unequal struggle, and modern times, they had no sort of care or leaves the enemy to cover the whole with feeling. Indeed, they of set purpose de. one uniform shroud of sand. In this way spised and ignored such things. They cities have disappeared without leaving a showed even a certain pride in being able trace behind, and the territory beyond the to point out these hotbeds of religious Oxus, which the travellers and geogra. extravagance and purblind ignorance as phers of the Middle Ages described as the intellectual centre of the vast territorich and flourishing, has now become a ries stretching from the Indian Ocean to poverty-stricken desert.

Siberia, from the Hoangho to the Caspian. When we take this circumstance into Sandy deserts and Kirghizes in the north, consideration, we shall not be surprised to sandy deserts and Turkomans in the find that the intellectual life of central south, formed the iron band that enclosed Asia was never able to attain the same this strange world. The fear inspired by degree of development as we find in the those ferocious nomads barred the way other lands of Islam. It is true that in thither against all intruders. And not one the time of the Samanides and the Kha. single ray of that sun which had risen for rezmians, there were not wanting learned the rest of the world was able to find its men such as Avicenna, Zamakhshari, Al-way into that realm of darkness, which beruni, and others; but these were repre- had remained five hundred years behind sentatives of the common culture of Islam, the age. and were destitute of all national character. Such was the state of things in central istics. The specifically Aryan or Tura- Asia when the advanced posts of the nian spirit attempted to express itself only modern spirit, clad in Russian garb, in tbe field of theology and theosophy. On knocked in 1864 at its gates. Entrance the arrival of the Mongols this too disap- was of course refused, and as far as possi. peared, and utter darkness spread over ble prevented. But cobweblike defences the oasis-lands, isolated as they were from of religious fanaticism broke down at the the rest of the world. During my intimate first blow, and the northern conqueror adintercourse with the so-called learned men vanced on his career of victory with even of Bokhara, Khiva, and Samarkand, I greater ease and rapidity than the wild never encountered one who had any knowl. hordes of Mongols in the thirteenth cen. edge of secular science, not even of those tury, while the results of his victory were branches which are elsewhere allowed to incomparably more important and more be studied by Mohammedan scholars, permanent. It is now twenty-five years much less one who occupied himself in that the banner of the two-headed eagle their study. The richly endowed colleges floats over central Asia, and Western civil(medresses) of these cities were visited by ization in a Russian dress has made its hundreds of students from India, Afghan- entrance into the territories of old-world istan, and Chinese Turkestan. Great dil- Asiatic barbarism. The strange guest, igence in study was displayed, but secu- unloved and unexpected, has already made lar knowledge was rigidly separated from himself at home on several points of those theological subjects. Only grammar, territories; his stay is now evidently perrhetoric, and in history hagiology were manent, and his influence increases conzealously studied, while the other branchestinually both in extent and in intensity. of knowledge which had been cultivated in He is now engaged in founding there a the more flourishing periods of Islam, new order of things, and the consequent mechanics, medicine, and astronomy, were I change in the minds of men has already given a new coloring, a new form to an | large part comes into the hands of the interesting relic of the old world. We natives. The public peace and immunity may, therefore, be pardoned if we attempt from the extortions of the sovereign and to raise the veil of the future and to an the official class are sufficient of them. swer the question so often asked: What selves to place the cultivator and the mer. will become of central Asia under Russian chant in a position of ease they have never protection ? The answer, in vague and before experienced. Formerly, any one general terms, central Asia will become who had made money had carefully to civilized, civilized in the Russian sense conceal his good fortune under an appear. of the word, will not satisfy us. It is not ance of poverty. Now he can freely ex. precise enough. Our curiosity urges us hibit his riches, enjoy all the comforts of to examine : first, What measure of suc. life, and revel in such pleasures as forcess will this civilization achieve? Sec- merly he only knew from the tales of the ondly, What effects will it have upon story-tellers. This economical expansion our own political and economical circum- must, and in course of time will, assume stances ? And we must at starting remark still greater dimensions. The considerathat we are led to discuss these questions tion of ethnical relations and the diverse by no vain ambition of the credit of a characters of the different nationalities prophet, nor do we intend to satisfy our point to the original Aryan habitants selves with idle speculations, but to try of the land, the Sarts and the Tadjiks, our conclusions with the touchstone of as those have the fairest prospects before known historical facts, to use the experi. them. Peculiarities of race seldom or ence of the past to cast a light upon the never fail to assert themselves. Both in future.

the Middle Ages and in still older times it Russia's influence upon the culture of was these Aryan autochtones who created central Asia will, in the first place and to a temporary efflorescence of material and a preponderating, extent, be shown in intellectual splendor in those lands. In changes of a material and economical char- like manner, as may be safely predicted, acter. The treasures of the soil which this section of the population will, under have hitherto been neglected or but im- Russian guardianship, make the most rapid perfectly developed will, thanks to means progress on the path of reform, will turn provided by Western civilization, be more out the most skilful merchants and manu. ihoroughly appropriated, be turned to bet. facturers, and prove the aptest scholars of ter account, and be transported to Europe the new teaching. To this conclusion we along new ways of communication, and are led by the experience of the first quar. thus secure to the natives a source of in. ter of a century of Russian rule. The creased wealth. This is already clearly Sarts of the basin of the Yaxartes and the indicated by the statistics of the exports Tadjiks on the banks of the Zerefshan and imports, which show an extraordinary have displayed the greatest readiness in rise. At the time of my visit the Russian accepting the new orders of things; they exports from central Asia amounted to have furnished the first scholars to the 1,014,2371., and the imports to 1,345,7411., Russian schools; they have best known while now, according to the latest data, how to ingratiate themselves with the Russia exported raw material to the value conquerors, and have most easily qualified of 3,530,000l., and imported Russian man- themselves to become efficient and trust. ufactured goods to the value of 4,530,000l. worthy instruments of Russian dominaThis threefold rise clearly proves a more tion. It is true that to revolt or to resist rational and diligent cultivation of the has never occurred to the Ozbegs or the soil, an extraordinary improvement of the Karakalpaks. But on the one side the means of agriculture, and an undoubted national character of these Turkish peorise in material prosperity. Certain ples, marked by heaviness and slowness branches of agriculture and manufactures, of intellect, stands in the way of their assuch as cotton, silk, corn, rice, etc., have similating new and foreign ideas; on the advanced in an extraordinary manner. other side, these people have been accus. Certain articles for which there was for- tomed to play the part of a dominant caste, merly scarcely any demand, or whose ex. and are distinguished by a more martial port, owing to the primitive state of the spirit, and consequently cannot bring means of communication, was difficult or themselves to bear the yoke of subjection even impossible, now contribute materially so easily as the Aryan population, who to enrich the native population. Of course have grown up in servility and been for the Russian merchants secure the lion's centuries accustomed to serve and not to share of this increase of wealth, but still a rule.



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Everything at present seems to lead us | fact of the preponderance of the Christian to the conclusion that central Asia under element in the native population, the num: Russian protection will attain to such a ber of Russians who have voluntarily set. degree of economical development as is tled in the delightful and fertile valleys of without a parallel in the gigantic empire the Caucasus is even now, after fifty years' of the czars, swollen, as it is, by conquest occupation of the country, so small as not and national absorption. In consequence to be worth taking into account. Only an of changes in the state of civilization in enforced colonization has succeeded in Kasan, Astrakhan, and the Crimea, the producing a full stream of immigration Russian conquerors there came in con into the conquered districts, as is the case tact with a similar state of things prevail. with Siberia, where the Russian element ing among a Mohammedan population. forms a third of the population, reckoned Here too the conquerors, strong in the at 4,869,365 souls. To bring this about support afforded them by the civilization was in the first place the work of centuof the Christian West, were assisted in ries, and in the second place final success their conquest by the abuses produced by was only achieved through the fact that

excess of religious fanaticism com- the Ostiaks, Voguls, Kirghizes, and other bined with the anarchy and feebleness of inhabitants of Siberia were on a much the degenerate descendants of wild and lower level of civilization than the Rus. warlike dynasties. At that time, however, sians, and consequently, in spite of conthe difference in civilization between the siderable resistance, fell at length victims Christian conquerors and the conquered to the Moloch of Russification. Wherever Mohammedans was not so great or so im- traces of Mohammedan culture were to be portant as that between the Russians of found — for instance, at Tobolsk and on the second half of the nineteenth century the upper Yenissei — the absorption has and the central Asiatics who had been not even yet taken place. There the spirit sunk for centuries in a stereotyped degen. of the mollahs brought thither from Bokeracy. It is therefore quite natural that hara and Khiva in the time of Kötchüm the Russian people in the fifteenth and Khan is still active. In other parts of sixteenth centuries penetrated with greater Siberia, however, the law of the strongest ease into the newly conquered territories, prevails. Yakuts, Voguls, Teleuts, Shors, and felt themselves in a short time at home Koibals, Kondomers, etc., either die out in the novel surroundings, than can be the altogether, or are absorbed in the ever. case at the present day. The number of increasing mass of the Russian populaRussians who during the twenty-five years tion; and if ever the projected railway that have elapsed since the conquest of ring traverses the immense empire of the Turkestan have settled on both sides of czars, the Russification of the non-Mothe Yaxartes, in Khokand, in the valley of hammedan peoples will be carried out with the Zerefshan and the delta of the Oxus, still greater rapidity. and in those regions live a Russian life, In central Asia the metamorphosis conis exceedingly small, when we take into sequent upon the Russian occupation will account the favorable conditions offered assume a form peculiar to itself. That by the Russian government in order to occupation will not draw after it such coninduce colonists to flock to the newly con- sequences as we see in Kazan, Ufa, and quered territories, and the natural advan. Bakchiserai, nor, on the other hand, such tages in the way of climate and soil these as we find in the southern and eastern present. Up to the present time the Rus. Caucasus. In the latter country the comsian element is represented only by the pact masses of Sunnite and Shiite Mosmilitary, by the civil service, and such lems have proved a firm bulwark against merchants and manufacturers as have set the attempted Russification. After fifty tled in the chief centres of the administra- years' subjection to the Russians, they are tion. The latter look upon their sojourn still as attached to their language, their traas merely for a time, and when they have ditions and the influence of their akhonds made enough money desire to return to as are their kinsmen and co-religionists the mother country. Nor has the Russian on the other side of the Araxes. In the government been as yet successful even cities of central Asia, where Islam has in the case of the penal settlements. A taken much firmer root than in the Caulike failure of Russian schemes of colo- casus or the other parts of the Mohamme. nization is to be observed in the Caucasus. dan world, there can be no probability of In spite of the favorable climate, in spite the old and knotty trunk of religious of the uninterrupted connection with the education being soon shaken. On the mother country, in spite of the important | whole, Islam stands everywhere firmly on


its feet, nor can Christianity succeed in remind him of the like faults on the part weakening it. Indeed, when subjected to of the old native officials. The schools Christian rule, it seems to become stronger which the Russians have founded in Tashand inore stubborn, and to gain in expan. kend, Khodjend, Ferghana, and Samarsive force. This we see in India, where, kand with a view to educating the natives in spite of the zeal of the Christian mis- have hitherto produced very slight results. sionaries and the millions spent in their The chief end had in view was not so support, the conversions to Islam become much the enlightenment of the population daily more frequent. We see this too in as the diffusion of a knowledge of the Russia, where statistics prove that the Russian language and the training of usenumber of mosques has considerably in. ful officials. But of the pupils who have creased in the course of this century, and received their education at these instituthat the heathen among the Ural-Altaic tions, none have distinguished themselves, people are more easily converted by the pone have acquired as much Western mollah than by the all-powerful pope. knowledge as has been acquired by the The Russian natchalniks, pristavs and students at similar institutions founded by mirovoi sud (justices of the peace) will the English in India at the beginning of consequently exercise their functions for the present century. Yet the educational very many decenniums without being able system of the English was at that time to produce an important change in the very far behind what it is at present. Out morals, manners, and modes of thought of of the seminary at Tashkend there have the central Asiatics. Bokhara will still come a few teachers planted among the long continue to boast of being the bright Kirghizes, a few useful officials, and one est spot in Islam, and her colleges will not writer on philology named Ish Mohammed soon lose their attraction for the studious Bukin, author of a Russian-Kirghiz dicyouth among the Moslems of inner Asia. tionary. The rest of the central Asiatics The same holds true of Samarkand, Khod. who have received a Russian education jend, Khokand, and Tashkend, where the have been educated in Russia itself. experience of the past twenty-five years has When we consider the gigantic dimentaught us how small is the influence of the sions of the struggle which our culture secular authorities upon the minds of the has to engage in with the teaching of native population, how very few innova. Islam, a struggle out of which even the tions make their way among a people ab- English in India are only now emerging sorbed in domestic life, and with what victorious after forty years of conflict, it freezing indifference they regard the novel would be unfair to the Russian governhubbub around them, in the form of ma- ment if we were to apply a too strict chines, railways, strange faces, and strange measure of criticism to its well-intentioned costumes, and all the manifold marvels of efforts. A continuation and perfection of modern manufacture which have come the present system of education will cer. among them in the train of their Christian tainly lead in the future to solid and bene. conquerors.

ficial results. Nevertheless Russia will Recent travellers, led astray by their never succeed in reaching the same degree ignorance of the languages of the country of success or in exhibiting the same fruits and an insufficient acquaintance with the as the English can with justifiable pride religion, history, and manners of the cen- point to with their three and a half millions tral Asiatics, often publish highly sanguine of pupils who are yearly educated in thouaccounts of the changes that have taken sands of normal schools, in numerous place and the great progress made in colleges, and four universities. In the Western civilization on the part of the first place, the Russian civilizer cannot native population. They have undoubt. spread abroad in the darkness of the reedly been guilty of gross exaggeration. gions which he has conquered any better As yet the foreign conqueror has exercised or more beneficial light than that which but little influence by his good or his bad he has at his own disposal. To think of example, by his virtues or his vices. It competing successfully with the greatest is true that the strict order, security, and most advanced representatives of peace, and toleration that have followed Western culture in southern Asia would the anarchy and tyranny of the native be a Utopian idea. Secondly, in central rulers, commend themselves to the peace. Asia are wanting those conditions which able citizen, and would indisputably pro- exist in India, where fifty millions of duce even greater effect were it not that Mohammedans are urged to overcome the falsehood, corruptibility, and other their old prejudices by the competition of vices of the new Russian officials often two hundred millions of Hindus, Sikhs,

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