Fifth Series, Volume LXIX,


No. 2384. – March 8, 1890.

From Beginning,



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Edinburgh Review,


Blackwood's Magazine,

Nineteenth Century,

Temple Bar,

Cornhill Magazine,



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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight Dollars, remitted directly to the Publishers, the Living Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage

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The following“ Song in the Old Style" is from
“Sketches of Rural Life and other Poems,'' by Francis
Lucas (Macmillan): -
WHEN hungry fowl go roosting soon,
And nightly shines the crystal moon

O'er silent rills,
And icy winds their bugles blow
And crisping sheet the powdery snow

Out o'er the hills;
Then merrily, merrily triin the fire,

Merrily troll about the bowl,
And merrily sing to your heart's desire,

For to solace the winter's lack

There's nothing so good as song and sack;
So merrily, merrily trim the fire.
When barns at early eve are fast,
And woodmen from the darkling waste

Their wallets bear,
And teams are housed by lanthorn light,
And fold-yards littered down at night

With special care;
Then merrily, merrily trim the fire,

Merrily troll about the bowl,
And merrily sing to your heart's desire,

For to solace the winter's lack,

There's nothing so good as song and sack; So merrily, merrily trim the fire.

Little knew I, but a sense Solemn, delicate, intense, Filled my spirit with a bliss Sweeter, holier, than a kiss Liquid, radiant, unthought, That at once all being brought Into rarer harmony, Beast and bird, and sun and tree, Air and perfume, God and me.

Just as one whose birthright lost, Wonder-struck and passion-tost, After many a loveless day Sails at length into a bay Where he thinks his bones to lay, Finds indeed an end to strife, Not in dying, but in life, Friends and kindred, birthright, all, With dear love for coronal.


So at length I seemed at home
Underneath that distant dome,
Where the spirit holds at ease
Frank communion with the trees;
Comrade of the boundless wind,
Linked in universal mind
With all things which live or are,
From the daisy to the star,
Part for once of Nature's plan,
Not the lonely exile — Man.

Cosmo MONKHOUSE. Blackwood's Magazine.

SOFT the wind-blow and sunshine
In this garden which is mine;
Scarce a hundred yards in girth,
Yet a part of all the earth!
World for carpet, roof of skies,
Walls of Nature's tapestries,
Naught between the sun and me
Save the curtain of a tree.

Here as 'neath the oak I sit,
Whisperings come out of it;
Summer fancies, half desires,
Breaths that fan forgotten fires,
Trembling little waifs of song,
Seeking words to make them strong,
Life that dies without a sorrow,
Butterflies of no to-morrow,
Odors of a bygone day,
All the sweets that will not stay,
All the sweets that never cloy,
Unembodied souls of joy,
Sing and flutter, flash and go,
With a ceaseless interslow;
Till at last some happier seed,
Finds the rest its brothers need,
Strikes a root and grows and climbs,
Buds in words and flowers in rhymes.

Who shall tell me how it came! Was it in this winnowed flanie, Golden-dripping through the leaves Like the grain of heavenly sheaves ? From the voice of throstle clear Was it filtered through the ear?

HELVELLYN. To heaven uplifted, throne on throne, behold

A sea of surging mountains, far and near; Wave upon wave, the encircling heights

appear Forever fixed, forever onward rolled ! See in the tranquil valleys as of old Shimmer the sylvan lakes to Wordsworth

dear, Ulleswater, Coniston, and Windermere. With many an upland tarn the hills unfold. Helvellyn, round thy cruel crest the swallows

wheel And shriek for glee. To-day we too would

feel The joy of living. Soon life's path once

more Shall lead us downward to the vale below

O waves that onward roll, ere yet we go, Your mystic influence on our souls outpour.



From The Edinburgh Review. the best official literature. It is written DEMOCRACY IN SWITZERLAND."

without bias. It aims wholly at giving SWITZERLAND is to Englishmen the information. It teems with facts. The best explored country and the least known facts it contaios are gathered from life. State of modern Europe. Yet the com. Simplicity, freedom from affectation, and monwealth which is the oldest of European directness mark every line of a book republics and all but the youngest of Eu- which, because it is written by a man who ropean democracies deserves the study of is not thinking of himself, reflects all the philosophic thinkers as much as any em- best qualities of its author. Sir Francis pire, or realm, or republic of the civilized was neither by disposition nor by training world.

a theorist. He knew the world in which Sir Francis Adams and Mr. C. D. Cun. he moved and of which he wrote, and ningham have supplied the means by which wrote, therefore, with his eye fixed upon to dispel English ignorance about Swiss the facts before him. He possessed great politics. The design of their “Swiss advantages for the acquisition of informaConfederation” may be fairly attributed to tion. The representative of Great Brit. the late Sir Francis Adams. The creditain to the Swiss Republic must always of its execution must be shared between command respect, and, from the relation the two literary partners. To appreciative between the two countries, can never ex. criticism falls the duty (tinged by the recite enmity. If there existed at any time cent death of Sir Francis Adams with difficulty in maintaining friendly intersadness) of impressing on the not overcourse between two States formeckby nareceptive intellect of the intelligent reader ture for friendship, our late minister was the importance of a book which may pos- admirably fitted for making apparent to sibly not obtain immediately from the Switzerland the good-will of England. general public all the attention it merits.

Sound sense, kindliness, and intelligent For Adams's “Swiss Confederation "sociability are qualities which aid not a lacks some qualities which insure literary little in the transaction of affairs. They

It is not written to maintain any are characteristics which, from the days of political dogma or paradox. It does not Herodotus down to those of Arthur aim at giving anecdotes of Swiss life. It Young, have well served inquirers into the pretends to no special charm of style. The condition of foreign countries. A stranger treatise has indeed been compared to a to Bern learnt more about the reality of blue-book; the comparison is apt and Swiss politics from conversation with Sir just, for Adams's “Swiss Confederation Francis's friends at the minister's dinner is written with the sole object of convey table than the most industrious of stuing in plain language to all persons whom dents could gain from days of labor in a it may concern the knowledge of plain library. facts. We should, however, ourselves Adams's first-hand knowledge of Switprefer to describe the treatise as Adams's zerland gives to his book a freshness and last memorandum on the affairs of Swit- reality not always to be found in the writzerland. It is a memorandum addressed ings of men who in profundity of thought not to the Foreign Office, but to the Brit- and in the graces of style are his admitted ish nation, and thoughtful Englishmen superiors. In most respects it were will be the losers if they do not peruse it gross injustice to our author to compare with care. For the memorandum displays, Adams's “ Swiss Confederation” with with a little of the dryness, all the merits Maine's “ Popular Government.” But it - and they are great which belong to is the simple truth to assert that the late

minister at Bern displays in every word he * 1. The Swiss Confederation. By Sir Francis Ottiwell Adams, K.C.M.G., C.B., late her Majesty's writes about Switzerland a kind of knowl. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at edge not possessed by the most original Bern, and C. D. Cunningham. 8vo. London : 1889.

and charming of English jurists. From a 2. Das Staatsrecht der Schweizerischen Eidgenos senschaft. Bearbeitet von Dr. A. von Orelli. Aarau: few facts known to him about Swiss insti. 1875.

tutions Sir Henry Maine drew far-reaching

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inferences, sometimes of great importance the open-eyed intelligence which characand always of great interest. But the terizes the best work of Sir Henry Maine. author of “Popular Government” writes Democracy in Switzerland has turned of Swiss affairs as of a subject known to out a complete success. him from reading and from meditation. This is the all-important conclusion And a critic inay justly say that, to Maine, forced by Sir Francis Adams on the notice Switzerland is rather too much the coun- of Englishmen. Under very peculiar cirtry of the referendum. Adams, on the cumstances Swiss statesmanship has other hand, writes of Swiss politics as of solved problems which perplex most Eu. things which he has, so to speak, touched ropean States. In Switzerland national and grasped. When he describes the defence is secured (as far as any small Swiss Council of State he deals with no State can secure it) by the maintenance of mere institution known to him by report. a large, a cheap, and effective force which He has before his memory definite Swiss displays much of the discipline, and brings statesmen Dubs, or Ruchonnet, or Droz on the country none of the evils, of a

with whom he has transacted business standing army; every citizen is a soldier, or been on terms of intimacy. He knows and every soldier is a citizen.* National the Council in the same way in which finances are prosperous and the country is many of us know a college common room or not overburdened by a national debt; t a board of railway directors. Switzerland, education bas permeated every class, and in short, is to him a country where he has Zürich has achieved results which may lived and which he knows so well that he excite the envy of Birmingham or of Bos. realizes how little he knows about it. ton. Among a people traditionally dis“Switzerland," he has been heard to say, posed to lawlessness complete liberty has “is the most difficult country in the world been made compatible with order, and to understand. One canton differs as theological animosities, which for cen. much from another as if each were a dif- turies have been the special bane of the ferent country. I understand the Japan- confederacy, have been assuaged, or reese” — Sir Francis had been minister in moved, by the healing influence of reliJapan better than I do the Swiss.” gious freedom and equality. The good Hence he supplies to his readers a kind fortune or the wisdom of the Swiss has of instruction not to be found in Maine's accomplished other results which many pages. We yield to no man in veneration nations have found, or find, all but impos. for the thinker whose keen intellectual sible of attainment. Small and often hosinsight and beauty of literary expression tile States have been fused into a nation. revived English interest in the problems The transition from a condition of feudal of jurisprudence. What we do assert is inequality, far more oppressive than the that at the basis of sound political specu-ancien régime of France, to the system of lation must lie first-hand knowledge of equal rights and equal laws, which befits political facts and institutions, and that a modern industrial society, has been acwhile Maine's inferences sometimes outrun the liinits of his knowledge, Sir Francis

* Adams, chap. xi., pp. 140-61.

+ The public debt of the republic amounted, on JanAdams has supplied just that kind of uary 1, 1889, to 30,572,000 francs (1,222,880l.), at 342 knowledge which would have been inval. per cent. The interest amounts to 1,070,020 francs uable to such a thinker as Maine. No [42,800l.), and the sinking fund to 699,000 francs

(27,9601.). As a set-off against the debt there exists a man, we may add, would have prized it so-called " federal fortune,” or property belonging to more highly; for no man would have the State, valued at over 66,483,000 francs (2,659,3201.] turned Adams's facts to such good account (1888). The various cantons of Switzerland have their as the author of “ Ancient Law.” Mean- revenue and expenditure.

own local administrations and their own budgets of while the best service which a critic can public debts, but not of a large amount, and abundantly render to his readers is to bring to the covered, in every instance, by cantonal property, chiefly

in land. At the end of 1882 the aggregate debts of all study of Sir Francis Adams's last memo. the cantons amounted to about 12,000,000l. (States randum something, if that be possible, of man's Year-Book, 1889, p. 518.)


Most of them have also

complished without bringing on the coun- | recent times have they obtained a common try one tithe of the horrors which were national name. They possess no common the price of French emancipation from the language. German, French, and Italian tyranny of privilege, and without exposing are each in official use, and the public recSwitzerland to those alternations between ognition of three tongues recalls the danrevolutionary violence and reactionary ger that the attractions of race or speech oppression which for a century have har. may detach some of its members from the assed the people of France. Switzerland Confederation and draw them towards one has closed the era of revolution. Perils of the large neighboring nations. indeed impend over the confederacy, but Diversities of race have been intensified they spring from external causes; they by, for they partially coincide with, differare due to the certain power and possible ences of religion, and the bitterness of unscrupulosity of the gigantic military theological animosity has been more inStates which are the curse of modern tense and has lived on longer in SwitzerEurope.

land than in any other European country. A circumstance which enhances the It sounds paradoxical to call the struggle impressiveness of the triumphs gained by with the Sonderbund the last of the wars popular government in Switzerland is that of religion. The paradox, however, conthey are not due to any of the providential tains an element of truth. The Son privileges (such as the possession of un- derbund marked the final stage of the limited territory or the impossibility of irrepressible and secular conflict between foreign intervention) which have fostered Protestant aod Catholic. Nor are the the prosperity of the United States. Swiss free from that disease of modern

Every obstacle which taxes the re- States the memory of traditional feuds. sources of statesmanship has stood in the The forest cantons can recall the time path of Swiss unity and of Swiss welfare. when, as leaders of the Catholics, they

Switzerland is among the least fertile of maintained a kind of supremacy, for it European lands; she is surrounded by was not till the beginning of the eighhostile powers. Her population is less teenth century that the two most powerful than the population of Belgium, of the Protestant cantons gained the upper hand. Netherlands, or of Sweden. In mere The recollection, moreover, of contests numbers Switzerland falls below Scotland stimulated by theological hatred does not or Ireland; for the Swiss amount to about form anything like the whole of the bitter two million nine hundred thousand per. reminiscences which the Swiss people sons, whilst the population of Scotland is inherit from the past. The seventeenth in round numbers three million seven hun. and eighteenth centuries were in Switzerdred thousand, and of Ireland five million land ages of social and political inequality one hundred thousand. Yet Switzerland, and occasionally of gross and cruel opfrom a body of citizens less in number pression. The ancien régime should be than the inhabitants of London or of Lan-studied by those who want to understand cashire, is forced to support for the main. its bad side, as it existed, not in France, tenance of national independence an army but in Bern or in Zürich, or in Lucerne. of two hundred thousand men; this force In 1787 the whole government of Bern may be called petty compared with the was engrossed by sixty-nine families, and hosts of the German Empire or of the a year or two later French émigrés found French Republic, but it is enormous if that from no aristocracy did they receive measured by the resources of the confed. such cordial sympathy as from the Bereracy.

nese oligarchs. These facts tell their own Switzerland further, though a small tale. They amply explain the meaning country, contains all those sources of and causes of such movements as the division which have dismembered greater peasant war in 1653, the conspiracy of States. The Swiss are from one point of Davel in 1723, or the petition for the most view not so much a nation as a league of ordinary rights of citizens presented by twenty-two nations. Not until historically i the Zürich country folk in 1795 and pun.

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