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actuated by steam power, which will per- each locality or the number of sheep to be form its work in a cheaper, speedier, and dealt with may demand. more effectual manner.
One man, it may be added, can furnish The sheep-shearing machine recently power sufficient for three machines; a placed before the public is due to Mr. horse can drive from ten to twenty of Frederick York Wolseley, of Euroca Sta-them; whilst an eight horse-power steamtion, New South Wales - a brother of the engine will actuate one hundred shears. distinguished soldier of that name - who The time occupied in shearing one sheep has devoted many years of patient inge. with the new patent is from three and a nuity to perfecting his invention. The half to five minutes. machine itself may be briefly described as Many advantages are claimed for the follows: A toothcomb upon which works novelty now under consideration. The a three-bladed knife, in the same manner as work is performed more thoroughly than a patent horse-clipper, is pushed by the by hand, it being calculated that on an operator into the fleece of the animal to be average some ten additional ounces of sheared, the cutter being actuated by a wool per merino sheep are obtained by its cord of round gut, working inside a flexi- employment. The operation, moreover, ble tube six feet six inches in length. The is carried out more humanely, the cuts and flexible tube leaves the operator free to stabs often inflicted in hand-shearing, work the comb and cutters backwards and more especially when executed as “piece. forwards.
work," being entirely avoided, together Shafting of ordinary description is with the consequent damage and deterioerected in the shearing-house, carrying ration to the peīts. It has been estimated wheels two feet in diameter and five feet that no less than one per cent. of the ani. apart, the motion being communicated mals perish from injuries due principally from the main shafting to a series of leather to hand-shearing. The labor entailed on bevel-wheels situated below, each of which the operator is also considerably reduced ; in its turn imparts a rotary movement to the and aching hands, swollen wrists, and cuts gut core inside the flexible tube, and so to or stabs to the worker himself, should be the small rods working the crank inside things of the past. the casing of the machine. The pressure A series of exhaustive trials in Austra. of the cutter on the comb is regulated by lia abundantly testify to the high esteem a tension-screw on the back of the shears. in which the new machine, the cost of All the working parts are covered, with which is very moderate, is held. When it the exception of the comb and cutter. is added in conclusion that Australia
Hand-labor, horse-power, water-power, alone is computed to hold upwards of one or a steam-engine (portable, if desired) hundred millions of sheep, it is evident with a boiler to burn either wood or coal, how wide a field, if only in that one quarter can be employed to furnish motive power of the globe, exists for the new sheep. to the main shafting, as the facilities of shearing machine.
ISLAM AND ISRAEL. — Dr. Hirschfeld in part taken in it by two Moslem gentlemen, his lecture at Jews' College, it may be noted, whose defence of their faith evoked the warmtreated the Koran with the fullest sympathy est applause. The speakers were received and respect
a fact on which all the Jewish with the most marked cordiality, and though speakers who took part in the discussion were the audience could not be in complete symunanimous. It would indeed be difficult for a pathy with them, yet all showed their respect scholar to devote time and thought to a sub- for the enthusiasm evoked for another reliject without acquiring a certain amount of gion. The Jews in the Middle Ages received sympathy with the object of his devotion. It so many favors at the hands of the Mahomis therefore the more striking that one or two medans, when indeed the countries swayed by English Christian theologians, whose whole Islam were the only asylum open to the sons work lies in the history of the Pharisees, have of Jacob, that it would have been ungenerous never succeeded in reaching a sympathetic or in a Jewish audience to receive representatives even a just attitude toward the much maligned of Islam with any but a friendly demeanor. Pharisee of old. The discussion on Sunday Nevertheless, the fact may be chronicled as night at Jews' College was enlivened by the not devoid of interest and importance.
CONTENTS. I. SIR JOHN HAWKWOOD AND ITALIAN CONDOTTIERI,
Quarterly Review, II. EPICURUS WYNN,
Longman's Magazine, . III. HORACE WALPOLE'S LETTERS,
515 532 544 552 561 572 574
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION.
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Single Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.
AFTER A NIGHT OF WEEPING. | A little cloud-wreath in the sky
That melts, and then its shape renewing,
Then melts again, as tho' on high
A hum of bee, a little song
Of bird in praise of endless summer,
But leaves it to a chance new-comer;
planned Is darkened by the fear of failing powers,
A little sound of rippling stream
That barely part sweet lips asunder;
Sounds, to the morbid fancy, falsely sweet;
In calm, with scarce a wavelet breaking,
As sleeping eyelids ope awhile, When the one thing whereon our hopes are
Then close again without awaking; set Is still withheld, although we pray and All say 'tis noon, and Silence sleeps weep,
With Beauty. Hence, and leave her sleepUntil we murmur “ Can the Lord forget?
ing, Or doth the Master sleep?”
Lulled by the tiny fall that leaps
Beside her there in silver leaping. When the old sin that we had nearly crushed,
Arrayed in all its fearful might appears, Noon in the South! A perfect thing And yearning voices that we thought were Of love, and light, and warmth, and color, hushed,
That, drowsy as a vampire's wing,
Float round the soul in sloth to lull her.
Then, like an evening wind that unperceived Noon in the South ! Then haste, away,
Dear soul away, we may not tarry! Comes the remembrance: “We which have Enough, if hence for many a day believed
Some sunshine of the heart we carry.
We may in darker hours remember
The bliss, the warmth, the southern glow, And the one face that we have loved so long,
That mingled July with December.
But licw a harp of loftier tone
I hear resound to Dorian measure,
But toil is strung to nobler pleasure ;
Say, Arcady is fair and fine,
Lurks cloven hoof of faun and satyr.
And sadness sits in every eye,
And cynic youth is old at twenty;
But languid ease and far niente ?
A LITTLE breath from spray to spray
That wanders with a purposed quiet, As tho' it were so calm a day
To shock it were unholy riot;
Then hence away, and northward ho!
Where souls and limbs of men are stronger:
Would holidays were somewhat longer!
A. G. B.
From The Quarterly Review. remarkable of the Italian capitani di venSIR JOHN HAWKWOOD AND ITALIAN
tura. Sigismund Malatesta, lord of Ri. CONDOTTIERI.*
mini, furnishes an instance of an indepenIt has been said, with some truth, that dent prince taking service under another the history of the Italian condottieri, or State. captains of mercenaries, is that of Italy The “ Life of Sir John Hawkwood ”. during the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- known in Italian history as “ Giovanni turies. They played a most important, Acuto " — has been written in Italian, and if not the principal, part in the political has recently been published at Florence events of the peninsula during that period. in a handsome volume by an English Among them were men not only great in gentleman, Mr. Temple-Leader, with the the art of war, but eminent as statesmen, assistance of an Italian man of letters, as statesmanship was then understood. Signor Marcotti. Mr. Leader, whose Their lives are even in many cases fit name was not unknown many years ago in subjects for romance. Their adventures, English political life, has lived for a long the tragic fate of some of them, the mar- period near that city. He has restored vellous rise of others who, through their for himself one of those ancient feudal craft and valor, attained to princely rank castles — that of Vimigliata — which dot and founded independent States, form the slopes of the Apennines, and which in episodes of the highest historical interest. the troublous times of the Italian wars
The condottieri or capitani di ventura of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries may be divided into three classes : for sustained many a siege, probably from eigoers, who had collected together men Hawkwood himself. He has had access to of every European nation, generally the documents, in the rich Florentine archives, very refuse and outcasts of society, and relating to the great English captain, and who, with their followers, took service to the events with which he was connected under one of the Italian States. They during his career. He has made good use led the first bands of mercenaries en of them, and his biography of Hawkwood ployed in the wars which desolated Italy is a valuable addition to the history of the during the fourteenth century. They times to which it relates. were succeeded by Italian condottieri, After the final break-up of what reinto whose companies, as a rule — which, mained of the Roman dominion in Italy, however, had many exceptions - only the peninsula became divided into numerItalians were admitted. They also were
ous small, independent States, frequently employed in the latter part of the four consisting of a single city, with its sur. teenth century and in the first half of the rounding territory, comprising small fifteenth. Then came the better organized walled towns and castles, the residences and better disciplined troops belonging of nobles, which, before the employment to independent princes, who hired them- of siege artillery, afforded a safe place of selves ard their subjects to other States, refuge to their owners and their depen. receiving stipends and rewards for their dants in times of war and invasion. services. We have the type of the foreign
In some of the principal cities, such as condottiere in the renowned Englishman, Florence, Pisa, and Siena, the democracy Sir John Hawkwood. Carmagnola, whose had driven out the nobles and had estabvalor and skill were the admiration of his lished a republic or commune. In others, contemporaries, ranks amongst the most such as Milan, Padua, and Verona, some Storia di un Condottiere,
member of a powerful family had usurped per J. Temple-Leader e G. Marcotti. Firenze, 1889.. the supreme power, and governed despot2. Sir John Hawkwood (2' Acuto).
Translated ically, usually meriting the title which he from the Italian of John Temple-Leader and Signor
received of “ Tyrant.” The communes Giuseppe Marcotti, by Leader Scott. London, 1889.
3. Il Conte Carmagnola. Studio Storico, con docu- existed chiefly in central Italy; the desmenti inediti di Antonio Battistella. Genova, 1889.
pots, such as the Visconti, the Carraresi, 4. Un Condottiere du XVe siècle. études sur les Lettres et les Arts à la Cour des Mala: and the Scalas, ruled in the north. In testa. Par Charles Yriarte. Paris, 1882.
the south the dominions of the pope and
1. Giovanni Acuto.
the kingdom of Naples formed more ex- | Messer Falco d'Inghilterra at the bead tensive and permanent States.
of a company of fifteen hundred horsemen, These petty commonwealths were con in the pay of the commune of Pisa, then stantly at war with each other. The at war with the neighboring republic of communes were jealous of the riches and Florence. The English mercenaries soon prosperity of an adjoining republic, or earned a high reputation for their courage, had a greed for its lands. The Tyrants their warlike qualities, and their capacity sought to extend their power and territo-10 endure hardships, and were considered ries at the expense of their neighbors. In the best soldiers in Italy. Moreover, they the conflicts which ensued, a local militia were thought somewhat more trustworthy was called out. To bear arms was consid- than those of other countries, who were ered the right and duty of every citizen. at all times' ready, for higher pay or betWhen the war in which his city was en- ter prospects of plunder, to betray their gaged came to an end, he laid them aside employers and to pass over to the enemy. and returned to his civic duties and em. But they were notorious for their cruelty ployments. This militia in the republics and for being the most adroit and merci. was strictly democratic, and the nobles less of depredators. They did not muti. were excluded from it.* At the begin- late and roast their victims to extort ning of the fourteenth century it had money from them, as was the habit of the fallen into decay. In the wealthy repub. Germans, the Bretons, and the Hungalics the citizens had gradually lost their riaps; but in other respects they appear to martial habits, and had given themselves have surpassed all other nationalities in to trade and other peaceful pursuits. outrages upon women, in incendiarism, When they were summoned to arms, few rapine, and murder. So that “Inglese responded to the call. The city found Italianato è un diavolo incarnato" became itself consequently powerless for either a popular saying in Italy; and a writer of defence or attack. On the other hand, it the time declares that “non era nulla di was the policy of the Tyrants to disarm piu terribile che udire il solo nome degli their subjects, and to crush out of them Inglesi." all warlike spirit, lest they should com. In the middle of the fourteenth century bine to overthrow the despotism to which one of these bands, chiefly composed of they were exposed. A city thus deprived Englishmen, known as the Compagnia of its natural defenders found it necessary Bianca, or White Company, was the most to have recourse to foreign aid and to em. renowned in Italy. The origin of the name ploy mercenaries. Hence the origin of is doubtful. According to some, it came those companies of adventurers from all from their armor and shields, which were parts of Europe, under leaders of reputa- polished so as to shine like
rrors ; action for their valor and military skill, cording to others, it was given them on ready to sell their services to the highest account of their white uniforms and white bidder, and to shed their blood in the standards, or of the white cross which cause which promised the largest amount they had adopted as a badge. The White of wages and booty. They were simply Company had been originally formed in organized brigands, and their wars organ- France by one Bertrand de Crequi. Hence ized brigandage. So that the Italian term it had passed into Italy, led by a German for a foot-soldier, masnadiere, became named Albert Sterz, a soldier of ability synonymous with robber and outlaw. and experience, who had been chosen for As early as the year 1314 we find one the command on account of his knowledge
of the English language. In 1362 it had See Ricotti, “Storia delle Compagnie di Ventura | entered into the pay of the Pisans, who in Italia,” the standard work on the subject; Canestrini, “ Documenti per servire alla Storia della Milizia were then engaged in one of their many Italiana,” in the 15th volume of the "Archivio Storico wars with the Florentines. It soon turned
- a very important contribution to history, the scale in favor of the former. But the with a valuable collection of original documents; and Fabretti, “Biografie di Capitani di Ventura dell' Um- English mercenaries were dissatisfied for
some reason with their German leader,