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sisting in a singular hallucination, which those men with an efficiency and economy un. on the top of the coach generally shared, that attainable in smaller operations. It had they were not exactly like their brothers and come to be recognized as an axiom that sisters who pulled at the rope, but of finer the larger the business the simpler the clay, in some way belonging to a higher order principles that can be applied to it. So it of beings who might justly expect to be drawn came to pass that the nation, organized as (p. 11).
one great corporation, became the sole now see how the men of the and final monopolist by whom all previous twentieth century organize society so as monopolies were swallowed up. to do away with that extraordinary distri. T'he nation being now the only employer, bution of the goods of this world existing all the citizens are the employees, and are at the present time, in virtue of which distributed according to the needs of insome enjoy without work, while others dustry. In short, it is the principle of work with little or no reward. I will try universal military service applied to labor. to explain the new organization advocated The period of industrial service is twentyby Mr. Bellamy, keeping as nearly as pos- four years, beginning with the close of the sible to the author's own text.
course of education at twenty-one, and Treatises on political economy are gen. terminating at forty-five. Women are co. erally divided into three sections, the first laborers with men, but their strength being treating of the production, the second of less, the kinds of occupation reserved for the division and circulation, and the third them, and the conditions under which they of the consumption of riches. This is pursue them, are settled accordingly. The indeed the economic cycle. Mankind entire field of productive and constructive have various wants to be satisfied, it is industry is divided into ten great departtherefore necessary that the commodities ments, each representing a group of allied which these requirements necessitate industries, each particular industry being should be produced. Men do not work in turn represented by a subordinate bu. each one alone and for himself, but in reau, which has a complete record of the groups and co-operatively; the produce plant and force under its control, and of obtained must therefore be distributed; the present product and the means of proand finally, each one having received his ducing it. These bureaux set out the share consumes it, while working so as work to their men according to the deto reproduce for future maintenance. I mand of the distributive department which therefore think that I gave a clear defini. sells the commodities to the customers. tion of political economy when I explained | The chiefs of these ten grand divisions of it as “the science which determines what the industrial army may be compared to laws men ought to adopt in order that they the commanders of army-corps, and above inay, with the least possible exertion, pro. them is the general-in-chief, who is the cure the greatest abundance of things president of the State. The general.in. useful for the satisfaction of their wants, chief must have passed through all the may distribute them justly and consume grades below him from the position of them rationally.” (Elements of Political a common laborer upwards. He rises to Economy, p. 31.)
the highest rank by the excellence of his Let us first of all examine how the pro- records, first as a worker, and then as a duction of riches is carried on in the year lieutenant.
Land and all the instruments of pro. The chief of each guild is elected, but duction, farms, mines, railroads, mills, have to prevent candidates intriguing for the been nationalised, and are the property support of the workers under them, they of the State. The industry and commerce are chosen by the honorary members of of the country have ceased to be con- the guild - that is, by those who have ducted by a set of irresponsible corpora. served their time and attained the age of tions of private persons at their caprice forty-five. But what authority has the and for their profit. They are entrusted power and the discrimination necessary to a single syndicate representing the to determine which out of the two or three people in their cominon interest. The hundred trades and avocations each indichange from the old organization to the new vidual shall pursue?
It is done very was accomplished without violence, and easily in Mr. Bellamy's Utopia. with the general consent of public opinion. All new recruits belong for three years People had seen for many years larger to the class of common or unskilled laborand larger syndicates handling revenues ers. During this period the young men greater than those of States, and directing are assignable to any work at the disthe labors of hundreds of thousands of cretion of their superiors. Afterwards,
voluntary election, subject only to neces- | not alone by virtue of its perfect organisary regulation, is depended on to deter. zation, but by reason also of the ardor of mine the particular sort of service every self-devotion which animates its members. man is to render. His natural endow- Honors, instead of the love of money, ments, mental or physical, determine what prompt the supreme kinds of effort. he can work at most profitably for the Then diligence in the national service is nation and for himself. It is the busi- the sole and certain way to public repute, ness of the administration to seek con- social distinction, and official power. stantly to equalize the attractions of the The general production is largely intrades, so that all trades shall be equally creased by many causes. There are no attractive to persons having a natural idlers, rich or poor, no drones. The comtaste for them, and that, consequently, modities, as soon as they are produced, go there shall not be excess of workmen in directly to the stores, where they are taken one trade and deficiency in others. This up by the customers, so there are no meris done by making the bours of labor in chants, no agents, no middle men of any different trades to differ according to their sort. The eighteenth, instead of the eighth, arduousness. If any particular occupation part of the workers suffices for the entire is in itself so oppressive that in order to process of distribution. There is no induce volunteers to engage it in the day's waste of labor and capital by misdirected
ork must be reduced to ten minutes, this, industry, or by the struggle of competitoo, is done. The administration, in tak- tion; there are no crises of over-producing burdens off one class of workers, and tion, as only the commodities that are adding them to other classes, simply fol-wanted are produced according to the genlows the fluctuations of opinion among the eral view of the industrial field. What a workers themselves, as indicated by the difference of productive efficiency be. rate of volunteering.
tween innumerable barbarian hordes, alBut who does the bousework? No ways at war, the one against the other, difficulty here. There is none.. to do. and a disciplined army whose soldiers are Washing is done at public laundries at marching all together in the same direcexcessively cheap rates, and cooking at tion under one great general ! public kitchens; the making and repairing But how is an equilibrium established of wearing apparel is all done outside in between demand and supply? Precisely public shops. Electricity, of course, takes as it is now. When any article is in great the place of all firing and lighting. In demand, the price is raised. Generally the the splendid public building, where every work necessary to produce a commodity family has its private dining-room, the is recognized as the legitimate basis of waiters are young men in the unclassified its price. It is no longer the difference of grade of the industrial army who are wages that makes the difference in the assignable to all sorts of miscellaneous cost of labor, it is the relative number of occupations not requiring special skill. hours constituting a day's work in differNo objection is made, because no differ. ent trades, the maintenance of the worker ence is recognized between the dignity of being equal in all cases. The cost of a the different sorts of work. The individ man's work in a trade so difficult, that in ual never regards himself as the servant order to attract volunteers the hours have of those he serves; it is always the nation to be fixed at four per day, is twice as he is serving
great as that in a trade where the men Now comes the question of distribution work eight hours. and wages. · No_wages are paid, as there It may be objected that in the new sys. is no money. Every person, skilled or tem, the parents not having to provide for unskilled workmen, women, invalids in the future of their family, there is nothing cluded — receives an equal share of the to encourage saving habits on the part of general product of the nation, and a credit. the citizens. That is true, but individual card is given him, with which he procures savings are no longer necessary, nor, exat the public storehouses whatever he cept in special cases, permitted; the nadesires. The value of what he procures tion guarantees the nurture, the education, is checked off by the clerk. It is re. and comfortable maintenance of every citquired of each that he shall make the same izen; and, as the total production is greater effort and give the best service in his than the consumption of wealth, the net power. Now that industry is no longer surplus is employed by the State in en. self-service, but service of the nation, pa- larging the productive capital - i.e., in triotism, passion for humanity, impel the establishing new railways, bridges, mills, worker. The arıny of industry is an army; and improved machinery, and also in pub.
lic works and amusements, in which all | culty, not yet thought of by his predeshare, such as public halls and buildings, cessors, which is to reduce the hours of clubs, art galleries, great theatrical and labor in proportion as the work to be done musical exhibitions, and every kind of is less attractive, even if the day's work recreation for the people. For example, had to be brought down to only a “few the principle of labor saving by co-opera. minutes; ” but very often it would be imtion has been applied to the musical ser- possible to apply this system. Consider vice as to everything else. There are a the miner, for instance; the hours of labor number of music-rooms in every city, per- would have to be exceeding short for men fectly adapted acoustically to every sort to be willing to work in a colliery; this of music. These halls are connected by would entail an endless procession of re. telephone with all the houses whose in. lays of workmen going up and down the habitants care to pay a small fee. The shafts, and it would be impossible to work corps of musicians attached to each hall the mine. The same argument applies to is so large that, although the individual the workers in steamships; it would be performer or group of performers has no necessary to embark for each voyage a more than a brief part, each day's pro- whole regiment of stokers. And the pudgramme_lasts through the twenty-four dlers and the workmen in rolling-wills, hours. Every bedchamber has a tele etc. ? Nevertheless, the principle of reduce phone attached at the head of the bed, by ing the hours of labor in proportion as which any person who may be sleepless labor is less pleasant is certainly just, and can command music at pleasure, and can might be applied in a certain measure in make a selection suited to his mood. any
rational industrial organization. As will have been noticed, Mr. Bellamy. The chief objection (and this is absolute) reproduces several features of previous is to the system of remuneration, which is Utopias : universal harmony, distribution nothing more or less than the communis. of occupation according to individual ap- tic formula: From each according to his titudes, equality of reward, universal ease strength, to each according to his requireand comfort, reduction of hours of labor; ments; applied practically, this becomes suppression of idleness, of competition, equality of wages. Personal interest is of the struggle for life, and also for money; the great mainspring of the economic the splendor and commodiousness of the world. A workman only does all he pospalatial habitations, even to the detail of sibly can when the reward is in adequate the music, which all are able to enjoy. proportion to the work accomplished. There is a little pamphlet, very ably and This is perhaps very sad, but it is uneloquently written, though little read at doubtedly true. Here are two facts in the present day, which clearly explains the proof of it. basis of the new state of society to which After the revolution of 1848, Louis Mr. Bellamy introduces us under cover of Blanc started a workshop where these a tale.
This little work, by M. Louis principles of equality were practised. The Blanc, is entitled “L'Organization du wages were the same for all, but the names Travail."
of all idlers were written up on the walls. Let us now examine what are the ob- All work was very well paid for, as he had jections which our author's views call an order from the
State to supply uniforms forth. There are two principal ones : the for the National Guard. first referring to the allotment of func- At the outset all went very well. The tions, and the second to the distribution workmen were sincere and ardent Social. of produce.
ists, who made it a point of honor that the We shall begin by taking the first of experiment of the new system should be a these two points. In the Church, as in success; but very soon this good underthe army, the chief authority has the grant- standing came to an end. Those who ing of appointments. . In China this is were more industrious or quicker than settled by examination. But the difficulty their companions accused the latter of would be far greater in the new society, idleness; they felt themselves victims of for every branch of production would have injustice, for the remuneration was not in to be included, and would be open to every proportion to the zeal and activity dis. one, all having received the same educa- played. They were being “cheated and tion. It is quite clear that all the pleas- duped," and this was intolerable; hence anter trades and professions would be quarrels, arguments, and fights. The taken up, and there would be no one to fill temple of brotherhood was transformed the less agreeable ones. Mr. Bellamy has into a sort of boxing booth — boite aux discovered a means of obviating this difi- giffles, which is, as is known, the name
given to the building where the citizens it. It is perfectly true that honor has in. of Geneva meet together for the exercise spired the most sublime acts and heroic of their sovereign rights.
deeds which have called forth universal Another example. Marshal Bugeaud admiration; but honor can never become founded at Beni-Mered, in Algeria, a mil. the motive power of work or the mainitary colony on a communistic footing. spring of industry. It will not conquer The settlers were all picked men, and he selfish instincts, or overcome instinctive supplied them with all they needed for repugnance for certain categories of labor, the cultivation of the soil. Land, cattle, or the dislike to the wearing monotony of agricultural implements, the produce of the daily task. It may make a hero, but the harvests, everything, in fact, was to not a workman. be owned, and all work carried on in com- I am not unaware that a system very mon for the space of three years. The similar to that of Mr. Bellamy has been plan was excellent. It, nevertheless, known to work very well, for instance in turned out a failure. Although the col- Peru, and in “ The Missions in Paraonists were soldiers, accustomed to dis- guay, where the Jesuits had most admi. cipline, passive obedience, and equal pay, rably disciplined the Indians. The latter and without private home or family, still worked in common, under the guidance of they could not go through the communistic the Jesuit Fathers, who then distributed novitiate to the end As they were en the produce amongst all the families. It gaged in pursuits other than their military was an absolute dictatorship, which left no exercises, the spirit of innovation and the scope for either liberty or individual initiataste for amelioration soon made them- tive.* The Indians were certainly mateselves manifest. Each one wished to cul. rially far better off than are our workmen. tivate according to his own notion, and And yet Bougainville, who visited them, they reproached each other with not doing reports that they looked unhappy, “like the work well. The marshal vainly ex- animals caught in a trap.” Besides, can plained that it was to their own advantage it be supposed for a moment that the men to work in common, in order to overcome of the twentieth century would accept such the first difficulties of starting the settle: a system of theocracy? ment, and to realize the economies ensured
As Sir Henry Maine states, Peru is the by a wise division of labor; it was of no best example known of the collective sys. avail; the association had to be dissolved, tem having been successful.t When the although it had so far brought in profits. Spaniards conquered the country they
It is true that Mr. Bellamy does not found it admirably cultivated — not only wholly ignore two most powerful incen the rainless plains along the coasts, but tives of human actions – punishment and also all the high table-lands and the narrow reward. Referring to punishment he valleys running between some of the giganwrites, “A man able to do duty and per- tic peaks of the Andes - and the people sistently refusing is cut off from all human enjoying a somewhat peculiar, but certainly society?" Does this mean that idlers are advanced, state of civilization. Many monput to death, or merely sent to prison, oruments and extensive public works had allowed to starve ? At all events, it is been erected ; and this was the more excompulsion of some sort. Who is to ap-traordinary seeing the inhabitants knew of ply it, or to judge when it is necessary ? no metals besides gold avd silver. A Certainly, men would in all probability complete system of irrigation brought rarely refuse to do any work at all; but those who do as little as possible, or do it
. See Charleroix, “ Histoire du Paraguay,” 1768 } badly, are they to be punished, or to re: Muratori, “ Relation des Missions du Paraguay," 1754 ceive the same salary, or rather be credited | A. Kobler, "Der Christliche Communismus in der
Reductionen von Paraguay,'' 1879. with the same amount as the others? The
† “ There are two sets of motives, and two only, by State could not send away a bad workman, which the great bulk of the materials of human sub
sistence and comfort have hitherto been produced and as it can do now; for, there being no pri- reproduced. One has led to the cultivation of the vate enterprises, this dismissal would be Northern States of the American Union from the equivalent to capital punishment. When Atlantic to the Pacific; the other had a considerable
share in bringing about the agricultural and industrial remuneration is in proportion to the work progress of the Southern States, and in old days it proaccomplished, diligence and activity are duced the wonderful prosperity of Peru under the locas. encouraged, whereas an equal rate of sists in the daily
task, perhaps fairly and kindly allotted,
One system is economical competition, the other conwages is a premium on idleness.
but enforced by the prison or the scourge. So far as
we have any experience to teach us, we are driven to But, argues Mr. Belamy, honor is a
the conclusion that every society of men must adopt sufficient reward in itself; for men will cne system or the other, or it will pass through peourv sacrifice everything, even their lives, for to starvation." (Popular Government.)
water from the highlands down to the arid these into manufactured articles, under plains of the coast, where agriculture was, the supervision of overseers appointed by consequently, very successfully carried on. government. One of these canals was really prodigious, The population was divided into comgoing underground, crossing rivers, and munities of families, similar to the Zadrurunning through mountains for a distance gas of the Yougo-Slavs. These numbered of about five hundred English miles. The about one thousand members each, who ruins of the palaces and temples still to be lived together in immense dwellings, the met with always astonish travellers. ruins of which may still be found in parts
The following were the principal char. of Central America, reminding, one of acteristics of the economic system in vogue ants' nests. On fête days large banquets there. The soil, which was almost the brought together the inhabitants of the sole source of wealth, belonged to tlie same canton, like the Syssities in Greece. State. It was divided into three parts: The administration we have just briefly the first was applied for the maintenance sketched was not strictly communistic, for of the temples and priests of the sun, the each family cultivated the plot of ground second for the sovereign and the nobility, annually assigned to it on its own account; and the third for the people, as a tempo- but, seiting aside this very small concesrary privilege, they being obliged in return sion to individual life, the whole of the to cultivate all the land without exception, economic activity of the country was under as was the case with us in the Middle State direction. And yet, in the Peru of Ages. The land was divided afresh every the Incas, agriculture was more advanced, year among all the families, according to the population and riches were greater, their requirements, as was the case with there was more general well-being and a the Germans in the time of Julius Cæsar: more materially advanced civilization, than
Magistratus ac principes in annos singu.either under the Spanish dominion or even los gentibus cognationibusque hominum at the present day. Here, as in that marquantum, et quo loco visum est, agri attrib. vellous Egypt of the Pharaohs, where are uunt, atque anno post alio transire co-to be admired monuments far surpassing gunt.” (De Bell. Gall. vi. 22.)
in grandeur and magnificence all those Very exact registers were kept of the of other nations, we can see what can be different plots of ground, and the number accomplished by the collective labor of an of members of each family, so that the entire nation, under the sole and concen. division might be made on a perfectly trated direction of the government or of equitable basis. Each family was also one superior order. Only the administra. allowed a certain amount of guano from tion here referred to was of that "stationthe Chinchas Islands for manuring the ary "kind which Mill says we must not land. All agricultural labor was carried attack, but which is in direct opposition on under the direction of the authorities, to the ardent love of change and progress and the first to receive attention was the so characteristic of the modern man. ground which was to serve for the support Amongst all the transformations and revoof the aged, the widows and orphans, the lutions which are leading him to an ideal sick, or those employed in the service of condition, scarcely yet foreseen, he will the State. Maize was cultivated on even suffer, it is true ; but he is not likely to go the most abrupt slopes of the mountains, so far as to wish for the industrial auto. which were covered with terraces, sup- cratic system of Peru or of Egypt. ported by enormous blocks of rock and The eminent professor of philosophy at stone, and then filled with fertile earth the University of Lausanne, M. Charles from the valleys. The State supplied Secrétan, whose writings on social ques. each dwelling with wearing apparel and tions are so highly appreciated, has also with the necessary implements of labor. yielded to the temptation of writing“ his There were neither rich nor poor ; every Utopia,” which is not so far removed from one had sufficient to live comfortably, but reality as Mr. Bellamy's. Being tired, he without a surplus permitting accumula. falls asleep on the enchanting banks of tion.
Lake Leman. When he awakes he is acIdleness a punishable offence. i costed by a stranger, whose appearance is There was no coinage ; gold and silver somewhat singular; he has the high fore. were used for ornaments, or were depos- bead and penetrating eye of a philosopher, ited in the temples. Exchanges were and the hard, rough hands of a workingmade at regular monthly fairs, by barter- man. The sleeper is surprised, and proing. The government gave out raw mate. ceeds to question him. The philosopher rials to artisans and to women, who made explains that the social state into which