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The storekeeper fires a bolt at the nearest with characteristic modesty put the follow.

spittoon, sbakes his head, and turns to ing beading: “It is, thank you!” serve another customer. Prospective A great number of Americanisms are buyer saunters round the store, and provincialisms from Old England, im. eventually reaches the door. At this ported by those emigrants of the humbler moment the storekeeper calls out, class, who speak generation after generaSay you can take that durned thing; tion the language of their fathers, the lanbut come and see us again, will yer?" guage of tradition rather than of literature.

The “I reckon" of the Southern States And so the compact is concluded. Both (for “ I guess ” is properly Yankee) is still are fully satisfied, and think nothing of the to be found among the rustics of various ten minutes they have wasted, for both parts of England. The sturdy shepherd conclude they have “bested” the other. of the South Downs still uses “mad” for This phrase come and see us again” is “angry," and "axey,” for “ ague." In sevthe usual farewell. I have had it said to eral districts of England the cockchafer is me scores of times.

still called the “ May-bug," and the green There is, on the other hand, an excel. beetle of midsummer the “June bug." lent trait in American shopping. If you The promiscuous use of “elegant" may can't get exactly what you want, the store. find its counterpart in the Hibernian pet keeper will help you to find it elsewhere. adjective, and a square meal” is good He will direct you to various other stores, old English enough. It is enshrined in inviting you back should your search be the dramatic literature of the Shakespearunavailing. One commonly hears a man

But the list could be extended say,

“Guess I'll see what notions So-and-almost indefinitely. It is sufficient to so's gotten, and if they're no better than point out that many expressions, which yourn, I'll come right back.” And come strike us now as strange, were familiar right back he does. There is a deal of enough to our forefathers; and that in genuineness mixed up with this " Jewing. many cases the Americans have helped to down” process. At ihe same time compe- perpetuate a period of the English lantition induces strange ways. Salesmen guage, just as the Icelanders, shut off in are valuable according to the number of their oceanic solitude, still speak the friends they can allure to buy. In the Norse that was spoken by the invaders of provincial towns it is a very usual thing England. to see a salesman making the tour of the The language of the American is destore with six seven handsomely cidedly interesting, whether we take the dressed ladies, whom he introduces to the elided crisp words of Yankee speech, or storekeeper and other salesmen as his “so- the “high-falutin'". pomposities of the cial acquaintances," and whom he gener- Western States. There is no fear for this ally induces to purchase largely. If you language. The eccentricities which at pause and listen, you will hear a deal of present bulge and warp will in time subsociety gossip mixed up with details of side. Education will impart a more lit. dry goods.

erary - not necessarily less suitable But to return to the language. Some of character to the language. But will edu. the expressions in vogue do honor to their cation impart a more mellifluous accent, a order; they are really expressive. For sweeter, softer voice? An Englishman, example, all spreading trees with plentiful however cultivated, is rarely jarred by the foliage for there are many trees in Americanisms — they carry their own creAmerica which do not conform with this dentials; but he draws the line at the description - are called “shade” trees. nasal twang, the high, sustained, and rapid They are always to be found close to the jarring voice, the occasional prolonged houses. A man of ability and standing is drawl. When in America I had two com. spoken of as a solid

-also ex- pliments paid me - in my national charpressive. Similarly an honest man inacter -anent this. A group of us were politics a rara avis is said to be talking in an eastern hotel, and an old

square.” A man of push and go is called gentleman, a Virginian senator, said to a “live

When you are punctual, me, on time;" when successful, you “I reckoned you English d'rectly you

on top.” I remember a San Fran. opened your mouth. I judged it by your cisco paper printing the following re. accent." mark: “On top! It is pleasant when a “ Accent," forsooth! Who, thought I, newspaper feels this way!” The New spoke with the accent? Nevertheless, I York Herald reprinted the remark, and took it as a compliment.





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Upon another occasion an Englishman favored in his desire for a private view by whom I had just met mentioned that he an indulgent Legation. had mistaken me for an American ; partly, Cleveland was Cæsar in the days I I believe, because I was in the company chronicle - a better Cæsar than most of of one! My companion burst out, his kidney - but “how have the mighty

Why, goodness gracious ! you never fallen !” Small thanks for his labors does heard an American speak from his chest the president nowadays receive, and yet like that - and you never will ! ”

little gratitude is at least in accord with Allowing for a slight exaggeration on the "small beer” the nation votes for bis the part of my friendly companion, I may services. As most people know, he resay that Jonathan rarely sounds a chest ceives the small salary of ten thousand a

But education in this matter is year, and even that is double the sum looking up: The wealthier, more trav- allowed before 1873. Out of this he has elled Americans, are afflicted with Anglo- to disburse all private expenses, all public mania. They have got it badly. They entertainments. Even the domestics of are modelling their houses, their equi. the White House are unprovided for by pages, their clothes, their customs upon the government. The wages of coachthose of the English. They imitate our men and cooks come out of the official very slaag expressions in order to become pittance. Only such individuals as are

English, you know.” And I am indispensable to the nation are paid by glad to say that some of the more auda. the nation. cious are even attempting to speak with For the White House is divided against English intonation. And that this is not itself, or, at least, serves two masters. It a mere “international amenity” on my has a public and a private life. One half part, I will leave the New York Sun to may be regarded as the Executive Man. speak for its fellow-citizenesses: “In one sion, the office of the chief magistrate of respect the average American woman is the republic. A couple of secretaries, a far behind her English sister. Her voice few clerks, messengers, and doorkeepers, is not so melodious, and her intonation is and one fireman, make up “the house. less agreeable. A crowd of American hold ” which the nation provides. The women, it must be confessed, will make other half may be called the president's a din with their voices which distresses residence, and private only in a compara.

Here, the voice is high and tive sense. All domestic expenses con. harsh ; there (in England) it is low and nected with this portion of the White soft, soothing and gratifying the ear like House are borne by the president's salary, sweet music.”

although, as we shall see, the sovereign An American lady, belonging to a fa- people are not averse to monopolizing the mous New York family, lately stayed here establishment on occasions neither formal for several months, in order to be Angli- nor rare. cized. She would frequently say to me,

A hard worker like Cleveland found no "Do I speak like an Englishwoman? bed of roses in the Executive Mansion. Isn't that very English ?" and so on. But in his office by 9 A.M., and at work on an a few days ago an American girl came to assorted mail; interviewing the members me in ecstasies over the charming voices of his Cabinet and the Congress till noon, of some flower-girls in one of our London receiving any private callers from then till streets. “ Ab," she said, “we have noth- half past one, and after that the mob gening like that.”

erally till they let him escape to lunch Having lingered in the streets and this meal finished, more work till 5 P.M., picked up crumbs of custom and speech when the daily drive came as a refresher let drop by the American people, I will, and a whet to the appetite for seven before leaving this subject, ask the reader o'clock dinner. And when it is said that to allow me to "personally conduct” him after dinner Cleveland usually returned to to the American court. No gorgeous his study and worked till midnight, it will pageants figure in my programme; not be seen that his lot, however happy, was only for the very excellent reason that not a light one. there are no pageants to figure, but also It is true that great simplicity prevails because here, as everywhere, I tried, and at the White House, but at the same time usually managed, to merge myself in the it is equally true that the fierce light of crowd, and learn while I listened and the American press beats upon the innerlooked.

When I went to the White most life of the president, and renders House, it was with the "sovereign peo. privacy almost unattainable. Does the ple," and not as an intrusive Englishman, I first magistrate give a dinner-party to a

the ear.


few friends ? We are told all about it, or, Some six hundred tourists had arrived to at any rate, all that the reporters can find "do" Washington, including the presi. out or have wit enough to imagine. Every dent. Satchels were slung across their detail is published abroad, and often in shoulders, and suspicious bulges, bottleamusing conjunction with some question shaped, occurred in their pocket regions. of the day. The prohibitionists will give Many of these were not content with one a list of the aërated waters drunk, and" grip,” but, in spite of remonstrances their opponents record exactly how many from the two or three officials present, wine-glasses are apportioned to each guest, | formed themselves into a procession and and for what wines they are destined. marched into the audience chamber, out One society paper will relate that the and in again, round and round in fact president keeps strictly to the etiquette no fewer, I think, than three times beof being always helped first, even at his fore their inconsiderate career could be own table, while another will explain with checked. It will be understood how in. fulsome gush how graciously he waives considerate when I say that sometimes the custom in favor of his lady guests! two and three thousand visitors are to be But it will not do to throw stones at so- found at these daily audiences, and that ciety papers; we live in glass houses our- upon one occasion -it was actually selves.

counted - the “ presidential pump-handle One day, between the hours of one and performance" went for half-an-hour at the two, I formed a unit in a parti-colored uniform rate of forty shakes to the min. concourse of citizens, and passed through ute ! the portals of the White House. A large But I am still lingering among the court. saloon on the entrance floor, called the iers outside the actual presence. They East Room, is the audience chamber. I repay a deal of lingering, I can assure was in no hurry to press on, being anxious you. A few minutes ago some women to pick up the etiquette proper to the oc- near me shut down the window next to casion, and about which, as a monarchist, them; they were cold. Now, two women I was a little perturbed. Live and learn! are struggling to raise this window; they The only ceremony to be performed was are hot. A gentleman a few feet off is to grip the unfortunate man's hand, and busily dog.earing a handsome album which see that you got it, for in the surging lies on a side-table. Another has just crowd this was not so simple a matter as picked a pretty bud from a plant; it now might be imagined. The rest was “go reposes in his button-hole. A middle. as you please. But in the mean while I aged woman who left her chair has repaused and loitered among my fellow- turned, to find it contiscated by another courtiers, and became “ the chiel "among female. There is a row. They both claim them “ takin' notes.'

equal rights; the chair belongs to the I had arrayed my person in a black nation, you know. And are they not the coat and waistcoat, and I was now busily sovereign people, and in their own house? protecting the gloss of a high hat from There is an unusual number of spittoons the aggressions of the perambulating provided, but it appears to me that there court. Such preparations as I had made are not enough yet. Oh dear! no, not were the exception. Near me there stood nearly enough. And so the scene, with a merry old negro, cracking stupendous the people, moves on, and I with the jokes in hilarious tones, and innocent of people. any coat. Had his blue-and-white-checked I'am in the presidential presence. It shirt-sleeves been spotless, I could have is a fine one. Cleveland was full of that forgiven him. There were white men unassumed calmness which we cail dig. there, clearly respectable citizens, who nity. An intellectual man, too, with a reversed this order and wore no waist- quiet, observant eye. A large man – coat. The weather certainly was warm; amply built upward and across, and filling but in Europe, I believe, that is not ac- out a voluminous frock-coat until it had cepted as an excuse for wearing a holland not a single crease. This much I noticed, suit in preference to levée dress. All and then I was on my way back. Two manner of costume was here, and it was men in front of me were trying to shove clear enough that these courtiers had just in a request about some appointment, but strolled in out of the glare of the streets this being strictly forbidden, they were to have a “handshake" with the president,“ moved on" by the secretary. They were and see how he fared.

chronic office-seekers, no doubt, who, hav. But there were others — country- folk ing found private interviews futile, were who had come very much on purpose. I availing themselves of the public audience

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and the prevailing power of importunity. | and the raven have only Hephole left as I have little doubt that they were there their last citadel. There are moors, bogs, the day before, and less, that they turned and mosses too; but, as more of them are up the day after. There are many such. annually riven up by the ploughshare, the

Sauntering out into the grounds, which curlew flies further and further away to form'a public thoroughfare, I leave the the undrained wastes, where his desolate American court, and here also I must take cry fits in with the desolate scenery. But leave of the American people. I have whoever will climb to the top of “Dark noted but a few characteristics, touching Flodden,” or even to the soft and mossy on what is salient and strange to the En- greensward in front of Sibyl Grey's well, glish eye or ear, rather than on what un- where the water is still as pure as when derlies the surface and imparts its peculiar Scott was there, will have before him, as power to this great nation.

lze stands with his back to Howson and For the American eagle, though a the Cheviots, a valley as fertile as any in mightily susceptible bird, is an eagle after England, that through which “ the deep all. He soars now, he will continue to and sullen Till” winds and twists till it

There is power in each stroke of reaches the Tweed. On either side, all his wing, indisputable power. His flight the way from Wooler to Milfield, fruitful is swifter than any of his rivals ; in many farms form its banks. There the rook war respects, indeed, he has no rivals. He is bas raged most furiously. fortunate in being so far removed from the From inquiries which have been made rest of the world, and yet he is no speck by myself and others, it seems beyond dis. upon the sky. I have asked you to laugh pute that in every agricultural district of at some of his habits in his eyrie ; let me England, except those which are closely also ask you to admire him on the wing. adjacent to the large towns, there is an

increase of bird life exactly similar to that in Northumberland. A glance at the causes of this will aid us in realizing, what

we have all known for a long time, that From Murray's Magazine.

very marked changes are stealing over the ROOKS AND FARMERS.

face of rural England. The facts themIs rural England relapsing into wild selves are hardly open to dispute, and may oess? is a question which many people be verified by the most fleeting visitor to have been asking during the past twelve the country. One does not need to be months. For it seems hardly consistent very old to remember the time, for in. with a growing density of population that stance, when a tame starling was a curiowners and tenants of land should have to osity, and when a starling's nest was as combine, in order to offer rewards to the much of a discovery as a magpie’s is now. slayer of wild creatures. It was consid. If a young bird were caught, its tongue ered an astonishing thing when it was first was cut with a silver sixpence, and if the realized that the European rabbit was owner rose at daybreak, it, as a mysterious becoming a plague to Australia, that the consequence of this operation Scotch thistle was spreading over Canada, sary as docking a mouse of its tail to tame and that the grain-fields of California were it — learned to speak. But whoever wishes being ravaged by the English sparrow. starlings now may have them by millions. But that the same bird, with the rook and I have seen a forty-acre field black nearly the wood-pigeon, was becoming a serious from fence to fence with them, and almost pest in England, or that the farmer had every sheep in a flock of hundreds with more than the usual reason for complain. one on his head hunting for ticks. The ing of its petty pilfering, was quite incredi- increase of sparrows is not less manifest. ble. However, it is in North Northumber. Where once they could all rest-comfortaland, was the comforting reflection, and bly in the roof of the cart-shed, or under the county always was wild. And yet the eaves of the cottages, or among the those who know the district need not be thatch of the great farınhouse, they are told how well cultivated it is. There are now obliged to send colonies out in every bills, it is true, but the only complaint one direction. They have ousted the poor hears on the green slopes or in the rocky swallows from their nests of mud in the glens of the Cheviots is that bird-stuffers corners of the window; long before the are exterminating the rarest of the birds. martins arrived they had taken possession No more is the golden eagle to be seen of the holes they used to build in; and soaring over Hedgehope, the hen-harrier there is a high thorn hedge between the is driven away, and the peregrine falcon paddock and the wheat-field which, from ead to end, showed in spring a continuous, tient way is willing to put up with a modjagged line of their slovenly straw-and. erate amount of thieving, and who regards feather nests. As soon as the corn ripens the hall or castle rookery as being, like they muster in myriads, and, wherever a the weather, a burden to be borne, loses field of grain is bounded by a thick hedge patience when he finds the rooks encroach. to which they can retreat, ravage the bor. ing in all directions. And within the past ders and headlands till there is nothing few years they have done this to right and left but chaff. When scared, they first fly left. New rookeries have been estabto the hedge, changing its green to a mass lished by the score, until in some districts of brown feathers, and then, if a shot is there is scarcely a strip of plantation or a fired, fly off to another part of the field. clump of trees without nests on it. If That wood-pigeons, individually the most undisturbed, these annually grow larger, destructive of all winged pests, for they until, as in the old rookery, there is hardly will devour almost their own weight in a branch without a nest on it. corn, have increased to an equal extent, It would be more difficult to assign a is less capable of proof, as they nest reason for this phenomenal prosperity of singly, and one cannot number the flocks wild life were not the only exceptions to it of them. They come over here, lean and those species which the game-keeper keeps hungry, from the Norwegian forests, and in check. There are not more magpies, speedily grow so large and fat, that at the hawks, ravens, or carrion crows now than end of the season they cannot make up there used to be, but that is because he is their minds to return.

as neces

continually reducing their numbers, never But the great enemy of the farmer is the missing an opportunity of killing them in rook. He is not such a glutton as the the fields, and watching by their nests in wood-pigeon, and varies his food more, spring to shoot the parent birds. And the but what he wants in eating capacity he very efficiency with which this work is makes up in numbers. Of the multipli- done accounts in some measure for the cation of rooks all over the country dur-increase of the smaller singing birds, the ing the last ten or fifteen years there is lark and the redbreast, finches - includ. full and abundant evidence. Exactly the ing even the once rare and delicate bull. same thing has happened in Scotlandfinch and the gold-finch whenever it can and the Midlands and north of England. find thistle-down – linnets - green linnets As is well known, there are two kinds of may be seen in flocks almost rivalling nesting-places known respectively as win the starlings - blackbirds, thrushes, and ter and summer rookeries. The former others. Indeed, in some districts he does may be regarded as the bird's legitimate his work too well, as in those where, home, and the ancestral rookery is an ad- owing to an absurd notion that owls steal junct to a country house which no one eggs and ki!l young game, these useful would like to be destroyed. To many who birds were shot down, until rats and mice are neither poets nor painters there is no have grown so numerous in the hedge. music sweeter than the first cawings of rows, that game-preservers find it difficult the young rooks on a May morning, or the to protect the eggs of pheasants and par. harsher notes of their elders as they tum. tridges from them. A chapter from the ble and scream in the park, in anticipation recent history of the squirrel may be adof the strong October wind which is coming duced to prove that, unless extraordinary to sweep the withering leaves from lime measures are taken, the present conditions and chestnut; or when, still later, the bare are favorable to an inordinate increase of and leafless twigs stand out like a black wild life in rural England. A Northum. tracery against a clear December sky, they brian land-owner, Mr. George Grey of hold a parliament on the tree.tops. These Milfield, writes to me: “This country did old rookeries they never desert all the year not suffer from squirrels until about fif. round, and often in the late autumn a care-teen or twenty years ago, and I have heard ful inother-crow will be seen mending the old men say that they remembered when house which wind or accident has dama squirrel here would have been looked aged. But th summer rookeries have upon as a rare animal.” They have, howbeen erected inerely to accommodate the ever, increased to such an extent that surplus population. As soon as the breed- game-keepers for the last five years have ing season is over they are deserted, par. had strict orders to shoot them, owing to ents and children alike joining the huge the injury they do to fir-trees. Nearly flock which nightly the “ many-wintered every Scotch fir in the Fenton Hill Wood," chief leads back to the ancient roosting- says Mr. Grey, “some mile and a half place. Now the farmer, who in his pa-long, which my father planted, is ruined


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